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1.
Cities ; : 103549, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1588097

ABSTRACT

The world has adopted unprecedented lockdown as the key method to mitigate COVID-19;yet its effect on pandemic outcomes and health disparities remains largely unknown. Adopting a multilevel conceptual framework, this research investigates how city-level lockdown policy and public transit system shape mobility and thus intra-city health disparities, using New York City as a case study. With a spatial method and multiple sources of data, this research demonstrates the uneven impact of the lockdown policy and public transit system in shaping local pandemic outcomes. Census tracts with people spending more time at home have lower infection and death rates, while those with a higher density of transit stations have higher infection and death rates. Residential profile matters and census tracts with a higher concentration of disadvantaged population, such as Blacks, Hispanics, poor and elderly people, and people with no health insurance, have higher infection and death rates. Spatial analyses identify clusters where the lockdown policy was not effective and census tracts that share similar pandemic characteristics. Through the lens of mobility, this research advances knowledge of health disparities by focusing on institutional causes for health disparities and the role of the government through intervention policy and public transit system.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 438, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585880

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine technology has shown its power in preventing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Two mRNA vaccines targeting the full-length S protein of SARS-CoV-2 have been authorized for emergency use. Recently, we have developed a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA (mRNA-LNP) encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 (termed ARCoV), which confers complete protection in mouse model. Herein, we further characterized the protection efficacy of ARCoV in nonhuman primates and the long-term stability under normal refrigerator temperature. Intramuscular immunization of two doses of ARCoV elicited robust neutralizing antibodies as well as cellular response against SARS-CoV-2 in cynomolgus macaques. More importantly, ARCoV vaccination in macaques significantly protected animals from acute lung lesions caused by SARS-CoV-2, and viral replication in lungs and secretion in nasal swabs were completely cleared in all animals immunized with low or high doses of ARCoV. No evidence of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection was observed throughout the study. Finally, extensive stability assays showed that ARCoV can be stored at 2-8 °C for at least 6 months without decrease of immunogenicity. All these promising results strongly support the ongoing clinical trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , /pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Vero Cells , /immunology
4.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(11): nwab061, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556324

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, unprecedented lockdowns and travel bans were implemented in Chinese mainland to fight COVID-19, which led to a large reduction in anthropogenic emissions. This provided a unique opportunity to isolate the effects from emission and meteorology on tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Comparing the atmospheric NO2 in 2020 with that in 2017, we found the changes of emission have led to a 49.3 ± 23.5% reduction, which was ∼12% more than satellite-observed reduction of 37.8 ± 16.3%. The discrepancy was mainly a result of changes of meteorology, which have contributed to an 8.1 ± 14.2% increase of NO2. We also revealed that the emission-induced reduction of NO2 has significantly negative correlations to human mobility, particularly that inside the city. The intra-city migration index derived from Baidu Location-Based-Service can explain 40.4% ± 17.7% variance of the emission-induced reduction of NO2 in 29 megacities, each of which has a population of over 8 million in Chinese mainland.

5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 414, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556321

ABSTRACT

Azvudine (FNC) is a nucleoside analog that inhibits HIV-1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Recently, we discovered FNC an agent against SARS-CoV-2, and have taken it into Phase III trial for COVID-19 patients. FNC monophosphate analog inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 coronavirus with an EC50 between 1.2 and 4.3 µM, depending on viruses or cells, and selective index (SI) in 15-83 range. Oral administration of FNC in rats revealed a substantial thymus-homing feature, with FNC triphosphate (the active form) concentrated in the thymus and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Treating SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques with FNC (0.07 mg/kg, qd, orally) reduced viral load, recuperated the thymus, improved lymphocyte profiles, alleviated inflammation and organ damage, and lessened ground-glass opacities in chest X-ray. Single-cell sequencing suggested the promotion of thymus function by FNC. A randomized, single-arm clinical trial of FNC on compassionate use (n = 31) showed that oral FNC (5 mg, qd) cured all COVID-19 patients, with 100% viral ribonucleic acid negative conversion in 3.29 ± 2.22 days (range: 1-9 days) and 100% hospital discharge rate in 9.00 ± 4.93 days (range: 2-25 days). The side-effect of FNC is minor and transient dizziness and nausea in 16.12% (5/31) patients. Thus, FNC might cure COVID-19 through its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity concentrated in the thymus, followed by promoted immunity.

