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1.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199463

ABSTRACT

IntroductionSARS-CoV-2 has ravaged the world and undergone multiple mutations during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. On 7 April 2022, an epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (BA.2) variant broke out in Guangzhou, China, one of the largest transportation and logistical hubs of the country. MethodsTo fast curtained the Omicron epidemic, based on the routine surveillance on the risk population of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we identify key places of the epidemic and implement enhanced control measures against Omicron. ResultsTransmission characteristics of the Omicron variant were analyzed for 273 confirmed cases, and key places involved in this epidemic were fully presented. The median incubation time and the generation time were 3 days, and the reproduction number Rt was sharply increased with a peak of 4.20 within 2 days. We tried an all-out effort to tackle the epidemic in key places, and the proportion of confirmed cases increased from 61.17% at Stage 2 to 88.89% at Stage 4. Through delimited risk area management, 99 cases were found, and the cases were isolated in advance for 2.61 +/- 2.76 days in a lockdown zone, 0.44 +/- 1.08 days in a controlled zone, and 0.27 +/- 0.62 days in a precautionary zone. People assigned with yellow code accounted for 30.32% (84/277) of confirmed COVID-19 cases, and 83.33% of them were detected positive over 3 days since code assignment. For the districts outside the epicenter, the implementation duration of NPIs was much shorter compared with the Delta epidemic last year. ConclusionBy blocking out transmission risks and adjusting measures to local epidemic conditions through the all-out effort to tackle the epidemic in key places, by delimiting risk area management, and by conducting health code management of the at-risk population, the Omicron epidemic could be contained quickly.

2.
Frontiers in Microbiology ; 13 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2199027

ABSTRACT

Currently, it is believed that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an airborne virus, and virus-containing aerosol particles have been found concurrent with the onset of COVID-19, which may contribute to the noncontact transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Exploring agents to block SARS-CoV-2 transmission is of great importance to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we found that inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iORFV), a kind of immunomodulator, could compress the proportion of small particle aerosols exhaled by Syrian golden hamsters. Notably, the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-containing aerosol particles was significantly reduced by iORFV in the early stages after viral inoculation. Importantly, smaller aerosol particles (<4.7 mum) that carry infectious viruses were completely cleared by iORFV. Consistently, iORFV treatment completely blocked viral noncontact (aerosol) transmission. In summary, iORFV may become a repurposed agent for the prevention and control of COVID-19 by affecting viral aerosol exhalation and subsequent viral transmission. Copyright © 2022 Cui, Zhao, Zhang, Lin, Sun, Li, Du, Zhang, Liu, Gao, He, Gao, Guo and Guan.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2198895

ABSTRACT

Background: Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is essential in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a fatal clinical syndrome that deteriorated from acute lung injury (ALI). This bibliometric study aims to offer a thorough insight into the scientific output about NLRP3 inflammasome in ALI/ARDS and explore the intellectual base, developing trajectory and emerging trends. Methods: We retrieved the literature from 2010 to 2021 from Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. Bibliometrix (3.1.4) R package and CiteSpace (5.8.R3) were used for further analysis and visualization. Results: A total of 508 English articles and reviews published from 2010 to 2021 were identified. The annual number of publications presented a rapidly developing trend especially in recent years. Among all the 42 countries, China was the most productive and most cited country, while the USA had the greatest impact. Peter A. Ward from the USA was the most productive corresponding author, and 4 of these top 10 corresponding authors were from China. The most cited reference was written by Ahmed (2017) of Zhejiang University in China. The Journal of Immunology had highest citation count and G-index. Furthermore, the major disciplines of research front have drifted from "Medicine, Medical, Clinical” to "Molecular, Biology, Immunology” over the past 12 years. In the co-occurring network, the terms "acute lung injury,” "NLRP3 inflammasome,” "interleukin-1β,” "NF-κB,” and "NLRP3 activation” occurred most frequently, while in burst detection, "oxidative stress” had the highest burst strength. Co-citation network revealed that Cluster 2 "virus infection” was the most active area, including the most citation bursts. Cluster 0 "severe COVID-19” and Cluster 1 "dual inhibitor PTUPB” were emerging themes in recent years, and they involved the largest number of publications. Conclusions: This bibliometric analysis revealed a rapid growth trend of the relatively novel topic: NLRP3 inflammasome in ALI/ARDS. China was the largest contributor, while the USA offered the most landmark papers. The major disciplines of research front drifted from "Medicine, Medical, Clinical” to "Molecular, Biology, Immunology.” In recent years, studies about the role of NLRP3 in COVID-19-associated ALI/ARDS and oxidative stress became hot spots.

