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1.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 845269, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883926

ABSTRACT

The human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is one of the most common causes of common cold but can lead to fatal pneumonia in children and elderly. However, the available animal models of HCoV-OC43 did not show respiratory symptoms that are insufficient to assist in screening antiviral agents for respiratory diseases. In this study, we adapted the HCoV-OC43 VR-1558 strain by serial passage in suckling C57BL/6 mice and the resulting mouse-adapted virus at passage 9 (P9) contained 8 coding mutations in polyprotein 1ab, spike (S) protein, and nucleocapsid (N) protein. Pups infected with the P9 virus significantly lost body weight and died within 5 dpi. In cerebral and pulmonary tissues, the P9 virus replication induced the production of G-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-6, CXCL1, MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES, IP-10, MIP-1ß, and TNF-α, as well as pathological alterations including reduction of neuronal cells and typical symptoms of viral pneumonia. We found that the treatment of arbidol hydrochloride (ARB) or Qingwenjiere Mixture (QJM) efficiently improved the symptoms and decreased n gene expression, inflammatory response, and pathological changes. Furthermore, treating with QJM or ARB raised the P9-infected mice's survival rate within a 15 day observation period. These findings suggested that the new mouse-adapted HCoV-OC43 model is applicable and reproducible for antiviral studies of HCoV-OC43.

2.
Antiviral Res ; 203: 105345, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850639

ABSTRACT

In addition to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2 has become the third deadly coronavirus that infects humans and causes the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 has already caused more than six million deaths worldwide and it is likely the biggest pandemic of this century faced by mankind. Although many studies on SARS-CoV-2 have been conducted, a detailed understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 is still lacking. Animal models are indispensable for studying its pathogenesis and developing vaccines and antivirals. In this review, we analyze animal models of coronavirus infections and explore their applications on antivirals and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3032-3042, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739191

ABSTRACT

Numerous viral pneumonia cases have been reported in Wuhan, Hubei in December 2019. The pathogen has been identified as a novel coronavirus, which was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The biological characteristics and pathogenesis mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 are unclear and under progress. At present, no specific preventive and therapeutic drugs are available. Animal models can reproduce the viral replication cycle and the significant functions of respiratory coronavirus infection and are urgently needed to evaluate the efficacy of drugs and vaccines, the transmission route of respiratory coronavirus, clinical features, and so on. We reviewed the current animal models of respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) infection and made a comparative analysis of the route of inoculation, virus replication, clinical signs, histopathology, application, advantages, and disadvantages. Animal models of respiratory coronavirus include susceptible animal models, genetically modified models, and various animal models of infected virus adaptation strains, such as nonhuman primates, mice, hamsters, ferrets, New Zealand rabbits, cats, and other animal models, all of which have distinct advantages and limitations. This review will provide relevant information and important insights for disease management and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets , Humans , Mice , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Pharmacol Res ; 172: 105820, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531713

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enter the host cells through the interaction between its receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on the plasma membrane of host cell. Neutralizing antibodies and peptide binders of RBD can block viral infection, however, the concern of accessibility and affordability of viral infection inhibitors has been raised. Here, we report the identification of natural compounds as potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors using the molecular docking-based virtual screening coupled with bilayer interferometry (BLI). From a library of 1871 natural compounds, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (RRg3), 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (SRg3), isobavachalcone (Ibvc), isochlorogenic A (IscA) and bakuchiol (Bkc) effectively inhibited pseudovirus entry at concentrations up to 100 µM. Among these compounds, four compounds, EGCG, Ibvc, salvianolic acid A (SalA), and isoliensinine (Isl), were effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effect and plaque formation in Vero E6 cells. The EGCG was further validated with no observable animal toxicity and certain antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus mutants (D614G, N501Y, N439K & Y453F). Interestingly, EGCG, Bkc and Ibvc bind to ACE2 receptor in BLI assay, suggesting a dual binding to RBD and ACE2. Current findings shed some insight into identifications and validations of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors from natural compounds.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding, Competitive , Biological Products/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Chalcones/pharmacology , Chlorogenic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Chlorogenic Acid/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Humans , Interferometry , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phenols/pharmacology , Protein Binding
5.
Pharmacological Research ; : 105820, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1356396

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enter the host cells through the interaction between its receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on the plasma membrane of host cell. Neutralizing antibodies and peptide binders of RBD can block viral infection, however, the concern of accessibility and affordability of viral infection inhibitors has been raised. Here, we report the identification of natural compounds as potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors using the molecular docking-based virtual screening coupled with bilayer interferometry (BLI). From a library of 1871 natural compounds, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (RRg3), 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (SRg3), isobavachalcone (Ibvc), isochlorogenic A (IscA) and bakuchiol (Bkc) effectively inhibited pseudovirus entry at concentrations up to 100μM. Among these compounds, four compounds, EGCG, Ibvc, salvianolic acid A (SalA), and isoliensinine (Isl), were effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effect and plaque formation in Vero E6 cells. The EGCG was further validated with no observable animal toxicity and certain antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus mutants (D614G, N501Y, N439K & Y453F). Interestingly, EGCG, Bkc and Ibvc bind to ACE2 receptor in BLI assay, suggesting a dual binding to RBD and ACE2. Current findings shed some insight into identifications and validations of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors from natural compounds.

6.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104850, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318927

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide through person-to-person contact, causing a public health emergency of international concern. At present, there is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Liu Shen capsule (LS), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been proven to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. However, little is known about the antiviral effect of LS against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, the study was designed to investigate the antiviral activity of SARS-CoV-2 and its potential effect in regulating the host's immune response. The inhibitory effect of LS against SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells was evaluated by using the cytopathic effect (CPE) and plaque reduction assay. The number of virions of SARS-CoV-2 was observed under transmission electron microscope after treatment with LS. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results showed that LS could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells, and reduce the number of virus particles and it could markedly reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels. Moreover, the expression of the key proteins in the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway was detected by western blot and it was found that LS could inhibit the expression of p-NF-κB p65, p-IκBα and p-p38 MAPK, while increasing the expression of IκBα. These findings indicate that LS could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus infection via downregulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines induced virus and regulating the activity of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway in vitro, making its promising candidate treatment for controlling COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Complex Mixtures/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virion/drug effects
7.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153296, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extensively and rapidly spread in the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines can be used. Phillyrin (KD-1), a representative ingredient of Forsythia suspensa, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antiviral activities. However, little is known about the antiviral abilities and mechanism of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). PURPOSE: The study was designed to investigate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of KD-1 against the novel SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E and its potential effect in regulating host immune response in vitro. METHODS: The antiviral activities of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E were assessed in Vero E6 cells using cytopathic effect and plaque-reduction assay. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-NF-κB p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα in Huh-7 cells, which are the key targets of the NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E replication in vitro. KD-1 could also markedly reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, MCP-1, and IP-10) at the mRNA levels. Moreover, KD-1 could significantly reduce the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and p-IκBα, while increasing the expression of IκBα in Huh-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit virus proliferation in vitro, the up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the activity of the NF-кB signaling pathway. Our findings indicated that KD-1 protected against virus attack and can thus be used as a novel strategy for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections , Glucosides/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Forsythia/chemistry , Humans , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
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