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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992159

ABSTRACT

Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are reduced in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). We report that increased levels of pre-existing antibodies to seasonal coronaviruses are associated with decreased antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in SOTRs, supporting that antigenic imprinting modulates vaccine responses in this immunosuppressed population.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337180

ABSTRACT

Background: Position transition training for general practitioners in Zhejiang Province started in 2017 and has since been held once a year. By the beginning of 2022, four training sessions were completed. The purpose of this survey was to establish the current situation of trainees after their graduation and provide reference for the evaluation of the training effect. Methods: : Of the 738 trainees who completed the training, 253 were contacted and followed up. A self-designed questionnaire was used to conduct the survey through online filling in. The content included questions to elucidate the following information: whereabouts after the training, registration as a general practitioner, undertaken general practice teaching and scientific research work, current occupational environment, improvement of post competence after receiving position transition training, willingness to complete survey, willingness to participate in future training programs, etc. Results: : A number of 253 valid questionnaires were collected with a recovery rate of 100%. Notably, 93.68% of the participants successfully completed their training and obtained the Training Certificate of General Practitioners. Further, 83.4% were registered as general practitioners, 82.94% of which added on the basis of the original registered scope of practice. Currently, most of them work in primary health care institutions, primarily occupied with medical treatment, chronic disease management, COVID-19 prevention and control, health education, and prevention and health care. Of them, 27.01% were currently undertaking teaching work, and only 3.32% of them were conducting scientific research work related to general practice. The overall satisfaction of the trainees in the three theoretical training bases was above 90%, with no statistically significant difference among them ( P > 0.05). Importantly, 84.11% of the followed-up personnel hoped to continue to participate in similar training in the future to improve their general practitioner core competences. Conclusion: The position transition training in Zhejiang Province has achieved good results, but the details of training and the implementation of policies in individual regions need to be improved. Most of the graduates were willing to continue their education, especially in general practitioners with special interests.

3.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(4):17-22, 2020.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812956

ABSTRACT

During the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), the local Centers for Disease Control were bombarded with large amounts of questions from the public and the human hotline system was unable to meet the demands. As a result, Jinan Centers for Disease Coatrd developed an "intelligent question answering robot system" to cope with this situation. This paper introduces the design of the robot system and construction and classification of the knowledge base, and evaluates its application effects. The robot system can greatly reduce pressure on the human hotline, actively record and analyze users' demands, and improve the quality and efficiency of Centers for Disease Coatrd consultation service. It is a valuable and growable operating mode of consultation service, which can provide reference for the information service in future public health events.

4.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 1389-1401, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748094

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA betacoronavirus with a high mutation rate. The rapidly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants could increase transmissibility and diminish vaccine protection. However, whether coinfection with multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants exists remains controversial. This study collected 12,986 and 4,113 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the GISAID database on May 11, 2020 (GISAID20May11), and Apr 1, 2021 (GISAID21Apr1), respectively. With single-nucleotide variant (SNV) and network clique analyses, we constructed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) coexistence networks and discovered maximal SNP cliques of sizes 16 and 34 in the GISAID20May11 and GISAID21Apr1 datasets, respectively. Simulating the transmission routes and SNV accumulations, we discovered a linear relationship between the size of the maximal clique and the number of coinfected variants. We deduced that the COVID-19 cases in GISAID20May11 and GISAID21Apr1 were coinfections with 3.20 and 3.42 variants on average, respectively. Additionally, we performed Nanopore sequencing on 42 COVID-19 patients and discovered recurrent heterozygous SNPs in twenty of the patients, including loci 8,782 and 28,144, which were crucial for SARS-CoV-2 lineage divergence. In conclusion, our findings reported SARS-CoV-2 variants coinfection in COVID-19 patients and demonstrated the increasing number of coinfected variants.

