Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 4 de 4
Filter
1.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(650): eabn7737, 2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807308

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant contains an unusually high number of mutations in the spike protein, raising concerns of escape from vaccines, convalescent serum, and therapeutic drugs. Here, we analyzed the degree to which Omicron pseudo-virus evades neutralization by serum or therapeutic antibodies. Serum samples obtained 3 months after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination exhibited 18-fold lower neutralization titers against Omicron than parental virus. Convalescent serum samples from individuals infected with the Alpha and Delta variants allowed similar frequencies of Omicron breakthrough infections. Domain-wise analysis using chimeric spike proteins revealed that this efficient evasion was primarily achieved by mutations clustered in the receptor binding domain but that multiple mutations in the N-terminal domain contributed as well. Omicron escaped a therapeutic cocktail of imdevimab and casirivimab, whereas sotrovimab, which targets a conserved region to avoid viral mutation, remains effective. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) decoys are another virus-neutralizing drug modality that are free, at least in theory, from complete escape. Deep mutational analysis demonstrated that an engineered ACE2 molecule prevented escape for each single-residue mutation in the receptor binding domain, similar to immunized serum. Engineered ACE2 neutralized Omicron comparably to the Wuhan strain and also showed a therapeutic effect against Omicron infection in hamsters and human ACE2 transgenic mice. Similar to previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, some sarbecoviruses showed high sensitivity against engineered ACE2, confirming the therapeutic value against diverse variants, including those that are yet to emerge.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294121

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infection is often observed for the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, and neutralizing antibody levels are associated with vaccine efficiency 1 . Recent studies revealed that not only anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies 2 but also antibodies against the N-terminal domain (NTD) play important roles in positively 3,4 or negatively 4-8 controlling SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Here, we found that the Delta variant completely escaped from anti-NTD neutralizing antibodies, while increasing responsiveness to anti-NTD infectivity-enhancing antibodies. Cryo-EM analysis of the Delta spike revealed that epitopes for anti-NTD neutralizing antibodies are structurally divergent, whereas epitopes for enhancing antibodies are well conserved with wild-type spike protein. Although Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2-immune sera neutralized the original Delta variant, when major anti-RBD neutralizing antibody epitopes remaining in the Delta variant were disrupted, some BNT162b2-immune sera not only lost neutralizing activity but became infection-enhanced. The enhanced infectivity disappeared when the Delta NTD was substituted with the wild-type NTD. Sera of mice immunized by Delta spike, but not wild-type spike, consistently neutralized the Delta variant lacking anti-RBD antibody epitopes without enhancing infectivity. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 variants with similar mutations in the RBD have already emerged according to the GISAID database and their pseudoviruses were resistant to some BNT162b2-immune sera. These findings demonstrate that mutations in the NTD, as well as the RBD, play an important role in antibody escape by SARS-CoV-2. Development of effective vaccines against emerging variants will be necessary, not only to protect against infection, but also to prevent further mutation of SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 2112, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389205

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 S protein is a major point of interaction between the virus and the human immune system. As a consequence, the S protein is not a static target but undergoes rapid molecular evolution. In order to more fully understand the selection pressure during evolution, we examined residue positions in the S protein that vary greatly across closely related viruses but are conserved in the subset of viruses that infect humans. These "evolutionarily important" residues were not distributed evenly across the S protein but were concentrated in two domains: the N-terminal domain and the receptor-binding domain, both of which play a role in host cell binding in a number of related viruses. In addition to being localized in these two domains, evolutionary importance correlated with structural flexibility and inversely correlated with distance from known or predicted host receptor-binding residues. Finally, we observed a bias in the composition of the amino acids that make up such residues toward more human-like, rather than virus-like, sequence motifs.

4.
Cell ; 184(13): 3452-3466.e18, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240207

ABSTRACT

Antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the effects of antibodies against other spike protein domains are largely unknown. Here, we screened a series of anti-spike monoclonal antibodies from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and found that some of antibodies against the N-terminal domain (NTD) induced the open conformation of RBD and thus enhanced the binding capacity of the spike protein to ACE2 and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2. Mutational analysis revealed that all of the infectivity-enhancing antibodies recognized a specific site on the NTD. Structural analysis demonstrated that all infectivity-enhancing antibodies bound to NTD in a similar manner. The antibodies against this infectivity-enhancing site were detected at high levels in severe patients. Moreover, we identified antibodies against the infectivity-enhancing site in uninfected donors, albeit at a lower frequency. These findings demonstrate that not only neutralizing antibodies but also enhancing antibodies are produced during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL