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Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 403-407, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245306


This article reviews the correlation between ACE2 and COVID-19 and the resulting acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The classical ACE-angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang II)-angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis and the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas counter-regulatory axis play an essential role in RAS system. ACE2 antagonises the activation of the classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis and protects against lung injury. Similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) also uses ACE2 for cell entry. ARDS is a clinical high-mortality disease which is probably due to the excessive activation of RAS caused by 2019-nCoV infection, and ACE2 has a protective effect on ARDS caused by COVID-19. Because of these protective effects of ACE2 on ARDS, the development of drugs enhancing ACE2 activity may become one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 in the near future. In the meantime, however, the use of RAS blockers such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers that inhibit the damaging (ACE-Ang II) arm of the RAS cascade in the lung may also be promising. Trial registration number: NCT04287686.

Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
Life (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023873


BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) is a sensitive diagnostic imaging modality in oncology and could be a useful diagnostic tool in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) or with inflammation of unknown origin (IUO). CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a patient originally presenting with a clinical history of FUO and later with persistent high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, even after antibiotic therapy. The patient underwent 2-[18F]FDG PET/CT to investigate and to localize a possible focus of infection or inflammation. 2-[18F]FDG hotspots were detected in both thyroid lobes. Thyroid diagnostic examinations and follow up were performed. Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) was then diagnosed by thyroid examinations, and other possible causes of FUO or IUO were not found. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the potential diagnostic value of 2-[18F]FDG PET/CT in patients with atypical SAT, who originally present with only a clinical history of FUO.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(6): 1021-1026, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718753


Since December 2019, the infection of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) caused an outbreak of new coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China, and caused great public concern. Both COVID-19 and SARS-CoV belong to the coronavirus family and both invade target cells through ACE2. An in-depth understanding of ACE2 and a series of physiological and physiological changes caused by the virus invading the human body may help to discover and explain the corresponding clinical phenomena and then deal with them timely. In addition, ACE2 is a potential therapeutic target. This article will summarize the role of ACE2 in multiple organ damage caused by COVID-19 and SARS-CoV, targeted blocking drugs against ACE2, and drugs that inhibit inflammation in order to provide the basis for subsequent related research, diagnosis and treatment, and drug development.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy