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1.
Radiology of Infectious Diseases ; 9(3):100-103, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2202113

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 worldwide has created a major threat to human life and safety. Antiviral drugs and antibiotics have poor therapeutic effects, and there is no specific treatment for this virus. Chest computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We report a patient who was critically ill with COVID-19 and recovered after receiving transfusions of convalescent plasma. To evaluate the efficacy of convalescent plasma in the treatment of COVID-19, we compared chest CT findings, clinical manifestations, and laboratory findings before and after treatment with convalescent plasma. After the transfusion of convalescent plasma, clinical manifestations and indicators of inflammation improved, accompanied by an increase in the partial pressure of oxygen and oxygen saturation. Chest CT showed some resolution of the lung lesions, and multiple viral nucleic acid tests were negative. Therefore, the patient's condition was improved after the transfusion of convalescent plasma, suggesting that it may be an effective treatment for patients who are critically ill with COVID-19.

2.
Computer Networks ; : 109518, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149583

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has forced the workforce to switch to working from home, which has put significant burdens on the management of broadband networks and called for intelligent service-by-service resource optimization at the network edge. In this context, network traffic prediction is crucial for operators to provide reliable connectivity across large geographic regions. Although recent advances in neural network design have demonstrated potential to effectively tackle forecasting, in this work we reveal based on real-world measurements that network traffic across different regions differs widely. As a result, models trained on historical traffic data observed in one region can hardly serve in making accurate predictions in other areas. Training bespoke models for different regions is tempting, but that approach bears significant measurement overhead, is computationally expensive, and does not scale. Therefore, in this paper we propose TransMUSE (Transferable Traffic Prediction in MUlti-Service Edge Networks), a novel deep learning framework that clusters similar services, groups edge-nodes into cohorts by traffic feature similarity, and employs a Transformer-based Multi-service Traffic Prediction Network (TMTPN), which can be directly transferred within a cohort without any customization. We demonstrate that TransMUSE exhibits imperceptible performance degradation in terms of mean absolute error (MAE) when forecasting traffic, compared with settings where a model is trained for each individual edge node. Moreover, our proposed TMTPN architecture outperforms the state-of-the-art, achieving up to 43.21% lower MAE in the multi-service traffic prediction task. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that jointly employs model transfer and multi-service traffic prediction to reduce measurement overhead, while providing fine-grained accurate demand forecasts for edge services provisioning.

3.
Radiology of Infectious Diseases ; 8(1):42-44, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2118683

ABSTRACT

Liver injury is found in some patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Both the clinical treatment efficacy and the patient's prognosis are affected by the severity of liver injury. In addition, in some cases, liver injury may occur in the absence of respiratory symptoms. To date, liver injury diagnosed based on laboratory findings and abdominal computed tomography (CT) has been reported in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this review was to summarize the mechanism of liver injury caused by COVID-19 and describe the CT features of COVID-19-induced liver damage.

4.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103647

ABSTRACT

We appreciate the comments from Chan et al. for our study, and have carefully responded to the comments of Chan et al. and are very grateful for their praise of our research. We agree that smoking might be a risk factor of the severity of COVID-19 as mentioned by Chan et al., but in our study, smoking was not so robust compared with our conclusion. Also, we strongly agreed with the opinion of Chan, et al. that COVID-19 patients with diabetes or other chronic diseases might worsen the situation of the disease. But these factors were out of the scope of our study and we had published other research on this topic related to diabetes. Because of the limited sample size and original medical records, our study could not cover many factors suggested as Chan, et al. But we wish our study will be a useful and meaningful pilot study for the future studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(21):14059-14074, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2100207

