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1.
mBio ; : e0018122, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816698

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune memory to COVID-19 vaccines is critical for the design and optimal vaccination schedule for curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we assessed the status of humoral and cellular immune responses at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after two-dose CoronaVac vaccination. A total of 150 participants were enrolled, and 136 of them completed the study through the 12-month endpoint. Our results show that, at 1 month after vaccination, both binding and neutralizing antibodies could be detected; the seropositive rate of binding antibodies and seroconversion rate of neutralizing antibodies were 99% and 50%, respectively. From 3 to 12 months, the binding and neutralizing antibodies declined over time. At 12 months, the binding and neutralizing antibodies were still detectable and significantly higher than the baseline. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion specifically induced by the receptor-binding domain (RBD) persisted at high levels until 6 months and could be observed at 12 months, while the levels of IL-5 and granzyme B (GzmB) were hardly detected, demonstrating a Th1-biased response. In addition, specific CD4+ T central memory (TCM), CD4+ effector memory (TEM), CD8+ TEM, and CD8+ terminal effector (TE) cells were all detectable and functional up to 12 months after the second dose, as the cells produced IFN-γ, IL-2, and GzmB in response to stimulation of SARS-CoV-2 RBD. Our work provides evidence that CoronaVac induced not only detectable binding and neutralizing antibody responses, but also functional SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells for up to 12 months. IMPORTANCE CoronaVac is an inactivated vaccine containing whole-virion SARS-CoV-2, which has been approved in 43 countries for emergency use as of 26 November 2021. However, the long-term immune persistence of the CoronaVac vaccine is still unknown. Here, we reported the status of the persistence of antibodies and cellular responses within 12 months after two doses of CoronaVac. Such data are crucial to inform ongoing and future vaccination strategies to combat COVID-19.

2.
Frontiers in physiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733119

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aimed to identify the biological functions of small intestine intestinal epithelial cell derived exosomes (IEC-Exos) and further distinguished the difference proteins in IEC-Exos between ileum and jejunum related to function of the digestive system and occurrence of several diseases. Materials and Methods IECs of Male C57BL/6J mice were isolated. IEC-Exos were extracted from jejunum and ileum epithelial cell culture fluid by ultracentrifugation. In addition, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to detect IEC-Exo proteins and conduct biological information analysis. Results The results showed that compared with jejunum IEC-Exos from ileum IEC-Exos, there were 393 up-regulated proteins and 346 down-regulated proteins. IECs-Exos, especially derived from jejunum, were rich in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The highly expressed proteins from ileum IEC-Exos were mostly enriched in genetic information processing pathways, which mainly mediate the processes of bile acid transport, protein synthesis and processing modification. In contrast, the highly expressed proteins from jejunum IEC-Exos were mainly enriched in metabolic pathways involved in sugar, fatty acid, amino acid, drug, and bone metabolism, etc. The differentially expressed proteins between ileum and jejunum IEC-Exos were not only related to the function of the digestive system but also closely related to the occurrence of infectious diseases, endocrine diseases and osteoarthritis, etc. Conclusion IEC-Exos there were many differentially expressed proteins between ileum and jejunum, which played different roles in regulating intestinal biological functions. ACE2, the main host cell receptor of SARS-CoV-2, was highly expressed in IEC-Exos, which indicated that IEC-Exos may be a potential route of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1051-1056, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medicines for the treatment of 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections are urgently needed. However, drug screening using live 2019-nCoV requires high-level biosafety facilities, which imposes an obstacle for those institutions without such facilities or 2019-nCoV. This study aims to repurpose the clinically approved drugs for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a 2019-nCoV-related coronavirus model. METHODS: A 2019-nCoV-related pangolin coronavirus GX_P2V/pangolin/2017/Guangxi was described. Whether GX_P2V uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the cell receptor was investigated by using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of ACE2. The pangolin coronavirus model was used to identify drug candidates for treating 2019-nCoV infection. Two libraries of 2406 clinically approved drugs were screened for their ability to inhibit cytopathic effects on Vero E6 cells by GX_P2V infection. The anti-viral activities and anti-viral mechanisms of potential drugs were further investigated. Viral yields of RNAs and infectious particles were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and plaque assay, respectively. RESULTS: The spike protein of coronavirus GX_P2V shares 92.2% amino acid identity with that of 2019-nCoV isolate Wuhan-hu-1, and uses ACE2 as the receptor for infection just like 2019-nCoV. Three drugs, including cepharanthine (CEP), selamectin, and mefloquine hydrochloride, exhibited complete inhibition of cytopathic effects in cell culture at 10 µmol/L. CEP demonstrated the most potent inhibition of GX_P2V infection, with a concentration for 50% of maximal effect [EC50] of 0.98 µmol/L. The viral RNA yield in cells treated with 10 µmol/L CEP was 15,393-fold lower than in cells without CEP treatment ([6.48 ±â€Š0.02] × 10vs. 1.00 ±â€Š0.12, t = 150.38, P < 0.001) at 72 h post-infection (p.i.). Plaque assays found no production of live viruses in media containing 10 µmol/L CEP at 48 h p.i. Furthermore, we found CEP had potent anti-viral activities against both viral entry (0.46 ±â€Š0.12, vs.1.00 ±â€Š0.37, t = 2.42, P < 0.05) and viral replication ([6.18 ±â€Š0.95] × 10vs. 1.00 ±â€Š0.43, t = 3.98, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our pangolin coronavirus GX_P2V is a workable model for 2019-nCoV research. CEP, selamectin, and mefloquine hydrochloride are potential drugs for treating 2019-nCoV infection. Our results strongly suggest that CEP is a wide-spectrum inhibitor of pan-betacoronavirus, and further study of CEP for treatment of 2019-nCoV infection is warranted.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cell Line , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Drug Approval , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310208

