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2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322749

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in China at the end of 2019, the world has experienced a large-scale epidemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2. Epidemiological and clinical course of COVID-19 patients have been reported, but there have been few analyses about the characteristics, predictive risk factors and outcomes of critical patients. In this single-center retrospective case-control study, 90 adult inpatients hospitalized at Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China) were included. Demographic, clinical, laboratory test and treatment data were obtained and compared between critical and non-critical patients. We found that c ompared with non-critical patients, the critical patients had higher SOFA score and qSOFA scores. Critical patients had lower lymphocyte and platelet count, elevated D-dimer, decreased fibrinogen, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6(IL-6). More critical patients received treatment including antibiotics, anticoagulation, corticosteroid and oxygen therapy than non-critical ones. Multivariable regression showed higher qSOFA score and elevation of IL-6 were related to critical patients. Antibiotic usage and anticoagulation were associated with decreased in-hospital mortality. And critical grouping contributed greatly to in-hospital death. Critical COVID-19 patients have a more severe clinical cours. qSOFA score and elevation of IL-6 are risk factors for critical condition. Non-critical grouping, positive antibiotic application and anticoagulation may be beneficial for patient survival.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307723

ABSTRACT

Background: The effective treatment of COVID-19 remains unclear. We reported successful use of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in cases of severe COVID-19, but evidence for such treatment is still lacking.Methods: A multi-center retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of IVIg administered within two weeks of disease onset at a total dose of 2 g/kg body weight, in addition to standard care. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. Efficacy of high-dose IVIg was assessed by using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Kaplan-Meier curve adjusted by propensity score-matched (PSM) and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis.Results: Overall, 26 patients who received high-dose IVIg with standard therapy and 79 patients who received standard therapy only were enrolled in this study. The IVIg group was associated with a lower 28-day mortality rate and less time to normalization of inflammatory markers including IL-6, IL-10 and ferritin compared with the control. The adjusted HR of 28-day mortality in high-dose IVIg group was 0.28 (95%CI 0.06-1.10, p=0.061) in propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis, and 0.24 (95%CI 0.06-0.99, p<0.001) in inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) adjustment. In subgroup analysis, patients with no comorbidities or treated in the first week of disease were associated with more benefit from high-dose IVIg.Conclusions: High-dose IVIg administered in severe COVID-19 patients within 14 days of onset was linked to reduced 28-day mortality, more prominent with those having no comorbidities or treated at earlier stage.Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: All authors declared no competing financial interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The study protocol was approved by the institutional ethics board of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH, No. ZS-2299, Feb 6, 2020), and all participants provided written consent for participating this study.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 627844, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effective treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. We reported successful use of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in cases of severe COVID-19, but evidence from larger case series is still lacking. METHODS: A multi-center retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of IVIg administered within two weeks of disease onset at a total dose of 2 g/kg body weight, in addition to standard care. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. Efficacy of high-dose IVIg was assessed by using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Kaplan-Meier curve adjusted by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis, and IPTW after multiple imputation (MI) analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 26 patients who received high-dose IVIg with standard therapy and 89 patients who received standard therapy only were enrolled in this study. The IVIg group was associated with a lower 28-day mortality rate and less time to normalization of inflammatory markers including IL-6, IL-10, and ferritin compared with the control. The adjusted HR of 28-day mortality in high-dose IVIg group was 0.24 (95% CI 0.06-0.99, p<0.001) in IPTW model, and 0.27 (95% CI 0.10-0.57, p=0.031) in IPTW-MI model. In subgroup analysis, patients with no comorbidities or treated in the first week of disease were associated with more benefit from high-dose IVIg. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose IVIg administered in severe COVID-19 patients within 14 days of onset was linked to reduced 28-day mortality, more prominent with those having no comorbidities or treated at earlier stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , China/epidemiology , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 230-232, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364102

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is an essential measure to stop the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We report a case of viral activation and CD4+ T cell loss in a treatment-naïve HIV-positive patient after receiving inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (Sinopharm). The vaccine should probably be given only to people living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Vaccination
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 654658, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325536

ABSTRACT

Purpose: A phenotype of COVID-19 ARDS patients with extremely low compliance and refractory hypercapnia was found in our ICU. In the context of limited number of ECMO machines, feasibility of a low-flow extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) based on the renal replacement therapy (RRT) platform in these patients was assessed. Methods: Single-center, prospective study. Refractory hypercapnia patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS were included and divided into the adjusted group and unadjusted group according to the level of PaCO2 after the application of the ECCO2R system. Ventilation parameters [tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate, and PEEP], platform pressure (Pplat) and driving pressure (DP), respiratory system compliance, arterial blood gases, and ECCO2R system characteristics were collected. Results: Twelve patients with refractory hypercapnia were enrolled, and the PaCO2 was 64.5 [56-88.75] mmHg. In the adjusted group, VT was significantly reduced from 5.90 ± 0.16 to 5.08 ± 0.43 ml/kg PBW; DP and Pplat were also significantly reduced from 23.5 ± 2.72 mmHg and 29.88 ± 3.04 mmHg to 18.5 ± 2.62 mmHg and 24.75 ± 3.41 mmHg, respectively. In the unadjusted group, PaCO2 decreased from 94 [86.25, 100.3] mmHg to 80 [67.50, 85.25] mmHg but with no significant difference, and the DP and Pplat were not decreased after weighing the pros and cons. Conclusions: A low-flow ECCO2R system based on the RRT platform enabled CO2 removal and could also decrease the DP and Pplat significantly, which provided a new way to treat these COVID-19 ARDS patients with refractory hypercapnia and extremely low compliance. Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT04340414.

8.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 836-846, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275907

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is frequently accompanied by dysfunction of the lungs and extrapulmonary organs. However, the organotropism of SARS-CoV-2 and the port of virus entry for systemic dissemination remain largely unknown. We profiled 26 COVID-19 autopsy cases from four cohorts in Wuhan, China, and determined the systemic distribution of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the lungs and multiple extrapulmonary organs of critically ill COVID-19 patients up to 67 days after symptom onset. Based on organotropism and pathological features of the patients, COVID-19 was divided into viral intrapulmonary and systemic subtypes. In patients with systemic viral distribution, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at blood-air barrier, blood-testis barrier, and filtration barrier. Critically ill patients with long disease duration showed decreased pulmonary cell proliferation, reduced viral RNA, and marked fibrosis in the lungs. Permanent SARS-CoV-2 presence and tissue injuries in the lungs and extrapulmonary organs suggest direct viral invasion as a mechanism of pathogenicity in critically ill patients. SARS-CoV-2 may hijack monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at physiological barriers as the ports of entry for systemic dissemination. Our study thus delineates systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which sheds light on the development of novel COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spleen/pathology , Spleen/virology , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/virology
9.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(10): 883, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular involvement manifesting as arrhythmias has been confirmed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), so we aimed to explore the association between primary tachyarrhythmia and death in critically ill patients with COVID-19 in this retrospective study. METHODS: A total of 79 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were included. Demographic characteristics, clinical data (past history, vital signs, therapeutic management, and outcomes), and results of laboratory findings and cardiac investigations were collected. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 23.0 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: The median age was 65±12 years, and 53 patients (67%) were male. A total of 57 (72%) patients died, and compared with survivors, these patients were older and had significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and fewer lymphocytes as well as higher heart rate (P<0.05). Autopsy findings did not suggest severe myocarditis. A total of 19 (24%) patients had tachyarrhythmias, including 10 (13%) with atrial fibrillation (AF) and 9 (11%) with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. The incidence of tachyarrhythmias in non-survivor was much higher than in survivors (P=0.04). In a Cox regression model, older patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs) age were at a higher risk of death, with hazard ratio (HR) of 3.302 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.524-7.154, P=0.002] and 1.045 (95% CI, 1.020-1.071, P=0.000), respectively. The use of beta-blockers [HR, 0.219 (95% CI, 0.066-0.722); P=0.013] was associated with a lower risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 had a poor prognosis. VTA and older age were independent prognostic factors of death. Beta-blockers might be an effective therapy to improve survival.

11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 671443, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172967

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.627844/full.].

12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 727-732, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169498