6.
Journal of Building Engineering ; : 103533, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1487855

ABSTRACT

Practices such as improved ventilation and air filtration are being considered by schools to reduce the transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 that causes the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Improved ventilation may significantly increase the energy cost of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), exacerbating financial challenges schools face amidst the worst pandemic in decades. This study evaluated HVAC energy costs for reducing COVID-19 airborne infection risks in 111,485 public and private schools in the U.S. to support decision-making. The average annual HVAC energy cost to maintain the infection risk below 1% for the schools in the U.S. is estimated at $20.1 per square meter or $308.4 per capita with improved ventilation and air filtration, where the private schools have higher costs than the public schools on average. The cost could be reduced by adopting partial online learning. It is also found that additional cost to control infection risk with increased ventilation and air filtration is significantly lower for PK-5 schools than that for middle and high schools in all states, indicating the possibility of remaining in-person instruction for PK-5 schools with necessary governmental assistance. Analyses of school HVAC energy cost to reduce airborne infection risk under different intervention scenarios provide important operational guidelines, financial implications, and policy insights for schools, community stakeholders, and policymakers to keep schools safe during the ongoing pandemic and improve preparedness for epidemics projected in the future.

7.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 6647-6659, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470715

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current COVID-19 pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a quickly developing global health crisis, yet the mechanisms of pathogenesis in COVID-19 are not fully understood. METHODS: The RNA sequencing data of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (DElncRNAs), and microRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified by edgeR, and the SARS-CoV-2-associated competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network was constructed based on the prediction of bioinformatic databases. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were conducted with the SARS-CoV-2-related DEmRNAs, and the protein-protein interaction network was also built basing on STRING database. The ROC analysis was performed for assessing the diagnostic efficiency of hub genes. RESULTS: The results indicated that SARS-CoV-2-related DEmRNAs were associated with the interferon signaling pathway and other antiviral processes, such as IFNL3, IFNL1 and CH25H. Our analysis suggested that lncRNA NEAT1 might regulate the host immune response through two miRNAs, hsa-miR-374-5p and hsa-miR-155-5p, which control the expression of SOCS1, IL6, IL1B, CSF1R, CD274, TLR6, and TNF. Additionally, IFI6, HRASLS2, IGFBP4 and PTN may be potential targets based on an analysis comparing the transcriptional responses of SARS-CoV-2 infection with that of other respiratory viruses. DISCUSSION: The unique ceRNA network identified potential non-coding RNAs and their possible targets as well as a new perspective to understand the molecular mechanisms of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2. This study may also aid in the development of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

8.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 74: 103188, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406340

ABSTRACT

The potential airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has triggered concerns as schools continue to reopen and resume in-person instruction during the current COVID-19 pandemic. It is critical to understand the risks of airborne SARS-CoV-2 transmission under different epidemiological scenarios and operation strategies for schools to make informed decisions to mitigate infection risk. Through scenario-based analysis, this study estimates the airborne infection risk of SARS-CoV-2 in 111,485 U.S. public and private schools and evaluates the impacts of different intervention strategies, including increased ventilation, air filtration, and hybrid learning. Schools in more than 90% of counties exhibit infection risk of higher than 1%, indicating the significance of implementing intervention strategies. Among the considered strategies, air filtration is found to be most effective: the school average infection risk when applying MERV 13 is over 30% less than the risk levels correlating with the use of increased ventilation and hybrid learning strategies, respectively. For most schools, it is necessary to adopt combined intervention strategies to ensure the infection risk below 1%. The results provide insights into airborne infection risk in schools under various scenarios and may guide schools and policymakers in developing effective operations strategies to maintain environmental health.