7.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6595-6604, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544310

ABSTRACT

As a kind of human betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 has endangered globally public health. As of January 2021, the virus had resulted in 2,209,195 deaths. By studying the evolution trend and characteristics of 265 SARS-CoV-2 strains in the United States from January to March, it is found that the strains can be divided into six clades, USA clade-1, USA clade-2, USA clade-3, USA clade-4, USA clade-5, and USA clade-6, in which US clade-1 may be the most ancestral clade, USA clade-2 is an interim clade of USA clade-1 and USA clade-3, the other three clades have similar codon usage pattern, while USA clade-6 is the newest and most adaptable clade. Mismatch analysis and protein alignment showed that the evolution of the clades arises from some special mutations in viral proteins, which may help the strain to invade, replicate, transcribe and so on. Compared with previous research and classifications, we suggest that clade O in GISAID should not be an independent clade and Wuhan-Hu-1 (EPI_ISL_402125) should not be an ancestral reference sequence. Our study decoded the evolutionary dynamic of SARS-CoV-2 in the early stage from the United States, which give some clues to infer the current evolution trend of SARS-CoV-2 and study the function of viral mutational protein.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , Principal Component Analysis , Sequence Alignment , United States/epidemiology
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6544-6550, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544302

ABSTRACT

We developed a rapid and simple magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay on the Real Express-6 analyzer, which could simultaneously detect immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 virus in human blood within 18 min, and which could be used to detect clinical studies to verify its clinical efficacy. We selected blood samples from 185 COVID-19 patients confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 271 negative patients to determine the clinical detection sensitivity, specificity, stability, and precision of this method. Meanwhile, we also surveyed the dynamic variance of viral antibodies during SARS-CoV-2 infection. This rapid immunoassay test has huge potential benefits for rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection and may help clinical drug and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Reactions/immunology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Luminescent Measurements , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
9.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(23)2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542711

ABSTRACT

Infectious respiratory diseases such as the current COVID-19 have caused public health crises and interfered with social activity. Given the complexity of these novel infectious diseases, their dynamic nature, along with rapid changes in social and occupational environments, technology, and means of interpersonal interaction, respiratory protective devices (RPDs) play a crucial role in controlling infection, particularly for viruses like SARS-CoV-2 that have a high transmission rate, strong viability, multiple infection routes and mechanisms, and emerging new variants that could reduce the efficacy of existing vaccines. Evidence of asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic transmissions further highlights the importance of a universal adoption of RPDs. RPDs have substantially improved over the past 100 years due to advances in technology, materials, and medical knowledge. However, several issues still need to be addressed such as engineering performance, comfort, testing standards, compliance monitoring, and regulations, especially considering the recent emergence of pathogens with novel transmission characteristics. In this review, we summarize existing knowledge and understanding on respiratory infectious diseases and their protection, discuss the emerging issues that influence the resulting protective and comfort performance of the RPDs, and provide insights in the identified knowledge gaps and future directions with diverse perspectives.

11.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 644899, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526792

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global emergency, affecting millions of individuals both physically and psychologically. The present research investigated the associations between social media exposure and depression during the COVID-19 outbreak by examining the mediating role of psychological distress and the moderating role of emotion regulation among members of the general public in China. Participants (N = 485) completed a set of questionnaires online, including demographic information, self-rated physical health, and social media exposure to topics related to COVID-19. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) were utilized to measure psychological distress about COVID-19, depression, and emotion regulation strategies, respectively. Results found that older age and greater levels of social media exposure were associated with more psychological distress about the virus (r = 0.14, p = 0.003; r = 0.22, p < 0.001). Results of the moderated mediation model suggest that psychological distress mediated the relationship between social media exposure and depression (ß = 0.10; Boot 95% CI = 0.07, 0.15). Furthermore, expressive suppression moderated the relationship between psychological distress and depression (ß = 0.10, p = 0.017). The findings are discussed in terms of the need for mental health assistance for individuals at high risk of depression, including the elderly and individuals who reported greater psychological distress and those who showed preference usage of suppression, during the COVID-19 crisis.