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with droplets and contact as the main means of transmission. Since the first case appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the outbreak has gradually spread nationwide. Up to now, according to official data released by the Chinese health commission, the number of newly diagnosed patients has been declining, and the epidemic is gradually being controlled. Although most patients have mild symptoms and good prognosis after infection, some patients developed severe and die from multiple organ complications. The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans remains unclear. Immune function is a strong defense against invasive pathogens and there is currently no specific antiviral drug against the virus. This article reviews the immunological changes of coronaviruses like SARS, MERS and other viral pneumonia similar to SARS-CoV-2. Combined with the published literature, the potential pathogenesis of COVID-19 is inferred, and the treatment recommendations for giving high-doses intravenous immunoglobulin and low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulant therapy to severe type patients are proposed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/immunology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
13.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(3): 846-853, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, clinical presentation, cardiovascular (CV) complications, and mortality risk of myocardial injury on admission in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) inpatients with COVID-19. DESIGN: A single-center, retrospective, observational study. SETTING: A newly built ICU in Tongji hospital (Sino-French new city campus), Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-seven critical COVID-19 patients. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were divided into a myocardial injury group and nonmyocardial injury group according to the on-admission levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, treatment, and clinical outcome were evaluated, stratified by the presence of myocardial injury on admission. Compared with nonmyocardial injury patients, patients with myocardial injury were older (68.4 ± 10.1 v 62.1 ± 13.5 years; p = 0.02), had higher prevalence of underlying CV disease (34.1% v 11.1%; p = 0.02), and in-ICU CV complications (41.5% v 13.9%; p = 0.008), higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (20.3 ± 7.3 v 14.4 ± 7.4; p = 0.001), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores (7, interquartile range (IQR) 5-10 v 5, IQR 3-6; p < 0.001). Myocardial injury on admission increased the risk of 28-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.200; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29 to 3.74; p = 0.004). Age ≥75 years was another risk factor for mortality (HR, 2.882; 95% CI 1.51-5.50; p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 had a high risk of CV complications. Myocardial injury on admission may be a common comorbidity and is associated with severity and a high risk of mortality in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Intensive Care Units/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Ageing Res Rev ; 65: 101205, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893601

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019, moved across the globe at an unprecedented speed, and is having a profound and yet still unfolding health and socioeconomic impacts. SARS-CoV-2, a ß-coronavirus, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes a disease that has been termed the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Clinical experience thus far indicates that COVID-19 is highly heterogeneous, ranging from being asymptomatic and mild to severe and causing death. Host factors including age, sex, and comorbid conditions are key determinants of disease severity and progression. Aging itself is a prominent risk factor for severe disease and death from COVID-19. We hypothesize that age-related decline and dysregulation of immune function, i.e., immunosenescence and inflammaging play a major role in contributing to heightened vulnerability to severe COVID-19 outcomes in older adults. Much remains to be learned about the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We need to begin partitioning all immunological outcome data by age to better understand disease heterogeneity and aging. Such knowledge is critical not only for understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis but also for COVID-19 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Aged , Aging , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(12): 1998-2004, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coagulopathy is one of the characteristics observed in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) contribute to coagulopathy, though their role in COVID-19 remains unclear. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and characteristics of aPLs in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sera collected from 66 COVID-19 patients who were critically ill and 13 COVID-19 patients who were not critically ill were tested by chemiluminescence immunoassay for anticardiolipin antibodies (aCLs), anti-ß2 -glycoprotein I (anti-ß2 GPI) (IgG, IgM, and IgA), and IgG anti-ß2 GPI-domain 1 (anti-ß2 GPI-D1) and IgM and IgG anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (anti-PS/PT) antibodies were detected in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Of the 66 COVID-19 patients in critical condition, aPLs were detected in 31 (47% ). Antiphospholipid antibodies were not present among COVID-19 patients who were not in critical condition. The IgA anti-ß2 GPI antibody was the most commonly observed aPL in patients with COVID-19 and was present in 28.8% (19 of 66) of the critically ill patients, followed by IgA aCLs (17 of 66, or 25.8%) and IgG anti-ß2 GPI (12 of 66, or 18.2%). For multiple aPLs, IgA anti-ß2 GPI + IgA aCLs was the most common antibody profile observed (15 of 66, or 22.7%), followed by IgA anti-ß2 GPI + IgA aCL + IgG anti-ß2 GPI (10 of 66, or 15.2%). Antiphospholipid antibodies emerge ~35-39 days after disease onset. A dynamic analysis of aPLs revealed 4 patterns based on the persistence or transient appearance of the aPLs. Patients with multiple aPLs had a significantly higher incidence of cerebral infarction compared to patients who were negative for aPLs (P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: Antiphospholipid antibodies were common in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Repeated testing demonstrating medium to high titers of aPLs and the number of aPL types a patient is positive for may help in identifying patients who are at risk of developing cerebral infarction. Antiphospholipid antibodies may be transient and disappear within a few weeks, but in genetically predisposed patients, COVID-19 may trigger the development of an autoimmune condition similar to the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), referred to as "COVID-19-induced APS-like syndrome." Long-term follow-up of COVID-19 patients who are positive for aPLs would be of great importance in understanding the pathogenesis of this novel coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , COVID-19/blood , Critical Illness , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17524, 2020 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872734

