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1.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(4):7-11, 2020.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812679

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the first COVID-19 case and related family cluster outbreaks in Jinan City.

2.
Health & Place ; 75:102805, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796813

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand the perceived effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity, recreation walking, and use of recreational facilities;and if the COVID-19 pandemic amplified disparities in physical activity, recreational walking, and use of recreational facilities related to the levels of neighborhood disadvantage. Recreational walking and the use of neighborhood streets and green spaces significantly decreased in high deprivation areas but not in low deprivation areas during the pandemic. While COVID-19 has negatively affected overall recreational activities, the inequitable impact on recreational walking and use of outdoor recreational facilities has been more evident in disadvantaged neighborhoods with greater deprivation.

3.
Infection and drug resistance ; 15:1687-1694, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787266

ABSTRACT

Purpose The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is the severe global pandemic with large numbers of infected cases and deaths in recent decades. The previous studies were all about the influence of albumin (ALB) for the severity and mortality of in-patients infected with COVID-19. But few studies exist about the influence factors to achieve viral negative conversion. Therefore, this study conducted an exploratory study to investigate the effect of albumin on negative conversion rate. Methods Among the 190 hospitalized patients with moderate COVID-19 who had a course of disease longer than 30 days, 102 achieved viral negative conversion in 30–45 days and 88 not after 45 days. Taking other variables as concomitant variable, Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to explore the influence of albumin to negative conversion rate under various factors. Results By comparing patients who could and could not achieve the finally viral negative conversion, a possible nonlinear relationship between the continuous variables and clinical outcomes was examined by a restricted cubic spline regression model. An association was found between albumin levels and hazard ratio of viral negative conversion rate (P = 0.027). The increase of albumin was accompanied with decreases of hazard ratio of viral negative conversion rate (the value of albumin <38 g/L). But when the value of albumin was higher than 38 g/L, the hazard ratio of viral negative conversion rate approached 1, it means that albumin is not a risk factor for the viral negative conversion rate of COVID-19 disease. Conclusion For patients with COVID-19, albumin is a common and observed laboratory parameter. It is associated with final viral negative conversion rate although its underlying mechanism and relationship with the viral negative conversion rate still need to be clarified.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 765553, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785387

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is threatening human health worldwide but no effective treatment currently exists for this disease. Current therapeutic strategies focus on the inhibition of viral replication or using anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory compounds to improve host immunity, but not both. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds could be promising candidates due to their safety and minimal toxicity. In this study, we have developed a novel in silico bioinformatics workflow that integrates multiple databases to predict the use of honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Huangqi (Astragalus membranaceus) as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Using extracts from honeysuckle and Huangqi, these two herbs upregulated a group of microRNAs including let-7a, miR-148b, and miR-146a, which are critical to reduce the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, these herbs suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 or TNF-α, which were both identified in the cytokine storm of acute respiratory distress syndrome, a major cause of COVID-19 death. Furthermore, both herbs partially inhibited the fusion of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-transfected BHK-21 cells with the human lung cancer cell line Calu-3 that was expressing ACE2 receptors. These herbs inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro activity, thereby alleviating viral entry as well as replication. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that honeysuckle and Huangqi have the potential to be used as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 virus entry that warrants further in vivo analysis and functional assessment of miRNAs to confirm their clinical importance. This fast-screening platform can also be applied to other drug discovery studies for other infectious diseases.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 744439, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779955

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global epidemic. Developing adjuvant therapies which could prevent the virus from binding to cells may impair viral infection. This study produces a traditional Chinese medicine formula, Jing Guan Fang (JGF), based on ancient medical texts, and examines the efficacy and the mechanism by which JGF prevents viral infections. JGF reduces COVID-19 like symptoms. Functional studies show that JGF inhibits the formation of syncytium and reduces the formation of viral plaque. JGF is not toxic in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, JGF induces lysosomal-dependent ACE2 degradation and suppresses mRNA and the protein levels of TMPRSS2 in human lung WI-38 and MRC-5 cells. Mice that inhale JGF exhibit reduced ACE2 and TMPRSS2 protein levels in lung tissues. Together, these findings suggest that JGF may improve the COVID-19 like symptoms and inhibit viral infection. Moreover, JGF may be applicable as an adjuvant preventive strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection in addition to the use of vaccines.

6.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e14844, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776709

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that often correlate with the severity of COVID-19. Here, we explored the pathogenesis underlying the intestinal inflammation in COVID-19. Serum VEGF level was particularly elevated in patients with GI symptoms and significantly correlated with intestinal edema and disease progression. Through an animal model mimicking intestinal inflammation upon stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we further revealed that VEGF was over-produced in the duodenum prior to its ascent in the circulation. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 spike promoted VEGF production through activating the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling in enterocytes, but not in endothelium, and inducing permeability and inflammation. Blockage of the ERK/VEGF axis was able to rescue vascular permeability and alleviate intestinal inflammation in vivo. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation and therapeutic targets for the GI symptoms of COVID-19.