4.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:984789, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198860

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Several COVID-19 vaccines list "uncontrolled epilepsy" as a contraindication for vaccination. This consequently restricts vaccination against COVID-19 in patients with epilepsy (PWE). However, there is no strong evidence that COVID-19 vaccination can exacerbate conditions in PWE. This study aims to determine the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on PWE.

5.
JMIR public health and surveillance. ; 22, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2198104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Highly effective COVID-19 vaccines are available and free of charge in the United States. With adequate coverage, their use may help return life back to normal and reduce COVID-related hospitalization and death. Many barriers to widespread inoculation have prevented herd immunity, including vaccine hesitancy, lack of vaccine knowledge, and misinformation. The Ad Council and COVID Collaborative have been conducting one of the largest nationwide targeted campaigns ("It's Up To You") to communicate vaccine information and encourage timely vaccination across the US. More than 300 major brands, digital and print media companies, and community-based organizations support the campaigns to reach distinct audiences. OBJECTIVE(S): The goal of this study was to utilize aggregated mobility data to assess the effectiveness of the campaign on COVID vaccine uptake. METHOD(S): Campaign exposure data were collected from the Cuebiq advertising impact measurement platform consisting of about 17 million opted-in and de-identified mobile devices across the country. A Bayesian spatio-temporal hierarchical model was developed to assess campaign effectiveness through estimating the association between county-level campaign exposure and vaccination rates reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To minimize potential bias in exposure to the campaign, the model included several control variables (age, race/ethnicity, income, and political affiliation). We also incorporated Conditionally Autoregressive (CAR) residual models to account for apparent spatio-temporal autocorrelation. RESULT(S): The dataset covers a panel of 3,104 counties from 48 states and the District of Columbia during a period of 22 weeks (March 29 - August 29, 2021). Officially launched in February 2021, the campaign reached about 3% of the anonymous devices on the Cuebiq platform by the end of March, which was the start of the study period. That exposure rate gradually declined to slightly above 1% in August 2021, effectively ending the study period. Results from the Bayesian hierarchical model indicate a statistically significant positive association between campaign exposure and vaccine uptake at the county level. A campaign that reaches everyone would boost the vaccination rate by 2.2% (95% uncertainty interval: 2.0 - 2.4%) on a weekly basis, compared to the baseline case of no campaign. CONCLUSION(S): The "It's Up To You" campaign is effective in promoting COVID vaccine uptake, suggesting that a nationwide targeted mass media campaign with multi-sectoral collaborations could be an impactful health communication strategy to improve progress against this and future pandemics. Methodologically, the results also show that location intelligence and mobile-phone based monitoring platforms can be effective in measuring impact of large-scale digital campaigns in near-real-time. CLINICALTRIAL: Not Applicable.

6.
Military Medical Research ; 9(1):72, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196507
7.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1):109, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196173

ABSTRACT

Preventive behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic are especially critical to the protection of individuals whose family members or acquaintances have been infected. However, limited research has explored the influence of infection cues on preventive behaviors. This study proposed an interaction model of environment-cognitive/affective-behavior to elucidate the mechanism by which infection cues influence preventive behaviors and the roles of risk perception, negative emotions, and perceived efficacy in that influence. To explore the relationships among these factors, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey in 34 provinces in China during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 26,511 participants responded to the survey, and 20,205 valid responses (76.2%) were obtained for further analysis. The moderated mediation results show that infection cues positively predicted preventive behaviors in a manner mediated by risk perception and negative emotions. Moreover, perceived efficacy moderated the influence of infection cues not only on preventive behaviors but also on risk perception and negative emotions. The higher the perceived efficacy, the stronger these influences were. These findings validated our model, which elucidates the mechanisms underlying the promoting effect of infection cues on preventive behaviors during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. The implications of these results for the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond are discussed.