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in China at the end of 2019, the world has experienced a large-scale epidemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2. The epidemiological and clinical course of COVID-19 patients has been reported, but there have been few analyses about the characteristics, predictive risk factors, and outcomes of critical patients. In this single-center retrospective case-control study, 90 adult inpatients hospitalized at Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China) were included. Demographic, clinical, laboratory tests, and treatment data were obtained and compared between critical and non-critical patients. We found that compared with non-critical patients, the critical patients had higher SOFA score and qSOFA scores. Critical patients had lower lymphocyte and platelet count, elevated D-dimer, decreased fibrinogen, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and interleukin-6(IL-6). More critical patients received treatment including antibiotics, anticoagulation, corticosteroid, and oxygen therapy than non-critical ones. Multivariable regression showed higher qSOFA score and elevation of IL-6 were related to critical patients. Antibiotic usage and anticoagulation were associated with decreased in-hospital mortality. And critical grouping contributed greatly to in-hospital death. Critical COVID-19 patients have a more severe clinical course. qSOFA score and elevation of IL-6 are risk factors for critical condition. Non-critical grouping, positive antibiotic application, and anticoagulation may be beneficial for patient survival.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Sci Adv ; 6(45)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842149

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus genetically close to SARS-CoV. To investigate the effects of previous SARS-CoV infection on the ability to recognize and neutralize SARS-CoV-2, we analyzed 20 convalescent serum samples collected from individuals infected with SARS-CoV during the 2003 SARS outbreak. All patient sera reacted strongly with the S1 subunit and receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV; cross-reacted with the S ectodomain, S1, RBD, and S2 proteins of SARS-CoV-2; and neutralized both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 S protein-driven infections. Analysis of antisera from mice and rabbits immunized with a full-length S and RBD immunogens of SARS-CoV verified cross-reactive neutralization against SARS-CoV-2. A SARS-CoV-derived RBD from palm civets elicited more potent cross-neutralizing responses in immunized animals than the RBD from a human SARS-CoV strain, informing strategies for development of universal vaccines against emerging coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunization/methods , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross Reactions , Follow-Up Studies , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , Rabbits , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2315-2321, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799338

ABSTRACT

Prolonged presence of viral nucleic acid was reported in certain patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with unclear clinical and epidemiological significance. We here described the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 37 recovered COVID-19 patients with prolonged presence of viral RNA in Wuhan, China. For those who had been discharged and re-admitted, their close contacts outside the hospital were traced and evaluated. The median age of the 37 patients was 62 years (IQR 50, 68), and 24 (64.9%) were men. They had common or severe COVID-19. With prolonged positive RT-PCR, most patients were clinically stable, 29 (78.4%) denied any symptoms. A total of 431 PCR tests were carried out, with each patient at a median of 8 time points. The median time of PCR positivity to April 18 was 78 days (IQR 67.7, 84.5), and the longest 120 days. 22 of 37 patients had been discharged at a median of 44 days (IQR 22.3, 50) from disease onset, and 9 had lived with their families without personal protections for a total of 258 person-days and no secondary infection was identified through epidemiological investigation, nucleic acid and antibody screening. Infectiousness in COVID-19 patients with prolonged presence of viral nucleic acid should not solely be evaluated by RT-PCR. Those patients who have clinically recovered and whose disease course has exceeded four weeks were associated with very limited infectiousness. Reconsideration of disease control in such patients is needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(9): 2205-2221, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence, severity, and outcomes of AKI in COVID-19 varied in different reports. In patients critically ill with COVID-19, the clinicopathologic characteristics of AKI have not been described in detail. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 81 patients critically ill with COVID-19 in an intensive care unit. The incidence, etiologies, and outcomes of AKI were analyzed. Pathologic studies were performed in kidney tissues from ten deceased patients with AKI. RESULTS: A total of 41 (50.6%) patients experienced AKI in this study. The median time from illness to AKI was 21.0 (IQR, 9.5-26.0) days. The proportion of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI were 26.8%, 31.7%, and 41.5%, respectively. The leading causes of AKI included septic shock (25 of 41, 61.0%), volume insufficiency (eight of 41, 19.5%), and adverse drug effects (five of 41, 12.2%). The risk factors for AKI included age (per 10 years) (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.69; P=0.002) and serum IL-6 level (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.73; P=0.003). KDIGO stage 3 AKI predicted death. Other potential risk factors for death included male sex, elevated D-dimer, serum IL-6 level, and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The predominant pathologic finding was acute tubular injury. Nucleic acid tests and immunohistochemistry failed to detect the virus in kidney tissues. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was a common and multifactorial complication in patients critically ill with COVID-19 at the late stage of the disease course. The predominant pathologic finding was acute tubular injury. Older age and higher serum IL-6 level were risk factors of AKI, and KDIGO stage 3 AKI independently predicted death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Kidney/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Kidney/ultrastructure , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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