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Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625435


Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 contains a single-span transmembrane (TM) domain and plays roles in receptor binding, viral attachment and viral entry to the host cells. The TM domain of spike protein is critical for viral infectivity. Herein, the TM domain of spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was reconstituted in detergent micelles and subjected to structural analysis using solution NMR spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the TM domain of the protein forms a helical structure in detergent micelles. An unstructured linker is identified between the TM helix and heptapeptide repeat 2 region. The linker is due to the proline residue at position 1213. Side chains of the three tryptophan residues preceding to and within the TM helix important for the function of S-protein might adopt multiple conformations which may be critical for their function. The side chain of W1212 was shown to be exposed to solvent and the side chains of residues W1214 and W1217 are buried in micelles. Relaxation study shows that the TM helix is rigid in solution while several residues have exchanges. The secondary structure and dynamics of the TM domain in this study provide insights into the function of the TM domain of spike protein.

Detergents/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cross-Linking Reagents/pharmacology , Detergents/chemistry , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Micelles , Models, Molecular , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Protein Domains/drug effects , Protein Structure, Secondary/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
Microorganisms ; 8(8)2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854167


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The viral outbreak started in late 2019 and rapidly became a serious health threat to the global population. COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Several therapeutic options have been adopted to prevent the spread of the virus. Although vaccines have been developed, antivirals are still needed to combat the infection of this virus. SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus, and its genome encodes polyproteins that can be processed into structural and nonstructural proteins. Maturation of viral proteins requires cleavages by proteases. Therefore, the main protease (3 chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) or Mpro) encoded by the viral genome is an attractive drug target because it plays an important role in cleaving viral polyproteins into functional proteins. Inhibiting this enzyme is an efficient strategy to block viral replication. Structural studies provide valuable insight into the function of this protease and structural basis for rational inhibitor design. In this review, we describe structural studies on the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. The strategies applied in developing inhibitors of the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 and currently available protein inhibitors are summarized. Due to the availability of high-resolution structures, structure-guided drug design will play an important role in developing antivirals. The availability of high-resolution structures, potent peptidic inhibitors, and diverse compound scaffolds indicate the feasibility of developing potent protease inhibitors as antivirals for COVID-19.