12.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 1990-2001, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526094

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccination in healthy individuals generates immune protection against COVID-19. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine-induced responses in immunosuppressed patients. We investigated induction of antigen-specific antibody, B cell and T cell responses longitudinally in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) on anti-CD20 antibody monotherapy (n = 20) compared with healthy controls (n = 10) after BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 mRNA vaccination. Treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (aCD20) significantly reduced spike-specific and receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibody and memory B cell responses in most patients, an effect ameliorated with longer duration from last aCD20 treatment and extent of B cell reconstitution. By contrast, all patients with MS treated with aCD20 generated antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses after vaccination. Treatment with aCD20 skewed responses, compromising circulating follicular helper T (TFH) cell responses and augmenting CD8 T cell induction, while preserving type 1 helper T (TH1) cell priming. Patients with MS treated with aCD20 lacking anti-RBD IgG had the most severe defect in circulating TFH responses and more robust CD8 T cell responses. These data define the nature of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune landscape in aCD20-treated patients and provide insights into coordinated mRNA vaccine-induced immune responses in humans. Our findings have implications for clinical decision-making and public health policy for immunosuppressed patients including those treated with aCD20.

13.
Cell Rep ; 37(4): 109882, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525720

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV), a nucleotide analog with broad-spectrum features, has exhibited effectiveness in COVID-19 treatment. However, the precise working mechanism of RDV when targeting the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) has not been fully elucidated. Here, we solve a 3.0-Å structure of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RdRP elongation complex (EC) and assess RDV intervention in polymerase elongation phase. Although RDV could induce an "i+3" delayed termination in meta-stable complexes, only pausing and subsequent elongation are observed in the EC. A comparative investigation using an enterovirus RdRP further confirms similar delayed intervention and demonstrates that steric hindrance of the RDV-characteristic 1'-cyano at the -4 position is responsible for the "i+3" intervention, although two representative Flaviviridae RdRPs do not exhibit similar behavior. A comparison of representative viral RdRP catalytic complex structures indicates that the product RNA backbone encounters highly conserved structural elements, highlighting the broad-spectrum intervention potential of 1'-modified nucleotide analogs in anti-RNA virus drug development.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteins/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/drug effects , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects
14.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1094-1100, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525569

ABSTRACT

Impact of pandemic on the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in non-COVID-19 patients is undetermined. Thus, a nationwide multicenter retrospective survey was conducted to evaluate the disease burden in non-COVID-19 population. This multi-center survey involved 94 hospitals from 24 provinces in the mainland of China, and collected data on non-COVID-19 patients admitted to the radiology departments due to VTE between January 24 and April 16, 2020. Baseline characteristics, VTE risk factors, clinical manifestations and the treatments were compared with those in the same period of 2019. 3,358 patients with VTE from 74 hospitals were included in this study (1,458 in 2020, 1,900 in 2019). Most aged ≥ 50 years (80.6% in the pandemic, 81.2% in 2019). The number of patients aged 30-39 years increased from 3.9% in 2019 period to 5.8% in the pandemic (p = 0.009). Among the VTE risk factors, the rate of decreased activity increased significantly in the pandemic, and was much higher than that in 2019 (30.7% vs 22.6%, p < 0.0001). Under the risk of decreased activity, patients with comorbidities chronic diseases, especially diabetes, showed significantly a higher incidence of VTE (30.4% vs 22.0%, p < 0.0001). In the pandemic period, fewer patients were treated with anticoagulation alone (33.5% vs 36.7%, p = 0.05), and more underwent inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) implantation, compared with those in 2019 (66.5% vs 63.2%, p = 0.046). The pandemic increased the VTE risk of decreased activity among the non-COVID-19 population. Patients with comorbidities, especially diabetes, have a significant higher risk of VTE during the pandemic.