9.
IET Cyber-Systems and Robotics ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1152902

ABSTRACT

Abstract The exponential spread of COVID-19 worldwide is evident, with devastating outbreaks primarily in the United States, Spain, Italy, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Turkey and Russia. As of 1 May 2020, a total of 3,308,386 confirmed cases have been reported worldwide, with an accumulative mortality of 233,093. Due to the complexity and uncertainty of the pathology of COVID-19, it is not easy for front-line doctors to categorise severity levels of clinical COVID-19 that are general and severe/critical cases, with consistency. The more than 300 laboratory features, coupled with underlying disease, all combine to complicate proper and rapid patient diagnosis. However, such screening is necessary for early triage, diagnosis, assignment of appropriate level of care facility, and institution of timely intervention. A machine learning analysis was carried out with confirmed COVID-19 patient data from 10 January to 18 February 2020, who were admitted to Tongji Hospital, in Wuhan, China. A softmax neural network-based machine learning model was established to categorise patient severity levels. According to the analysis of 2662 cases using clinical and laboratory data, the present model can be used to reveal the top 30 of more than 300 laboratory features, yielding 86.30% blind test accuracy, 0.8195 F1-score, and 100% consistency using a two-way patient classification of severe/critical to general. For severe/critical cases, F1-score is 0.9081 (i.e. recall is 0.9050, and precision is 0.9113). This model for classification can be accomplished at a mini-second-level computational cost (in contrast to minute-level manual). Based on available COVID-19 patient diagnosis and therapy, an artificial intelligence model paradigm can help doctors quickly classify patients with a high degree of accuracy and 100% consistency to significantly improve diagnostic and classification efficiency. The discovered top 30 laboratory features can be used for greater differentiation to serve as an essential supplement to current guidelines, thus creating a more comprehensive assessment of COVID-19 cases during the early stages of infection. Such early differentiation will help the assignment of the appropriate level of care for individual patients.

10.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 38, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors including obesity and smoking are suggested to be correlated with increased risk of COVID-19 severe illness or related death. However, whether these relationships are causal is not well known; neither for the relationships between COVID-19 severe illness and other common lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and alcohol consumption. METHODS: Genome-wide significant genetic variants associated with body mass index (BMI), lifetime smoking, physical activity and alcohol consumption identified by large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of up to 941,280 individuals were selected as instrumental variables. Summary statistics of the genetic variants on severe illness of COVID-19 were obtained from GWAS analyses of up to 6492 cases and 1,012,809 controls. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Both per-standard deviation (SD) increase in genetically predicted BMI and lifetime smoking were associated with about two-fold increased risks of severe respiratory COVID-19 and COVID-19 hospitalization (all P < 0.05). Per-SD increase in genetically predicted physical activity was associated with decreased risks of severe respiratory COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05, 0.74; P = 0.02), but not with COVID-19 hospitalization (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.18, 1.07; P = 0.07). No evidence of association was found for genetically predicted alcohol consumption. Similar results were found across robust Mendelian randomisation methods. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence is found that BMI and smoking causally increase and physical activity might causally decrease the risk of COVID-19 severe illness. This study highlights the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle in protecting from COVID-19 severe illness and its public health value in fighting against COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Life Style , Mendelian Randomization Analysis/methods , Alcohol Drinking , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Exercise , Genetic Variation , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Linkage Disequilibrium , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking
11.
Front Environ Sci Eng ; 15(4): 65, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910243

ABSTRACT

Built environments, occupants, and microbiomes constitute a system of ecosystems with extensive interactions that impact one another. Understanding the interactions between these systems is essential to develop strategies for effective management of the built environment and its inhabitants to enhance public health and well-being. Numerous studies have been conducted to characterize the microbiomes of the built environment. This review summarizes current progress in understanding the interactions between attributes of built environments and occupant behaviors that shape the structure and dynamics of indoor microbial communities. In addition, this review also discusses the challenges and future research needs in the field of microbiomes of the built environment that necessitate research beyond the basic characterization of microbiomes in order to gain an understanding of the causal mechanisms between the built environment, occupants, and microbiomes, which will provide a knowledge base for the development of transformative intervention strategies toward healthy built environments. The pressing need to control the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in indoor environments highlights the urgency and significance of understanding the complex interactions between the built environment, occupants, and microbiomes, which is the focus of this review.