8.
BMC Primary Care ; 24(1):19, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Village doctors in China are not only the gatekeepers of rural residents' health but also the net bottom of the medical security system. However, emotional labour is increasingly threatening the stability of the rural primary medical system. In addition, the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has further exposed the vulnerability of human resources in China's rural health system. This study aims to evaluate the current situation of emotional labour among village doctors and explore the impact of emotional labour on job burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic in China.

9.
Jci Insight ; 8(1):10, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194479

ABSTRACT

Substantial clinical evidence supports the notion that ciliary function in the airways is important in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Although ciliary damage has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo models, the extent or nature of impairment of mucociliary transport (MCT) in in vivo models remains unknown. We hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in MCT deficiency in the airways of golden Syrian hamsters that precedes pathological injury in lung parenchyma. Micro-optical coherence tomography was used to quantitate functional changes in the MCT apparatus. Both genomic and subgenomic viral RNA pathological and physiological changes were monitored in parallel. We show that SARS-CoV-2 infection caused a 67% decrease in MCT rate as early as 2 days postinfection (dpi) in hamsters, principally due to 79% diminished airway coverage of motile cilia. Correlating quantitation of physiological, virological, and pathological changes reveals steadily descending infection from the upper airways to lower airways to lung parenchyma within 7 dpi. Our results indicate that functional deficits of the MCT apparatus are a key aspect of COVID-19 pathogenesis, may extend viral retention, and could pose a risk factor for secondary infection. Clinically, monitoring abnormal ciliated cell function may indicate disease progression. Therapies directed toward the MCT apparatus deserve further investigation.

10.
14th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Technology, ICBBT 2022 ; : 41-47, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2194079

ABSTRACT

As two important features of COVID-19 pneumonia ultrasound, the B-line and white lung are easily confused in clinics. To classify the two features, a radiomics analysis technology was developed on a set of ultrasound images collected from patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in the study. A total of 540 filtered images were divided into a training set and a test set in the ratio of 7:3. A machine learning model was proposed to perform automated classification of the B-line and white lung, which included image segmentation, feature extraction, feature screening, and classification. The radiomic analysis was applied to extract 1688 high-throughput features. The principal component analysis (PCA) and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) were used to perform feature screening for redundancy reduction. The support vector machine (SVM) was utilized to make the final classification. The confusion matrix was used to visualize the prediction performance of the model. In the result, the model with features selected using LASSO outperformed the model with PCA in terms of classification effectiveness. The number of high-throughput features closely related to the classification under the model with LASSO was 11, with the value of AUC, accuracy, specificity, precision and recall being 0.92, 0.92, 0.91, 0.92 and 0.92, respectively. Compared to the model with PCA, the values of the evaluation indicators of the model with LASSO increased by 13.94%, 13.26%, 15.79%, 22.23% and 5.66%, respectively. As a conclusion, the proposed models showed good performance in differentiation of the B-line and white lung, with potential application value in the clinics. © 2022 ACM.

11.
2022 International Symposium on Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Information Engineering, RAIIE 2022 ; 12454, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2193332

ABSTRACT

This control system is a modern new device which integrates sensing technology, computer technology, network communication technology and mobile communication technology. The system is mainly composed of STM32 single chip microcomputer (SCM) as the control core, sensor as the information detection element, with the corresponding executive mechanism, voice broadcast, display and mobile device. In addition to the functions of conventional push-key call and obstacle detection between elevator doors, it also has the functions of mobile phone remote monitoring, voice recognition control, telephone call alarm and so on. By detecting and recognizing the call signals from keys, mobile phones and voices, the SCM sends forward and reverse commands to the motor and PWM wave signals to the steering gear, so as to realize the opening and closing of elevator lifting and elevator doors. After the elevator reaches the target floor, there will be corresponding voice prompts. When the elevator door is opened, the infrared tube sensor is used to detect whether there are obstacles between the elevator doors. If so, the buzzer makes an alarm. If not, the elevator door closes with delay. All running states of the elevator will be displayed on the OLED screen in real time, and reported to the mobile phone for remote monitoring by users. The corresponding functions are realized after programming and physical debugging. The mobile phone remote call and voice call functions of the system have more prominent advantages during the COVID-19 or in hospitals, which can realize contactless riding, avoid contact with infected germs and greatly save waiting time. © 2022 SPIE.