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the fever outpatient clinic has been open in Shanghai East Hospital (SEH). We analyzed the data for all 4,699 patients from SEH and the 27 confirmed COVID-19 cases among them to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases identified in the SEH. Methods: : Data were collected for patients who visited the fever outpatient clinic in the SEH between January 23 and April 30, 2020. We compared the characteristics of confirmed cases, including age, occupation, area, symptoms, laboratory results, and computed tomography (CT) scans, by month. Results: : By April 30, 4,699 patients had visited the fever outpatient clinic of the SEH;of those, 27 (0.57%) were confirmed COVID-19 cases. Among the confirmed domestic cases identified between January and February, four of five were from Wuhan, Hubei. Following the spread of the epidemic to other parts of the world, all confirmed cases identified in March–April were cases of individuals who were returning from abroad, mainly Chinese students living abroad. Further, all cases were from outside Shanghai, and no local residents were diagnosed in the clinic. Symptoms, laboratory tests, and CT scans were consistent with previous literature reports of positive COVID-19 cases. Conclusions: : Given the necessity to control the spread of this epidemic domestically and abroad, the focus of COVID-19 prevention and control has shifted. In Shanghai, measures taken to prevent COVID-19 spread were very successful. Early isolation and quarantine are necessary and effective measures.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310207

ABSTRACT

Background: A fever outpatient clinic at the south campus of Shanghai East Hospital (SEH) openedin response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. We analyzed the data of all 11,972patients who visited the fever clinic and the 29 confirmed COVID-19 cases to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases diagnosed at SEH. Methods: : Data were collected from all fever outpatient clinic patients between January 23 and September 30, 2020. We compared the characteristics of confirmed patients, including age, occupation, area, symptoms, laboratory results, and computed tomography (CT) findings, according to month. Results: : By September 30, 2020, 11,972 patients, including 29 (0.24%) confirmed COVID-19 cases, visited the clinic. Four of five confirmed domestic cases identified during January–February 2020 were from Wuhan (mainly elderly retirees and local employees), Hubei. After the epidemic spread internationally, all 22 confirmed cases identified during March–April 2020 were individuals who returned from abroad. They were predominantly young Chinese international students. The sporadic two confirmed cases during May–September 2020 included an employee returning to work from Hubei and an Indian servant from abroad. Symptoms, laboratory tests, and CT findings were consistent with previous reports of COVID-19-positive cases. Conclusions: : The characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases at SEH varied among different periods in response to the spread of the pandemic. However, due to the effective early isolation and quarantine measures, no outbreak occurred in SEH, which contributed to the prevention and control of the epidemic in Shanghai.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307716

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a cluster of patients associated with a seafood wholesale market was confirmed having infected the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. As of Feb 11, 2020, 43144 cases of the 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed in the world, and person-to-person transmission has been recognized. To our knowledge, there are no reports regarding the 2019-nCoV pneumonia infected by cluster transmission within a family. The amount of close contact suspect was increasing. We reported cases of family cluster transmission of the 2019-nCoV infection, showing the differences in computed tomography (CT) manifestations and symptoms between patients with and without history of exposure to the epidemic area (Wuhan). Case Presentation: A 48-year-old man was presented to the hospital in Jan 30, 2020 with a 2-day history of low fever and chill. He had traveled to Wuhan City of Hubei Province of China 12 days before, and was confirmed having the 2019-nCoV infection based on his positive CT manifestations, clinical signs, and real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction results. The other three members of his family without history of exposure to the epidemic area (Wuhan) were subsequently identified having the 2019-nCoV transmissive infection based on the positive findings of real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction, but they did not have abnormal CT manifestations and clinical signs. Conclusion: For patients who have history of exposure to the epidemic area (Wuhan), the 2019-nCoV infected pneumonia can be identified by real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction testing and chest CT together with the symptoms. But for patients without exposure to the epidemic area, the 2019-nCoV infection can be confirmed by real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction testing and history of close contact with confirmed patients who have history of exposure to the epidemic area.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312186

ABSTRACT

Background: Laboratory abnormalities associated with disease severity and mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported in many observational studies. However, there are significant heterogeneities in patient characteristics and research methodologies in these studies.ObjectivesWe aimed to provide an updated synthesis of the association between laboratory abnormalities and COVID-19 prognosis.MethodsWe conducted an electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Willey, Web of Science, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for studies reporting hematological, coagulation, inflammatory, and immunological results during hospital admission of COVID-19 patients with different severities and outcomes.ResultsA total of 64 studies were included in the current meta-analysis, with 8 hematological, 3 coagulation, 5 inflammatory, and 23 immunological variables reported. Of them, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts (Neu), D-dimer level, procalcitonin (PCT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), ferretin, serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukins (ILs)–2R, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly increased in severely ill patients and non-survivors. Meanwhile, non-severely ill patients and survivors presented significantly higher counts of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. A majority of included variables presented with significant heterogeneity, some of which resulted from differing disease severities and ages of included patients.ConclusionsThe current meta-analysis provides a comprehensive and updated synthesis of the association between admission laboratory abnormalities with severity and mortality of COVID-19. Our results highlight that increases in the levels of PCT, ESR, CRP, ferretin, SAA, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-10 were associated with disease deterioration, whereas elevated eosinophils, lymphocytes, and T-cell subsets might serve as indicators of favorable outcomes.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312181

ABSTRACT

Background: Medical wastewater from hospitals specializing in infectious diseases is a major health and environmental risk during pandemics. However, few systematic studies on medical wastewater management in hospitals of infectious diseases have been reported. As designated emergency field hospital for the treatment of COVID-19, the Huoshenshan Hospital achieved successful outcomes on emergency management measures of medical wastewater. Results: : The lessons of medical wastwater based on Huoshenshan Hospital can be concluded following four aspects: (1) Emergency management system of medical wastewater based on the “Internet Plus” technology, and other related management schemes and standard systems provided legislative foundation for emergency management of medical wastewater. (2) The three-tier prevention and control system of medical wastewater ensured the discharged wastewater meets water quality standards. The system specifically included the individual seep and leak-proof sealed collection system at the first tier, as well as the enhanced disinfection and moving bed biofilm reactor wastewater biological and chemical treatment technology at the second tier. (3) The study established an effective three-tier accountability system in medical wastewater quality monitoring, data recording, storage, and reporting, as well as data review and filing, especially in continuous data monitoring and dynamic analysis of characteristic indicators. (4) Information disclosure by government and public supervision promoted successful implementation of medical wastewater management and control measures. Based on the results of 212 public questionnaires, we also confirmed that information of the case was open to public and internet users who actively participated. Conclusion: Our study will provide methodological reference for the emergency management of wastewater in designated infectious disease hospitals in similar situations.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311711

ABSTRACT

P2Y receptors (P2YRs), a δ group of rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have many essential functions in physiology and pathology, such as platelet aggregation, immune responses, neuroprotective effects, inflammation, and cellular proliferation;thus, they are among the most researched therapeutic targets for use in the clinical treatment of diseases (e.g., clopidogrel, an antithrombotic drug, and Prolacria, a treatment for dry eye). Over the past two decades, GPCRs have been revealed to transmit signals as dimers to increase the diversity of signalling pathways or pharmacological activities. Many studies have frequently confirmed dimerization between P2YRs and other GPCRs due to their functions in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular processes in vivo and in vitro. Recently, some P2YR dimers that dynamically balance physiological functions in the body were shown to be involved in effective signal transduction and exert pathological pharmacological effects. In this review, we summarize the types, pharmacological changes, and active regulators of P2YR-related dimerization. In summary, our review delineates that P2YR-related dimers have new functions and pharmacological activities and maybe a novel direction to improve the effectiveness of medications such as thrombotic events associated with COVID-19.

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(4): 1144-1155, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685345

ABSTRACT

High glucose (HG) is one of the basic factors of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which leads to high morbidity and disability. During DN, the expression of glomerular glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) increases, but the relationship between HG and GLUT1 is unclear. Glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) have multiple roles in HG-induced DN. Here, we report prominent glomerular dysfunction, especially GMC abnormalities, in DN mice, which is closely related to GLUT1 alteration. In vivo studies have shown that BBR can alleviate pathological changes and abnormal renal function indicators of DN mice. In vitro, BBR (30, 60 and 90 µmol/L) not only increased the proportion of G1 phase cells but also reduced the proportion of S phase cells under HG conditions at different times. BBR (60 µmol/L) significantly reduced the expression of PI3K-p85, p-Akt, p-AS160, membrane-bound GLUT1 and cyclin D1, but had almost no effect on total protein. Furthermore, BBR significantly declined the glucose uptake and retarded cyclin D1-mediated GMC cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. This study demonstrated that BBR can inhibit the development of DN, which may be due to BBR inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/AS160/GLUT1 signalling pathway to regulate HG-induced abnormal GMC proliferation and the cell cycle, supporting BBR as a potential therapeutic drug for DN.


Subject(s)
Berberine , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Animals , Berberine/pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Cell Division , Cell Proliferation , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 1/genetics , Glucose Transporter Type 1/metabolism , Mesangial Cells/metabolism , Mice , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
11.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 845-848, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641979

ABSTRACT

We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Control Release ; 344: 50-61, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587321