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column density measurements from satellites have been widely used in constraining emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). However, the utility of these measurements is impacted by reduced observational coverage due to cloud cover and their reduced sensitivity toward the surface. Combining the information from satellites with surface observations of NO2 will provide greater constraints on emission estimates of NOx. We have developed a deep-learning (DL) model to integrate satellite data and in situ observations of surface NO2 to estimate NOx emissions in China. A priori information for the DL model was obtained from satellite-derived emissions from the Tropospheric Chemistry Reanalysis (TCR-2). A two-stage training strategy was used to integrate in situ measurements from the China Ministry of Ecology and Environment (MEE) observation network with the TCR-2 data. The DL model is trained from 2005 to 2018 and evaluated for 2019 and 2020. The DL model estimated a source of 19.4 Tg NO for total Chinese NOx emissions in 2019, which is consistent with the TCR-2 estimate of 18.5 ± 3.9 Tg NO and the 20.9 Tg NO suggested by the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). Combining the MEE data with TCR-2, the DL model suggested higher NOx emissions in some of the less-densely populated provinces, such as Shaanxi and Sichuan, where the MEE data indicated higher surface NO2 concentrations than TCR-2. The DL model also suggested a faster recovery of NOx emissions than TCR-2 after the Chinese New Year (CNY) holiday in 2019, with a recovery time scale that is consistent with Baidu “Qianxi” mobility data. In 2020, the DL-based analysis estimated about a 30 % reduction in NOx emissions in eastern China during the COVID-19 lockdown period, relative to pre-lockdown levels. In particular, the maximum emission reductions were 42 % and 30 % for the Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) mega-regions, respectively. Our results illustrate the potential utility of the DL model as a complementary tool for conventional data-assimilation approaches for air quality applications.

6.
Dela J Public Health ; 8(3): 108-112, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2057026

ABSTRACT

We examined statewide perinatal quality indicators: nulliparous singleton term vertex cesarean births (NTSV) or low risk cesarean births, and non-medically indicated early term delivery (NMETD) rates during COVID-19 pandemic pre-lockdown (1/1/2019 to 3/23/2020) and post-lockdown (after 3/23/2020). Interrupted time-series analyses were used to examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on these indicators. We observed a statistically significant increase in NTSV cesarean rates, 4.4% (95%CI: 1.3,7.4) immediately after lockdown, and a decrease in NMETD rate, 1.6% (95%CI: -2.5,-0.7). We observed an increase (0.3%; 95%CI: 0.0,0.6) in the slope (i.e., trend change) of NTSV rates post-lockdown and a decrease (-0.2%; 95%CI: -0.3,-0.1) in the slope of NMETD rates. Results suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic had an immediate effect on perinatal quality indicators in Delaware, with gradual return to pre-pandemic rates as the pandemic continued. In addition to emergency preparedness planning, hospital monitoring of perinatal quality indicators might improve obstetrical care during public health emergencies.

7.
Environment and planning. B, urban analytics and city science ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034137

ABSTRACT

New York City (NYC) was the epicenter of COVID-19 pandemic for a long time, and the government introduced a city-wide lockdown policy to mitigate the spread of virus. Minority communities, however, suffered disproportionally high percentage of infection and mortality rates, a disturbing phenomenon that deserves scrutiny. Adopting a spatial and temporal perspective, this study aims to investigate health disparities in this pandemic by focusing on mobility in the city. Considering both public transit and the lockdown policy essential factors that impact infection and mortality, this study introduced a measure indicating mobility-restricted transit as the spatial factor. Additional factors include ethnic minorities based on their nativity and three categories of social vulnerability: socioeconomic status, household composition, and housing type. This study selects eight phases, each of which consists of 2 weeks to derive infection and mortality rates to investigate the impacts of those factors. As infection and mortality data are published based on ZIP code, this study further estimates the infection and mortality rates at a finer level of census tract through spatial apportionment. Results reveal the significant impact of mobility-restricted transit on both infection and mortality and show certain clusters of neighborhoods being highly impacted. In addition, this study identifies neighborhoods where native-born and foreign-born of each ethnic minority (Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians) have high risk of infection and mortality. Through a spatial and temporal perspectives, this study identifies the complexity of patterns in minority health disparities in COVID-19 pandemic, which can inform policy makers for localized support to vulnerable neighborhoods to alleviate minority health disparities.

8.
J Appl Toxicol ; 42(10): 1688-1700, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013548

ABSTRACT

The antiviral drug remdesivir has been used to treat the growing number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, the drug is mainly excreted through urine and feces and introduced into the environment to affect non-target organisms, including fish, which has raised concerns about potential ecotoxicological effects on aquatic organisms. Moreover, studies on the ecological impacts of remdesivir on aquatic environments have not been reported. Here, we aimed to explore the toxicological impacts of microinjection of remdesivir on zebrafish early embryonic development and larvae and the associated mechanism. We found that 100 µM remdesivir delayed epiboly and impaired convergent movement of embryos during gastrulation, and dose-dependent increases in mortality and malformation were observed in remdesivir-treated embryos. Moreover, 10-100 µM remdesivir decreased blood flow and swimming velocity and altered the behavior of larvae. In terms of molecular mechanisms, 80 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by transcriptome analysis in the remdesivir-treated group. Some of these DEGs, such as manf, kif3a, hnf1ba, rgn, prkcz, egr1, fosab, nr4a1, and ptgs2b, were mainly involved in early embryonic development, neuronal developmental disorders, vascular disease and the blood flow pathway. These data reveal that remdesivir can impair early embryonic development, blood flow and behavior of zebrafish embryos/larvae, probably due to alterations at the transcriptome level. This study suggests that it is important to avoid the discharge of remdesivir to aquatic ecosystems and provides a theoretical foundation to hinder remdesivir-induced ecotoxicity to aquatic environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ecosystem , Embryo, Nonmammalian , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta/metabolism , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta/pharmacology , Larva , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Zebrafish , Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113459, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956090

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a lethal clinical entity that has become an emergency event with the outbreak of COVID-19. However, to date, there are no well-proven pharmacotherapies except dexamethasone. This study is aimed to evaluate IRAK4 inhibitors as a potential treatment for ARDS-cytokine release syndrome (CRS). We applied two IRAK4 inhibitors, BAY-1834845 and PF-06650833 to an inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS mouse model with control of high dose dexamethasone (10 mg/kg). Unexpectedly, although both compounds had excellent IC50 on IRAK4 kinase activity, only BAY-1834845 but not PF-06650833 or high dose dexamethasone could significantly prevent lung injury according to a blinded pathology scoring. Further, only BAY-1834845 and BAY-1834845 combined with dexamethasone could effectively improve the injury score of pre-existed ARDS. Compared with PF-06650833 and high dose dexamethasone, BAY-1834845 remarkably decreased inflammatory cells infiltrating lung tissue and neutrophil count in BALF. BAY-1834845, DEX, and the combination of the two agents could decrease BALF total T cells, monocyte, and macrophages. In further cell type enrichment analysis based on lung tissue RNA-seq, both BAY-1834845 and dexamethasone decreased signatures of inflammatory cells and effector lymphocytes. Interestingly, unlike the dexamethasone group, BAY-1834845 largely preserved the signatures of naïve lymphocytes and stromal cells such as endothelial cells, chondrocytes, and smooth muscle cells. Differential gene enrichment suggested that BAY-1834845 downregulated genes more efficiently than dexamethasone, especially TNF, IL-17, interferon, and Toll-like receptor signaling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelial Cells , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Isoquinolines/therapeutic use , Lactams/pharmacology , Lactams/therapeutic use , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 834592, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952773

ABSTRACT

In Ethiopia, multiple waves of the COVID-19 epidemic have been observed. So far, no studies have investigated the characteristics of the waves of epidemic waves in the country. Identifying the epidemic trend in Ethiopia will inform future prevention and control of COVID-19. This study aims to identify the early indicators and the characteristics of multiple waves of the COVID-19 epidemics and their impact on the overall epidemic size in Ethiopia. We employed the Jointpoint software to identify key epidemic characteristics in the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic and a simple logistic growth model to identify epidemic characteristics of its subsequent waves. Among the first 100 reported cases in Ethiopia, we identified a slow-growing phase (0.37 [CI: 0.10-0.78] cases/day), which was followed by a fast-growing phase (1.18 [0.50-2.00] cases/day). The average turning point from slow to fast-growing phase was at 18 days after first reported. We identified two subsequent waves of COVID-19 in Ethiopia during 03/2020-04/2021. We estimated the number of COVID-19 cases that occurred during the second wave (157,064 cases) was >2 times more than the first (60,016 cases). The second wave's duration was longer than the first (116 vs. 96 days). As of April 30th, 2021, the overall epidemic size in Ethiopia was 794/100,000, ranging from 1,669/100,000 in the Harari region to 40/100,000 in the Somali region. The epidemic size was significantly and positively correlated with the day of the phase turning point (r = 0.750, P = 0.008), the estimated number of cases in wave one (r = 0.854, P < 0.001), and wave two (r = 0.880, P < 0.001). The second wave of COVID-19 in Ethiopia is far greater, and its duration is longer than the first. Early phase turning point and case numbers in the subsequent waves predict its overall epidemic size.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 911859, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952334