12.
Build Environ ; 187: 107394, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898532

ABSTRACT

Microbial pathogen transmission within built environments is a main public health concern. The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) adds to the urgency of developing effective means to reduce pathogen transmission in mass-gathering public buildings such as schools, hospitals, and airports. To inform occupants and guide facility managers to prevent and respond to infectious disease outbreaks, this study proposed a framework to assess room-level outbreak risks in buildings by modeling built environment characteristics, occupancy information, and pathogen transmission. Building information modeling (BIM) is exploited to automatically retrieve building parameters and possible occupant interactions that are relevant to pathogen transmission. The extracted information is fed into an environment pathogen transmission model to derive the basic reproduction numbers for different pathogens, which serve as proxies of outbreak potentials in rooms. A web-based system is developed to provide timely information regarding outbreak risks to occupants and facility managers. The efficacy of the proposed method was demonstrated by a case study, in which building characteristics, occupancy schedules, pathogen parameters, as well as hygiene and cleaning practices are considered for outbreak risk assessment. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by computationally integrating building, occupant, and pathogen information modeling for infectious disease outbreak assessment, and communicating actionable information for built environment management.

14.
Build Environ ; 184: 107226, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733924

ABSTRACT

Mass-gathering built environments such as hospitals, schools, and airports can become hot spots for pathogen transmission and exposure. Disinfection is critical for reducing infection risks and preventing outbreaks of infectious diseases. However, cleaning and disinfection are labor-intensive, time-consuming, and health-undermining, particularly during the pandemic of the coronavirus disease in 2019. To address the challenge, a novel framework is proposed in this study to enable robotic disinfection in built environments to reduce pathogen transmission and exposure. First, a simultaneous localization and mapping technique is exploited for robot navigation in built environments. Second, a deep-learning method is developed to segment and map areas of potential contamination in three dimensions based on the object affordance concept. Third, with short-wavelength ultraviolet light, the trajectories of robotic disinfection are generated to adapt to the geometries of areas of potential contamination to ensure complete and safe disinfection. Both simulations and physical experiments were conducted to validate the proposed methods, which demonstrated the feasibility of intelligent robotic disinfection and highlighted the applicability in mass-gathering built environments.

15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 491, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732886

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel pneumonia (COVID-19) spread rapidly throughout worldwide, in December, 2019. Most of the deaths have occurred in severe and critical cases, but information on prognostic risk factors for severely ill patients is incomplete. Further research is urgently needed to guide clinicians, and we therefore prospectively evaluate the clinical outcomes of 114 severely ill patients with COVID-19 for short-term at the Union Hospital in Wuhan, China. Methods: In this single-centered, prospective, and observational study, we enrolled 114 severely ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 from Jan 23, 2020, to February 22, 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were recorded, and the risk factors for poor outcome were analyzed. Results: Among the 114 enrolled patients with a mean age of 63.96 ± 13.41 years, 94 (82.5%) patients were classified as a good outcome group. Common clinical manifestations included fever, cough, and fatigue. Compared with the good outcome group, 20 (17.5%) patients in the poor outcome group more frequently exhibited lymphopenia, and lower levels of albumin, partial arterial oxygen pressure, higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hypersensitive troponin I, C-reactive protein, ferritin, blood urea nitrogen, and D-dimer, as well as markedly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10. Absolute numbers of T lymphocytes, CD8 + T cells, decreased in almost all the patients and were markedly lower in the poor outcome group than the good outcome group. We also found that traditional Chinese medicine can significantly improve the patient's condition, which is conducive to the transformation from a severe to mild condition. In addition, univariate and multivariate Cox analyses of potential factors for poor outcome patients indicated that cytokine storms and uncontrolled inflammation responses as well as liver, kidney, and cardiac dysfunction are related to the development of a poor outcome. Conclusion: In summary, we reported this single-centered, prospective, and observational study for short-term outcome in severe patients with COVID-19. We found that cytokine storms and uncontrolled inflammation responses as well as liver, kidney, and cardiac dysfunction may play important roles in the final outcome of severely ill patients with COVID-19. Our study will allow clinicians to benefit and rapidly estimate the likelihood of a short-term poor outcome for severely ill patients.