ABSTRACT

Current nucleoside-modified RNA lipid nanoparticle (modmRNA-LNP) technology has successfully paved the way for the highest clinical efficacy data from next-generation vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, such modmRNA-LNP technology has not been characterized in common pre-existing inflammatory or immune-challenged conditions, raising the risk of adverse clinical effects when administering modmRNA-LNPs in such cases. Herein, we induce an acute-inflammation model in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intratracheally (IT), 1 mg kg-1, or intravenously (IV), 2 mg kg-1, and then IV administer modmRNA-LNP, 0.32 mg kg-1, after 4 h, and screen for inflammatory markers, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. ModmRNA-LNP at this dose caused no significant elevation of cytokine levels in naive mice. In contrast, shortly after LPS immune stimulation, modmRNA-LNP enhanced inflammatory cytokine responses, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 2 (MIP-2) in liver significantly. Our report identifies this phenomenon as inflammation exacerbation (IE), which was proven to be specific to the LNP, acting independent of mRNA cargo, and was demonstrated to be time- and dose-dependent. Macrophage depletion as well as TLR3 -/- and TLR4-/- knockout mouse studies revealed macrophages were the immune cells involved or responsible for IE. Finally, we show that pretreatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids, can partially alleviate IE response in mice. Our findings characterize the importance of LNP-mediated IE phenomena in gram negative bacterial inflammation, however, the generalizability of modmRNA-LNP in other forms of chronic or acute inflammatory and immune contexts needs to be addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Humans , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides , Liposomes , Mice , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580781

ABSTRACT

Medical wastewater originating from hospitals specializing in infectious diseases pose a major risk to human and environmental health during pandemics. However, there have been few systematic studies on the management of this type of wastewater management. The function of the Huoshenshan Hospital as a designated emergency field hospital for the treatment of COVID-19 has provided lessons for the management measures of medical wastewater, mainly including: (1) Modern information technology, management schemes, and related standard systems provided the legislative foundation for emergency management of medical wastewater. (2) The three-tier prevention and control medical wastewater management system ensured the discharged wastewater met water quality standards, especially for the leak-proof sealed collection system of the first tier, and the biological and chemical treatment technology of the second tier. (3) The establishment of an effective three-tier medical wastewater quality monitoring accountability system. This system was particularly relevant for ensuring continuous data monitoring and dynamic analysis of characteristic indicators. (4) Information disclosure by government and public supervision promoted successful implementation of medical wastewater management and control measures. Public questionnaires (n = 212) further confirmed the effectiveness of information disclosure. The results of this study can act as methodological reference for the emergency management of wastewater in designated infectious disease hospitals under similar situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , China , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295299

ABSTRACT

Backgroud: Virtual reality (VR) technology represents the future of medical education due to its unique advantages, especially with the Covid-19 pandemic lasting. We developed a laparoscopic VR surgery collaborative training platform hoping to shed light on future medical education in China. Methods: : We constructed a VR surgery training platform and designed surgery curriculum on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). 36 first-year postgraduate students in China standardized training program for resident doctor (C-STRD) from the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University were enrolled for validation trials. In the Phase I trial, 12 students performed LC in the exploration mode. After training in the surgery learning mode, they performed LC again. The LC scores before and after training were compared. In the Phase II trial, another 12 students were randomly assigned to either the collaborative group or the control group. The former trained with a senior surgeon collaboratively in the surgery learning mode and then performed LC alone in the exploration mode. The latter trained in the surgery learning mode by themselves and performed LC in the exploration mode. The LC scores between groups were compared. The user experience (intention to use, skills improvement, usability, degree of enjoyment) were analyzed through questionnaires from the above 24 students. Interest in surgery learning of Phase I students was compared with 12 students who didn’t experience the VR platform. Results: : In Phase I trial, the mean LC scores of the students were elevated from 56.83 to 61.17 (p=0.042) after learning in surgery learning mode. In Phase II trial, collaborative group students had higher scores than their rivals (67.17 vs 61.33, p=0.014). Most students have a positive users’ experience regarding the intention to use and skills improvement. Collaborative group students had higher evaluation regarding usability. Students who experienced the VR platform were significantly more interested in future surgery learning (3.60 vs 2.58, p <0.05). Conclusion: Our study constructed a VR platform for collaborative surgery training, which showed an excellent training effect. Medical students rated the platform highly, and their interest in learning increased.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293357

