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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4971-4981, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM), a population bearing the greatest HIV burden in many countries, may also be vulnerable to COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccines are essential to containing the pandemic. However, vaccine hesitancy may compromise vaccine coverage. We aimed to understand the uptake of COVID-19 vaccine and factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among HIV-infected MSM in mainland China. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey among HIV-infected MSM was conducted between 13 and 21 February 2021 in mainland China. Variables including demographics, mental health status, HIV characteristics, and knowledge of and attitudes toward COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 vaccine were collected. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: A total of 1295 participants were included. The median age was 29.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 25.2-34.0 years). The uptake of COVID-19 vaccine was 8.7%. Two main reasons for receiving vaccines were "regarded vaccination as self-health protection" (67.3%) and "trust in domestic medical technology" (67.3%). Among participants who did not initiate vaccination, concern about side effects (46.4%) and disclosure of HIV infection (38.6%) were top two reasons, and 47.2% had higher vaccine hesitancy. Men who had with high antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.80), often (0.26, 0.17-0.40) or sometimes (0.46, 0.31-0.67) paid attention to information about the COVID-19 vaccine, preferred domestic vaccines (0.37, 0.24-0.59), thought the pandemic had moderate (0.58, 0.38-0.90) and moderately severe or severe impact (0.54, 0.38-0.78) on immunity, who were waiting for vaccination programs organized at workplace (0.60, 0.44-0.81) and who were unaware of where to get COVID-19 vaccine (0.61, 0.45-0.82) had lower degree of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Men who were concerned about the efficacy (1.72, 1.16-2.54) and side effects (2.44, 1.78-3.35) had higher degree of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine uptake among HIV-infected MSM is still suboptimal. Understanding influencing factors of vaccine hesitancy among this group and making tailored measures to alleviate hesitancy would help improve the coverage of COVID-19 vaccination in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(9): e25781, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected antiretroviral therapy (ART) continuity among people living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. We conducted a qualitative study to explore barriers to ART maintenance and solutions to ART interruption when stringent COVID-19 control measures were implemented in China, from the perspective of PLHIV and relevant key stakeholders. METHODS: Between 11 February and 15 February 2020, we interviewed PLHIV, community-based organization (CBO) workers, staff from centres for disease control and prevention (CDC) at various levels whose work is relevant to HIV care (CDC staff), HIV doctors and nurses and drug vendors from various regions in China. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using a messaging and social media app. Challenges and responses relevant to ART continuity during the COVID-19 pandemic were discussed. Themes were identified by transcript coding and mindmaps. RESULTS: Sixty-four stakeholders were recruited, including 16 PLHIV, 17 CBO workers, 15 CDC staff, 14 HIV doctors and nurses and two drug vendors. Many CDC staff, HIV doctors and nurses responsible for ART delivery and HIV care were shifted to COVID-19 response efforts. Barriers to ART maintenance were (a) travel restrictions, (b) inadequate communication and bureaucratic obstacles, (c) shortage in personnel, (d) privacy concerns, and (e) insufficient ART reserve. CBO helped PLHIV maintain access to ART through five solutions identified from thematic analysis: (a) coordination to refill ART from local CDC clinics or hospitals, (b) delivery of ART by mail, (c) privacy protection measures, (d) mental health counselling, and (e) providing connections to alternative sources of ART. Drug vendors contributed to ART maintenance by selling out-of-pocket ART. CONCLUSIONS: Social and institutional disruption from COVID-19 contributed to increased risk of ART interruption among PLHIV in China. Collaboration among key stakeholders was needed to maintain access to ART, with CBO playing an important role. Other countries facing ART interruption during current or future public health emergencies may learn from the solutions employed in China.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Stakeholder Participation
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 321, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633920

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and quickly spread throughout China and the rest of the world. Many mathematical models have been developed to understand and predict the infectiousness of COVID-19. We aim to summarize these models to inform efforts to manage the current outbreak. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of science, EMBASE, bioRxiv, medRxiv, arXiv, Preprints, and National Knowledge Infrastructure (Chinese database) for relevant studies published between 1 December 2019 and 21 February 2020. References were screened for additional publications. Crucial indicators were extracted and analysed. We also built a mathematical model for the evolution of the epidemic in Wuhan that synthesised extracted indicators. Results: Fifty-two articles involving 75 mathematical or statistical models were included in our systematic review. The overall median basic reproduction number (R0) was 3.77 [interquartile range (IQR) 2.78-5.13], which dropped to a controlled reproduction number (Rc) of 1.88 (IQR 1.41-2.24) after city lockdown. The median incubation and infectious periods were 5.90 (IQR 4.78-6.25) and 9.94 (IQR 3.93-13.50) days, respectively. The median case-fatality rate (CFR) was 2.9% (IQR 2.3-5.4%). Our mathematical model showed that, in Wuhan, the peak time of infection is likely to be March 2020 with a median size of 98,333 infected cases (range 55,225-188,284). The earliest elimination of ongoing transmission is likely to be achieved around 7 May 2020. Conclusions: Our analysis found a sustained Rc and prolonged incubation/ infectious periods, suggesting COVID-19 is highly infectious. Although interventions in China have been effective in controlling secondary transmission, sustained global efforts are needed to contain an emerging pandemic. Alternative interventions can be explored using modelling studies to better inform policymaking as the outbreak continues.

4.
J Infect ; 80(6): 656-665, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To better inform efforts to treat and control the current outbreak with a comprehensive characterization of COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CNKI (Chinese Database) for studies published as of March 2, 2020, and we searched references of identified articles. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test. RESULTS: 43 studies involving 3600 patients were included. Among COVID-19 patients, fever (83.3% [95% CI 78.4-87.7]), cough (60.3% [54.2-66.3]), and fatigue (38.0% [29.8-46.5]) were the most common clinical symptoms. The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated C-reactive protein (68.6% [58.2-78.2]), decreased lymphocyte count (57.4% [44.8-69.5]) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (51.6% [31.4-71.6]). Ground-glass opacities (80.0% [67.3-90.4]) and bilateral pneumonia (73.2% [63.4-82.1]) were the most frequently reported findings on computed tomography. The overall estimated proportion of severe cases and case-fatality rate (CFR) was 25.6% (17.4-34.9) and 3.6% (1.1-7.2), respectively. CFR and laboratory abnormalities were higher in severe cases, patients from Wuhan, and older patients, but CFR did not differ by gender. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are symptomatic with a moderate CFR. Patients living in Wuhan, older patients, and those with medical comorbidities tend to have more severe clinical symptoms and higher CFR.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors
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