16.
Acta Veterinaria Zootechnica Sinica ; 7(51): 1597-1606, 20200701.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-701915

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2),its pathophysiological functions,especially as functional receptors for coronaviruses such as SARS and COVID-19,have shown great potential.To clarify the gene sequence and structure of different species can provide a basis for the study of the mechanism of coronavirus infection. In this experiment,RT-PCR and Western blot were firstly used to detect the presence of ACE2 in different tissues of China Sheldrake duck.Then the homologous cloning and PCR technology were used to amplify the complete ORF sequence of the China Sheldrake duck ACE2 gene,and then TA cloned into pMD-19T.The vector was sequenced,and the obtained sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics. The expression of ACE2 gene and protein in heart,liver,lung,kidney and other tissues was confirmed.Gene cloning results showed that the full-length CDS sequence of the China Sheldrake duck ACE2 gene was 2 435 bp,encoding 805 amino acid residues,and its nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence homology with human ACE2 were 66.2% and 66.4%,respectively,and on different branches of the evolutionary tree.Analysis of the 18 key amino acid residues related to the binding of the SARS virus S protein in humans found that except for the 330th and 353th amino acids, the rest were different from humans. Structural analysis revealed that the duck ACE2 was a type I transmembrane protein with multiple N-glycosylation sites.The study obtained the complete ORF sequence and related basic data of the ACE2 gene of China Sheldrake duck for the first time. The obtained sequence had been uploaded to GenBank and successfully included.The results provided a theoretical basis for the functional study of ACE2 on ducks.

17.
J Pediatr ; 224: 30-36, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical and laboratory features of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2003 (SARS) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2 Chinese pediatric cohorts, given that the causative pathogens and are biologically similar. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study reviewing pediatric patients with SARS (n = 43) and COVID-19 (n = 244) who were admitted to the Princess Margaret Hospital in Hong Kong and Wuhan Children's Hospital in Wuhan, respectively. Demographics, hospital length of stay, and clinical and laboratory features were compared. RESULTS: Overall, 97.7% of patients with SARS and 85.2% of patients with COVID-19 had epidemiologic associations with known cases. Significantly more patients with SARS developed fever, chills, myalgia, malaise, coryza, sore throat, sputum production, nausea, headache, and dizziness than patients with COVID-19. No patients with SARS were asymptomatic at the time of admission, whereas 29.1% and 20.9% of patients with COVID-19 were asymptomatic on admission and throughout their hospital stay, respectively. More patients with SARS required oxygen supplementation than patients with COVID-19 (18.6 vs 4.7%; P = .004). Only 1.6% of patients with COVID-19 and 2.3% of patients with SARS required mechanical ventilation. Leukopenia (37.2% vs 18.6%; P = .008), lymphopenia (95.4% vs 32.6%; P < .01), and thrombocytopenia (41.9% vs 3.8%; P < .001) were significantly more common in patients with SARS than in patients with COVID-19. The duration between positive and negative nasopharyngeal aspirate and the length in hospital stay were similar in patients with COVID-19, regardless of whether they were asymptomatic or symptomatic, suggesting a similar duration of viral shedding. CONCLUSIONS: Children with COVID-19 were less symptomatic and had more favorable hematologic findings than children with SARS.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis
18.
Data Brief ; 31: 105953, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656394

ABSTRACT

Haematological and immunological data of children with COVID-19 infection is lacking. Between 21st January and 20th March 2020, 244 children who were confirmed to have COVID-19 infection and admitted to the Wuhan Children's Hospital, China were retrospectively reviewed. 193 children were considered as symptomatic, which was defined as having either the presence of clinical symptoms or the presence of CT thorax abnormalities. Their haematological and immunological profiles, including complete blood counts, lymphocyte subsets (T, B and NK cell counts), immunoglobulin (Ig) profiles (IgG, IgA and IgM) and cytokine profiles were analysed and compared between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. The median values and the interquartile ranges were calculated. Comparison was made using the Mann-Whitney U test. Children with symptomatic COVID-19 infection had significantly lower haemoglobin levels, but higher absolute lymphocyte and monocyte counts, IgG and IgA levels, as well as interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma levels. The obtained data will be utilized for further studies in comparing children and adults with COVID-19 infections in other parts of the world and with different severity .

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