15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517207

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The exact characteristics of a COVID-19 outbreak that trigger public health interventions are poorly defined. We aimed to assess the critical timing and extent of public health interventions to contain COVID-19 outbreaks in Australia. METHODS: We developed a practical model using existing epidemics data in Australia. We quantified the effective combinations of public health interventions and the critical number of daily cases for intervention commencement under various scenarios of changes in transmissibility of new variants and vaccination coverage. RESULTS: In the past COVID-19 outbreaks in four Australian states, the number of reported cases on the day that interventions commenced strongly predicted the size and duration of the outbreaks. In the early phase of an outbreak, containing a wildtype-dominant epidemic to a low level (≤10 cases/day) required effective combinations of social distancing and face mask use interventions to be commenced before the number of daily reported cases reaches 6 cases. Containing an Alpha-dominant epidemic would require more stringent interventions that commenced earlier. For Delta variant, public health interventions alone will not contain the epidemic unless with vaccination coverage of ≥70%. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of early and decisive action in the initial phase of an outbreak. Vaccination is essential for containing variants.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2814-e2817, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501023

ABSTRACT

Intrahost analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic sequences identified 2 viral haplotypes comprised of 3 genetically linked mutations from the respiratory and intestinal tracts of a patient with coronavirus disease 2019. Spatiotemporal data suggest that this patient initially had dual infection of 2 SARS-CoV-2 variants, which subsequently redistributed into the 2 systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genomics , Humans , Respiratory System
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5654, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440471

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for animal models to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Here, we generate and characterize a novel mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain, MASCp36, that causes severe respiratory symptoms, and mortality. Our model exhibits age- and gender-related mortality akin to severe COVID-19. Deep sequencing identified three amino acid substitutions, N501Y, Q493H, and K417N, at the receptor binding domain (RBD) of MASCp36, during in vivo passaging. All three RBD mutations significantly enhance binding affinity to its endogenous receptor, ACE2. Cryo-electron microscopy analysis of human ACE2 (hACE2), or mouse ACE2 (mACE2), in complex with the RBD of MASCp36, at 3.1 to 3.7 Å resolution, reveals the molecular basis for the receptor-binding switch. N501Y and Q493H enhance the binding affinity to hACE2, whereas triple mutations at N501Y/Q493H/K417N decrease affinity and reduce infectivity of MASCp36. Our study provides a platform for studying SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, and unveils the molecular mechanism for its rapid adaptation and evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Domains/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429185
19.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 1990-2001, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410406

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccination in healthy individuals generates immune protection against COVID-19. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine-induced responses in immunosuppressed patients. We investigated induction of antigen-specific antibody, B cell and T cell responses longitudinally in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) on anti-CD20 antibody monotherapy (n = 20) compared with healthy controls (n = 10) after BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 mRNA vaccination. Treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (aCD20) significantly reduced spike-specific and receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibody and memory B cell responses in most patients, an effect ameliorated with longer duration from last aCD20 treatment and extent of B cell reconstitution. By contrast, all patients with MS treated with aCD20 generated antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses after vaccination. Treatment with aCD20 skewed responses, compromising circulating follicular helper T (TFH) cell responses and augmenting CD8 T cell induction, while preserving type 1 helper T (TH1) cell priming. Patients with MS treated with aCD20 lacking anti-RBD IgG had the most severe defect in circulating TFH responses and more robust CD8 T cell responses. These data define the nature of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune landscape in aCD20-treated patients and provide insights into coordinated mRNA vaccine-induced immune responses in humans. Our findings have implications for clinical decision-making and public health policy for immunosuppressed patients including those treated with aCD20.

20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 743, 2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine an optimized treatment protocol during the COVID-19 epidemic for patients with closed fracture and delayed surgery. METHODS: The epidemic data of three hospitals, randomly selected from different administrative regions of Wuhan, were analyzed retrospectively from 23 January to 31 March 2020. Changes in the number of confirmed cases per day (cumulative and new) of each region were tracked as a reflection of changing epidemic risk levels. The risk level map was drawn. The epidemic status, treatment protocols, and treatment efficiencies for patients with closed fracture in the three hospitals were compared. RESULTS: Overall, 138 patients with closed fracture were admitted. Each hospital had established its own protocol, according to the initial perceived risk. Based on the risk level map, over the study period, the risk levels of the three regions changed independently and were not in sync. All patients recovered and were timely discharged. No staff member was detected with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 risk level of each area is dynamic. To optimize medical resources, avoid cross-infection, and improve efficiency, changes in epidemic risk should be monitored. For patients with closed fracture, treatment protocols should be adjusted according to changes in epidemic risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fractures, Closed , China , Clinical Protocols , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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