12.
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology ; 06:06, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192840
13.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S685, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189871

ABSTRACT

Background. Increased prescribing of antibiotics commonly used for respiratory infections, including azithromycin, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline was observed in nursing homes (NH) during the COVID-19 pandemic however antibiotic prescribing was not linked to resident diagnosis. Therefore, our objective was to characterize antibiotic prescribing in residents with SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large cohort of US NHs. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using PointClickCare (PCC) data containing longitudinal NH electronic health records. We included 4,891 NHs that reported >=1 medication order/month from April 2020-November 2021. We identified the first onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection using ICD-10-CM diagnosis code U07.1. To validate the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections per facility captured in PCC, we compared the total number of SARS-CoV-2 infections documented in PCC to those reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Antibiotic orders were determined to be associated with a SARS-CoV-2 infection if 3 days before or <=7 days after diagnosis. We characterized the proportion of residents with a SARS-CoV-2 infection with an associated antibiotic by month. Results. We included 2,086 (43%) NHs that had <=20% difference in total number of SARS-CoV-2 infections documented in PCC and reported to NHSN. From April 2020-November 2021, a total of 118,180 residents with a SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified and 24% had an associated antibiotic prescription (N=27,972). The highest prescription rate (30%, 95% Confidence Interval [29%-31%]) was observed in April 2020 and varied by less than 8% from May 2020-November 2021 (Fig.1). The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were azithromycin (53%), doxycycline (13%) and ceftriaxone (10%). Conclusion. An antibiotic prescription was linked to up to a quarter of NH residents with SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting potential opportunities for avoiding unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for viral infections in NHs. Appropriate antibiotic prescribing in NH populations is important to reduce potential harm when antibiotics offer no treatment benefit to the resident. Identifying facility-level characteristics that lead to variability in antibiotic prescribing is a next step to inform antibiotic stewardship interventions.

14.
Innov Aging ; 6(Suppl 1):333-4, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2188904

ABSTRACT

The media has reported recent increases in nursing home closures. This study examined closures from 2011-2019, identified facility and market characteristics associated with closures, and assessed the impact of closures on quality and access. We identified closures using termination dates and gaps in certification surveys and conducted descriptive and multivariate analysis. We identified 1,220 closures, with large increases in closure rates in 2018 and 2019 and geographic clusters. Chain facilities, urban facilities and smaller facilities were more likely to close, as were facilities with higher percentages of non-white and Medicaid residents. Staffing and quality five-star ratings had a nonlinear relationship with closure, which suggests Medicaid funding may impact closures rates. We found both the number of beds per 1,000 elderly and occupancy rates decreased, including in high-quality facilities. Closures should be examined further in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Emerging microbes & infections ; : 2164742, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2187799

ABSTRACT

Viral envelope glycoproteins are crucial for viral infections. In the process of enveloped viruses budding and release from the producer cells, viral envelope glycoproteins are presented on the viral membrane surface as spikes, promoting the virus's next-round infection of target cells. However, the host cells evolve counteracting mechanisms in the long-term virus-host co-evolutionary processes. For instance, the host cell antiviral factors could potently suppress viral replication by targeting their envelope glycoproteins through multiple channels, including their intracellular synthesis, glycosylation modification, assembly into virions, and binding to target cell receptors. Recently, a group of studies discovered that some host antiviral proteins specifically recognized host proprotein convertase (PC) furin and blocked its cleavage of viral envelope glycoproteins, thus impairing viral infectivity. Here, in this review, we briefly summarize several such host antiviral factors and analyze their roles in furin cleavage of viral envelope glycoproteins, aiming at providing insights for future antiviral studies.

16.
Nat Commun ; 14(1):138, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2185830

ABSTRACT

β-Nucleosides and their analogs are dominant clinically-used antiviral and antitumor drugs. α-Nucleosides, the anomers of β-nucleosides, exist in nature and have significant potential as drugs or drug carriers. Currently, the most widely used methods for synthesizing β- and α-nucleosides are via N-glycosylation and pentose aminooxazoline, respectively. However, the stereoselectivities of both methods highly depend on the assisting group at the C2' position. Herein, we report an additive-controlled stereodivergent iodocyclization method for the selective synthesis of α- or β-nucleosides. The stereoselectivity at the anomeric carbon is controlled by the additive (NaI for β-nucleosides;PPh(3)S for α-nucleosides). A series of β- and α-nucleosides are prepared in high yields (up to 95%) and stereoselectivities (β:α up to 66:1, α:β up to 70:1). Notably, the introduced iodine at the C2' position of the nucleoside is readily functionalized, leading to multiple structurally diverse nucleoside analogs, including stavudine, an FDA-approved anti-HIV agent, and molnupiravir, an FDA-approved anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent.

17.
Cell Discov ; 9(1):2, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2185790

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. Antibody resistance dampens neutralizing antibody therapy and threatens current global Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine campaigns. In addition to the emergence of resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants, little is known about how SARS-CoV-2 evades antibodies. Here, we report a novel mechanism of extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated cell-to-cell transmission of SARS-CoV-2, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 to escape from neutralizing antibodies. These EVs, initially observed in SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein-expressing cells, are secreted by various SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, including Vero E6, Calu-3, and HPAEpiC cells, undergoing infection-induced pyroptosis. Various SARS-CoV-2-infected cells produce similar EVs characterized by extra-large sizes (1.6-9.5 μm in diameter, average diameter > 4.2 μm) much larger than previously reported virus-generated vesicles. Transmission electron microscopy analysis and plaque assay reveal that these SARS-CoV-2-induced EVs contain large amounts of live virus particles. In particular, the vesicle-cloaked SARS-CoV-2 virus is resistant to neutralizing antibodies and able to reinfect naïve cells independent of the reported receptors and cofactors. Consistently, the constructed 3D images show that intact EVs could be taken up by recipient cells directly, supporting vesicle-mediated cell-to-cell transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of receptor-independent SARS-CoV-2 infection via cell-to-cell transmission, provide new insights into antibody resistance of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest potential targets for future antiviral therapeutics.

18.
Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy ; 8(1):20, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185773

ABSTRACT

An ongoing randomized, double-blind, controlled phase 2 trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a mosaic-type recombinant vaccine candidate, named NVSI-06-09, as a booster dose in subjects aged 18 years and older from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), who had administered two or three doses of inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV at least 6 months prior to enrollment. The participants were randomly assigned with 1:1 to receive a booster dose of NVSI-06-09 or BBIBP-CorV. The primary outcomes were immunogenicity and safety against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant, and the exploratory outcome was cross-immunogenicity against other circulating strains. Between May 25 and 30, 2022, 516 adults received booster vaccination with 260 in NVSI-06-09 group and 256 in BBIBP-CorV group. Interim results showed a similar safety profile between two booster groups, with low incidence of adverse reactions of grade 1 or 2. For immunogenicity, by day 14 post-booster, the fold rises in neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) from baseline elicited by NVSI-06-09 were remarkably higher than those by BBIBP-CorV against the prototype strain (19.67 vs 4.47-fold), Omicron BA.1.1 (42.35 vs 3.78-fold), BA.2 (25.09 vs 2.91-fold), BA.4 (22.42 vs 2.69-fold), and BA.5 variants (27.06 vs 4.73-fold). Similarly, the neutralizing GMTs boosted by NVSI-06-09 against Beta and Delta variants were also 6.60-fold and 7.17-fold higher than those by BBIBP-CorV. Our findings indicated that a booster dose of NVSI-06-09 was well-tolerated and elicited broad-spectrum neutralizing responses against divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron and its sub-lineages.

19.
Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy ; 7(1):400, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185766

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has devastated global health. Identifying key host factors essential for SARS-CoV-2 RNA replication is expected to unravel cellular targets for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs which have been quested for the preparedness of future viral outbreaks. Here, we have identified host proteins that associate with nonstructural protein 12 (nsp12), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2 using a mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach. Among the candidate factors, CDK2 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 2), a member of cyclin-dependent kinases, interacts with nsp12 and causes its phosphorylation at T20, thus facilitating the assembly of the RdRp complex consisting of nsp12, nsp7 and nsp8 and promoting efficient synthesis of viral RNA. The crucial role of CDK2 in viral RdRp function is further supported by our observation that CDK2 inhibitors potently impair viral RNA synthesis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Taken together, we have discovered CDK2 as a key host factor of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp complex, thus serving a promising target for the development of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp inhibitors.

20.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics ; 115(1):251-252, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2179653
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