ABSTRACT

Safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics based on the understanding of antiviral immunity are urgently needed to end the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the understanding of these immune responses, especially cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, is limited. Here, we conducted a cohort study of COVID-19 patients who were followed and had blood collected to characterize the longitudinal dynamics of their cellular immune responses. Compared with healthy controls, the percentage of activation of SARS-CoV-2 S/N-specific T cells in recovered patients was significantly higher. And the activation percentage of S/N-specific CD8+ T cells in recovered patients was significantly higher than that of CD4+ T cells. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell responses were strongly biased toward the expression of Th1 cytokines, included the cytokines IFNγ, TNFα and IL2. Moreover, the secreted IFNγ and IL2 level in severe patients was higher than that in mild patients. Additionally, the number of IFNγ-secreting S-specific T cells in recovered patients were higher than that of N-specific T cells. Overall, the SARS-CoV-2 S/N-specific T-cell responses in recovered patients were strong, and virus-specific immunity was present until 14-16 weeks after symptom onset. Our work provides a basis for understanding the immune responses and pathogenesis of COVID-19. It also has implications for vaccine development and optimization and speeding up the licensing of the next generation of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Interleukin-2 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
JMIRx Med ; 3(2): e30344, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951914

ABSTRACT

Background: During COVID-19, clinical and health care demands have been on the rapid rise. Major challenges that have arisen during the pandemic have included a lack of testing kits, shortages of ventilators to treat severe cases of COVID-19, and insufficient accessibility to personal protective equipment for both hospitals and the public. New technologies have been developed by scientists, researchers, and companies in response to these demands. Objective: The primary objective of this review is to compare different supporting technologies in the subjugation of the COVID-19 spread. Methods: In this paper, 150 news articles and scientific reports on COVID-19-related innovations during 2020-2021 were checked, screened, and shortlisted to yield a total of 23 articles for review. The keywords "COVID-19 technology," "COVID-19 invention," and "COVID-19 equipment" were used in a Google search to generate related news articles and scientific reports. The search was performed on February 1, 2021. These were then categorized into three sections, which are personal protective equipment (PPE), testing methods, and medical treatments. Each study was analyzed for its engineering characteristics and potential social impact on the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 9 articles were selected for review concerning PPE. In general, the design and fabrication of PPE were moving toward the direction of additive manufacturing and intelligent information feedback while being eco-friendly. Moreover, 8 articles were selected for reviewing testing methods within the two main categories of molecular and antigen tests. All the inventions endeavored to increase sensitivity while reducing the turnaround time. However, the inventions reported in this review paper were not sufficiently tested for their safety and efficiency. Most of the inventions are temporary solutions intended to be used only during shortages of medical resources. Finally, 6 articles were selected for the review of COVID-19 medical treatment. The major challenge identified was the uncertainty in applying novel ideas to speed up the production of ventilators. Conclusions: The technologies developed during the COVID-19 pandemic were considered for review. In order to better respond to future pandemics, national reserves of critical medical supplies should be increased to improve preparation. This pandemic has also highlighted the need for the automation and optimization of medical manufacturing.

13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e106, 2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947130

ABSTRACT

This study is performed to figure out how the presence of diabetes affects the infection, progression and prognosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the effective therapy that can treat the diabetes-complicated patients with COVID-19. A multicentre study was performed in four hospitals. COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or hyperglycaemia were compared with those without these conditions and matched by propensity score matching for their clinical progress and outcome. Totally, 2444 confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited, from whom 336 had DM. Compared to 1344 non-DM patients with age and sex matched, DM-COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of intensive care unit entrance (12.43% vs. 6.58%, P = 0.014), kidney failure (9.20% vs. 4.05%, P = 0.027) and mortality (25.00% vs. 18.15%, P < 0.001). Age and sex-stratified comparison revealed increased susceptibility to COVID-19 only from females with DM. For either non-DM or DM group, hyperglycaemia was associated with adverse outcomes, featured by higher rates of severe pneumonia and mortality, in comparison with non-hyperglycaemia. This was accompanied by significantly altered laboratory indicators including lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen level, all with correlation coefficients >0.35. Both diabetes and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with adverse prognosis of COVID-19, with hazard ratios of 10.41 and 3.58, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
IPEM Transl ; : 100006, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936583

ABSTRACT

With fever being one of the most prominent symptoms of COVID-19, the implementation of fever screening has become commonplace around the world to help mitigate the spread of the virus. Non-contact methods of temperature screening, such as infrared (IR) forehead thermometers and thermal cameras, benefit by minimizing infection risk. However, the IR temperature measurements may not be reliably correlated with actual core body temperatures. This study proposed a trained model prediction using IR-measured facial feature temperatures to predict core body temperatures comparable to an FDA-approved product. The reference core body temperatures were measured by a commercially available temperature monitoring system. Optimal inputs and training models were selected by the correlation between predicted and reference core body temperature. Five regression models were tested during the study. The linear regression model showed the lowest minimum-root-mean-square error (RSME) compared with reference temperatures. The temple and nose region of interest (ROI) were identified as optimal inputs. This study suggests that IR temperature data could provide comparatively accurate core body temperature prediction for rapid mass screening of potential COVID cases using the linear regression model. Using linear regression modeling, the non-contact temperature measurement could be comparable to the SpotOn system with a mean SD of ± 0.285°C and MAE of 0.240°C.

15.
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1937866

ABSTRACT

The needs of volunteer community service providers (VCSPs), who are the main responders to community crises, have received significantly less attention for the contributions they have been making during the COVID-19 crisis. A mixed-method research framework was used in this study, which involved semi-structured interviews with 13 NGOs and questionnaire responses from 430 VCSPs in Hubei, China to assess the VCSPs' personal needs based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. It was found that the VCSPs had safety, love, belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization personal needs, all of which were closely related to family, partners, organizations, society and the government. The discussions revealed that the more experienced VCSPs needed special attention and family support was extremely significant for VCSPs in crisis. Several recommendations to meet VCSPs' personal needs are proposed that could have valuable reference value for emergency managers when organizing and supporting VCSPs in contingencies.

16.
PeerJ ; 10: e13608, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912095

ABSTRACT

Background: Thrombocytopenia was common in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during the infection, while the role of thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 pathogenesis and its relationship with systemic host response remained obscure. The study aimed to systematically evaluate the relationship between thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 patients and clinical, haematological and biochemical markers of the disease as well as adverse outcomes. Methods: To assess the relationship between abnormal platelet levels and disease progression, a multi-center retrospective cohort study was conducted. COVID-19 patients with thrombocytopenia and a sub-cohort of matched patients without thrombocytopenia were compared for their clinical manifestations, haematological disorders, biochemical parameters, inflammatory markers and clinical outcome. Results: Thrombocytopenia was present in 127 of 2,209 analyzed patients on admission. Compared with the control group, thrombocytopenia patients developed significantly higher frequency of respiratory failure (41.9% vs. 22.6%, P = 0.020), intensive care unit entrance (25.6% vs. 11.5%, P = 0.012), disseminated intravascular coagulation (45.2% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.001), more altered platelet morphology indexes and coagulation perturbation, higher levels of inflammatory markers. In addition, a significantly increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.08, 95% confidence interval 2.26-4.18, P < 0.001) was also observed in the patients with thrombocytopenia. Late development of thrombocytopenia beyond 14 days post-symptom was observed in 61 patients, from whom a comparable mortality rate yet longer duration to death was observed compared to those with early thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: Our finding from this study adds to previous evidence that thrombocytopenia is associated with adverse outcome of the disease and recommend that platelet count and indices be included alongside other haematological, biochemical and inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients' assessment during the hospital stay.

17.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 4727-4734, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905892

ABSTRACT

Comorbidities such as hypertension could exacerbate symptoms of coronaviral disease 2019 (COVID)-19 infection. Patients with hypertension may receive both anti-COVID-19 and antihypertension therapies when infected with COVID-19. However, it is not clear how different classes of anti-hypertension drugs impact the outcome of COVID-19 treatment. Herein, we explore the association between the inpatient use of different classes of anti-hypertension drugs and mortality among patients with hypertension hospitalized with COVID-19. We totally collected data from 278 patients with hypertension diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to hospitals in Wuhan from February 1 to April 1, 2020. A retrospective study was conducted and single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of treatment-related genes was performed. The results showed that Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and calcium channel blocker (CCB) drugs significantly increased the survival rate but the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/ß-block/diuretic drugs did not affect the mortality caused by COVID-19. Based on the analysis of four public data sets of single-cell RNA-Seq on COVID-19 patients, we concluded that JUN, LST1 genes may play a role in the effect of ARB on COVID-19-related mortality, whereas CALM1 gene may contribute to the effect of CCB on COVID-19-related mortality. Our results provide guidance on the selection of antihypertension drugs for hypertensive patients infected with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Computational Biology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269882, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892328