ABSTRACT

Backgroud: Virtual reality (VR) technology represents the future of medical education due to its unique advantages, especially with the Covid-19 pandemic lasting. We developed a laparoscopic VR surgery collaborative training platform hoping to shed light on future medical education in China. Methods: : We constructed a VR surgery training platform and designed surgery curriculum on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). 36 first-year postgraduate students in China standardized training program for resident doctor (C-STRD) from the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University were enrolled for validation trials. In the Phase I trial, 12 students performed LC in the exploration mode. After training in the surgery learning mode, they performed LC again. The LC scores before and after training were compared. In the Phase II trial, another 12 students were randomly assigned to either the collaborative group or the control group. The former trained with a senior surgeon collaboratively in the surgery learning mode and then performed LC alone in the exploration mode. The latter trained in the surgery learning mode by themselves and performed LC in the exploration mode. The LC scores between groups were compared. The user experience (intention to use, skills improvement, usability, degree of enjoyment) were analyzed through questionnaires from the above 24 students. Interest in surgery learning of Phase I students was compared with 12 students who didn’t experience the VR platform. Results: : In Phase I trial, the mean LC scores of the students were elevated from 56.83 to 61.17 (p=0.042) after learning in surgery learning mode. In Phase II trial, collaborative group students had higher scores than their rivals (67.17 vs 61.33, p=0.014). Most students have a positive users’ experience regarding the intention to use and skills improvement. Collaborative group students had higher evaluation regarding usability. Students who experienced the VR platform were significantly more interested in future surgery learning (3.60 vs 2.58, p <0.05). Conclusion: Our study constructed a VR platform for collaborative surgery training, which showed an excellent training effect. Medical students rated the platform highly, and their interest in learning increased.

16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 102: 108383, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: To date, the effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on people living with HIV (PLWH) were mainly focused on messenger RNA (mRNA) and adenovirus vector-based vaccines, and little is known about the effects of inactivated virus-based vaccine. This study was designed to determine the effects of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on PLWH. METHODS: Twenty-four HIV-positive individuals and 24 healthy donors (HD) were respectively recruited from Malipo Country People's Hospital and community in Kunming city. Enumeration of lymphocyte and CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Competitive ELISA was used to measure the level of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibody. Spearman or Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between laboratory indicators and neutralization antibodies in PLWH. T-cell responses (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg) and intracellular expression of cytokines (IL-2 and TNF-α) in CD4 or CD8 were induced by spike protein in SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-2-S) and further measured by intracellular staining. RESULTS: CD4, B cells, CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells in peripheral blood of PLWH are dramatically decreased in comparison with HD. Importantly, PLWH display comparable neutralizing antibody positive rate to HD after inoculation with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. However, PLWH showed weaker responses to vaccines exhibited by lower levels of neutralizing antibodies. Correlation analysis shows that this is possibly caused by low number of CD4 and B cells. Furthermore, SARS-2-S-induced Th2 and Th17 responses are also decreased in PLWH, while no influences on Treg and other cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ) observed. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH and HD have comparable neutralizing antibodies positive rates, but PLWH display weaker responses to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in magnitude, which suggests that a booster dose or dose adjustment are required for HIV-infected individuals, especially for those with lower counts of CD4 T and B cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291839

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding immune memory to COVID-19 vaccines is critical for the design and optimal vaccination schedule for curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we assessed the persistence of humoral and cellular immune responses for 12 months after two-dose CoronaVac.Methods: Participants aged 18–59 years received two doses of 3 μg CoronaVac 14 days apart, and blood samples were collected before vaccination (baseline) and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the second shot. Humoral responses of specific antibodies and neutralising antibodies were measured by using chemiluminescent immunoassay and wild-type SARS-CoV-2 microneutralisation assay, respectively. Cellular responses were measured by immunospot-based and intracellular cytokine staining assays. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05072496.Findings: Total 150 participants were enrolled, and 136 of them completed the study through the 12-month endpoint. At 1 month after vaccination, binding and neutralising antibodies emerged rapidly, the seropositive rate of binding antibodies and seroconversion rate of neutralizing antibodies was 99% and 50%, respectively. From 3 to 12 months, the binding and neutralizing antibodies declined slightly overtime. At 12 months, the binding and neutralizing antibodies were still detectable and significantly higher than the baseline. IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion specifically induced by RBD persisted at high levels until 6 months, and could be observed at 12 months, while the levels of IL-5 and Granzyme B were hardly detected, demonstrating a Th1-biased response. Besides, specific CD4+TCM, CD4+TEMM, CD8+ TEMand CD8+TE cells were all detectable and functional up to 12 months after the second dose, as the cells produced IFN-γ, IL-2, and GzmB in response to stimulation of SARS-CoV-2 RBD.Interpretation: CoronaVac not only induced durable binding and neutralising antibody responses, but also SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells for up to 12 months.Trial Registration: This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05072496.Funding: Beijing Municipal Science & Technology CommissionDeclaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The trial protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing CDC (2020-28)

18.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; 49(1):41-44, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1451805

ABSTRACT

Objective: To dynamically detect and evaluate the serum specific levels of IgM and IgG and their variation patterns in critical and non-critical patients with COVID-19.

19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 727419, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444039

ABSTRACT

Background: Blood parameters, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, have been identified as reliable inflammatory markers with diagnostic and predictive value for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, novel hematological parameters derived from high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) have rarely been studied as indicators for the risk of poor outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of these novel biomarkers in COVID-19 patients and the diabetes subgroup. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study involving all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from January to March 2020 in five hospitals in Wuhan, China. Demographics, clinical and laboratory findings, and outcomes were recorded. Neutrophil to HDL-C ratio (NHR), monocyte to HDL-C ratio (MHR), lymphocyte to HDL-C ratio (LHR), and platelet to HDL-C ratio (PHR) were investigated and compared in both the overall population and the subgroup with diabetes. The associations between blood parameters at admission with primary composite end-point events (including mechanical ventilation, admission to the intensive care unit, or death) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the utility of different blood parameters. Results: Of 440 patients with COVID-19, 67 (15.2%) were critically ill. On admission, HDL-C concentration was decreased while NHR was high in patients with critical compared with non-critical COVID-19, and were independently associated with poor outcome as continuous variables in the overall population (HR: 0.213, 95% CI 0.090-0.507; HR: 1.066, 95% CI 1.030-1.103, respectively) after adjusting for confounding factors. Additionally, when HDL-C and NHR were examined as categorical variables, the HRs and 95% CIs for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 were 0.280 (0.128-0.612) and 4.458 (1.817-10.938), respectively. Similar results were observed in the diabetes subgroup. ROC curves showed that the NHR had good performance in predicting worse outcomes. The cutoff point of the NHR was 5.50. However, the data in our present study could not confirm the possible predictive effect of LHR, MHR, and PHR on COVID-19 severity. Conclusion: Lower HDL-C concentrations and higher NHR at admission were observed in patients with critical COVID-19 than in those with noncritical COVID-19, and were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients as well as in the diabetes subgroup.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , China , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Leukocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Journal of Travel Medicine ; 27(8), 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1410186

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 is a global public health emergency that has been caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Since it has a higher number of cases than SARS, it is considered a more infectious disease. The prevalence of COVID-19 in air passengers increases when the pandemic is over. Due to the rapid urbanization and the establishment of a transportation hub in China, the number of COVID-19 cases in Guangzhou has been reduced to low levels since early 2020. However, the resurgence risk remains significant. This study aims to provide an overview of the policies and control measures related to the entry of COVID-19 cases from abroad. After the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Guangdong was widely publicized, the local government issued a series of measures to contain its spread. All travellers and residents who entered the city after passing through immigration checkpoints were required to submit a RT-PCR test. From March to July 2020, a total of 268 COVID-19 cases were confirmed in China. Most of the imported cases were male and were engaged in commercial activities. The majority of the cases originated from Europe and Asia. Out of the 85 imported cases identified, 73.5% were detected during the customs inspection and 19.0% were under centralized quarantine. The remaining cases were confirmed during a consultation with a healthcare professional. Twenty-four samples were collected from the living areas of 12 imported cases, which indicated that SARS-CoV-2 was prevalent in these areas. The majority of the positive samples were from household objects such as door handle, sink, and remote control.

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