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made a serious public health threat worldwide. Recent evidence has indicated that COVID-19 patients in convalescence frequently experience insomnia, which reduces their quality of life and causes unknown risks. The positive effect of cognitive behavior on insomnia has been well addressed in previous studies. Given the high infectivity and epidemicity of COVID-19, Internet-delivered intervention may be safer than face-to-face treatment. However, whether Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy can effectively improve the insomnia of COVID-19 patients in convalescence has not been completely determined yet. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review to evaluate the effects of Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy on insomnia in COVID-19 patients in convalescence, with the aim to confer some guidance for its clinical application. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review and meta-analysis has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). Two researchers will retrieve the relevant literature on Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in convalescent patients with COVID-19 in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials gov, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from inception to 11th of December. In addition, we will review the relevant trials and references of the included literature and manually searched the grey literature. The two researchers will independently extracted data and information and evaluated the quality of the included literature. The Review Manager software (version 5.3) and Stata software (version 14.0) will be used for data analysis. The mean difference or the standardized mean difference of 95% CI will be used to calculate continuous variables to synthesize the data. In addition, I2 and Cochrane will be used for heterogeneity assessment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42021271278.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , Humans , Internet , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Quality of Life , Research Design , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 87-94, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889471

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a booster strategy in the United States. METHODS: We developed a decision-analytic Markov model of COVID-19 to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a booster strategy of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 (administered 6 months after the second dose) among older adults from a healthcare system perspective. RESULTS: Compared with 2 doses of BNT162b2 without a booster, the booster strategy in a 100,000 cohort of older adults would incur an additional cost of $3.4 million in vaccination cost but save $6.7 million in direct medical cost and gain 3.7 quality-adjusted life-years in 180 days. This corresponds to a benefit-cost ratio of 1.95 and a net monetary benefit of $3.4 million. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicates that a booster strategy has a high chance (67%) of being cost-effective. Notably, the cost-effectiveness of the booster strategy is highly sensitive to the population incidence of COVID-19, with a cost-effectiveness threshold of 8.1/100,000 person-day. If vaccine efficacies reduce by 10%, 30%, and 50%, this threshold will increase to 9.7/100,000, 13.9/100,000, and 21.9/100,000 person-day, respectively. CONCLUSION: Offering the BNT162b2 booster to older adults aged ≥65 years in the United States is likely to be cost-effective. Less efficacious vaccines and boosters may still be cost-effective in settings of high SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
20.
Pathogens ; 11(5)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855736

ABSTRACT

It is still uncertain how the epidemic characteristics of COVID-19 in its early phase and subsequent waves contributed to the pre-delta epidemic size in the United States. We identified the early and subsequent characteristics of the COVID-19 epidemic and the correlation between these characteristics and the pre-delta epidemic size. Most (96.1% (49/51)) of the states entered a fast-growing phase before the accumulative number of cases reached (30). The days required for the number of confirmed cases to increase from 30 to 100 was 5.6 (5.1-6.1) days. As of 31 March 2021, all 51 states experienced at least 2 waves of COVID-19 outbreaks, 23.5% (12/51) experienced 3 waves, and 15.7% (8/51) experienced 4 waves, the epidemic size of COVID-19 was 19,275-3,669,048 cases across the states. The pre-delta epidemic size was significantly correlated with the duration from 30 to 100 cases (p = 0.003, r = -0.405), the growth rate of the fast-growing phase (p = 0.012, r = 0.351), and the peak cases in the subsequent waves (K1 (p < 0.001, r = 0.794), K2 (p < 0.001, r = 0.595), K3 (p < 0.001, r = 0.977), and K4 (p = 0.002, r = 0.905)). We observed that both early and subsequent epidemic characteristics contribute to the pre-delta epidemic size of COVID-19. This identification is important to the prediction of the emerging viral infectious diseases in the primary stage.

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