7.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776547

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Neutralizing antibody detection can assess the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the effectiveness of vaccines. However, commercial reagents for neutralizing antibodies were developed after the anti- severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM antibodies. Therefore, some laboratories did not perform neutralizing antibody testing services due to multiple factors. OBJECTIVE.­: To find a fast, accurate, and economical alternative for the detection of neutralizing antibodies for the development of COVID-19 screening programs. DESIGN.­: The response and correlation of three antibodies (anti-spike protein (S) neutralizing antibody, total anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody, and anti-RBD IgG) was determined by observing the dynamics in 61 participants for 160 days post vaccination. RESULTS.­: The levels of neutralizing and anti-RBD IgG antibodies reached their peak values on day 42 post vaccination (120.75 IU/mL and 14.38 signal-to-cutoff ratio [S/CO], respectively). The total antibody levels peaked at 138.47 S/CO on day 35 post vaccination. The strongest correlation was found between neutralizing and anti-RBD IgG antibody levels (r = 0.894, P < .001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) for total antibody levels for the prediction of seropositivity for neutralizing antibodies was 0.881 (P < .001) and that for anti-RBD IgG antibody levels was 0.937 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS.­: Neutralizing and anti-RBD IgG antibody levels were strongly correlated, and thus anti-RBD IgG antibody levels can be used for accurate assessment of immunity following SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 847533, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776061

ABSTRACT

Frailty is a commonly occurring geriatric condition that increases the risk of adverse health outcomes. The factors and predictors behind frailty are not yet well understood. A better understanding of these factors can enable prevention of frailty in elderly patients. The objective of this study was to determine the association between proteinuria and frailty in US individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III, 1988-1994) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This is a cross-sectional study, and proteinuria and frailty were measured only once at enrollment. The study included 2,272 participants with MetS aged 40-90 years from the NHANES III. The participants underwent assessments to evaluate frailty and frailty components (low body weight, weakness, exhaustion, low physical activity, and slow walking). Proteinuria was represented as albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (mg/g) and divided into tertiles: T1-normal range (ACR <30 mg/g), T2-microalbuminuria (ACR 30-299 mg/g), and T3-macroalbuminuria (ACR ≥ 300 mg/g). We applied multiple logistic regression to determine the odds ratios (ORs) of frailty for T2 vs. T1 and T3 vs. T1 in both sexes. In the adjusted analysis for male participants, the ORs of frailty for T2 and T3 vs. T1 were 3.106 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.078-8.948, P = 0.036) and 14.428 (95% CI = 4.231-49.193, P < 0.001), respectively. For female participants, the ORs of frailty for T2 and T3 vs. T1 were 1.811 (95% CI = 1.071-3.063, P = 0.027) and 2.926 (95% CI = 1.202-7.124, P = 0.018), respectively. The positive association between T2 and T3 vs. T1, and frailty were statistically significant. The trends of higher likelihood of every frailty component were also statistically significant across increasing tertiles of proteinuria after multiple levels of adjustment for covariates (P < 0.05). Increased proteinuria levels were positively associated with frailty and each frailty component. Proteinuria might be a useful maker for frailty in individuals with MetS.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Metabolic Syndrome , Proteinuria , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Proteinuria/epidemiology
10.
Global Mental Health ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1758035

ABSTRACT

Background Risk perception among nurses after the COVID-19 pandemic is a crucial factor affecting their attitudes and willingness to work in clinics. Those with poor psychological status could perceive risks sensitively as fears or threats that are discouraging. This article aimed to determine whether psychological outcomes, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and insomnia, following the COVID-19 pandemic were differentially related to the risk perceptions of nurses working in clinics and increased perceived risk. Method The participants were 668 nurse clinicians from five local hospitals. Risk perceptions and psychological outcomes were measured by adapted questionnaires via the Internet. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified subgroups of individuals who showed similar profiles regarding the perceived risks in nursing. Multinomial regression and probit regression were used to examine the extent to which sociodemographic and psychological outcomes predicted class membership. Results LPA revealed four classes: groups with low-, mild-, moderate-, and high-level risk perceptions. Membership of the high-level risk perception class was predicted by the severity of psychological outcomes. Anxiety significantly accounted for a moderate increase in risk perceptions, while the symptoms of insomnia, depression, and PTSD accelerated the increase to the high level of risk perception class. Conclusions By classifying groups of nurse clinicians sharing similar profiles regarding risk perceptions and then exploring associated predictors, this study shows the psychological outcomes after COVID-19 significantly impacted pandemic-associated risk perceptions and suggests intervening in nurses' psychological outcomes while simultaneously focusing on work-related worries is important following the outbreak of COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(6): 741-747, 2021 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753706

ABSTRACT

: To explore the association between napping status and depressive symptoms in urban residents during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. : The survey was embedded in the Wellness Living Laboratory-China (WELL China) cohort study. Health and lifestyle information during the COVID-19 epidemic were obtained via the telephone interview from April 8, 2020 to May 29, 2020. A total of 3075 residents aged 18 to from Gongshu district of Hangzhou city with complete data were included in the analyses. The World Health Organization-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) was used to measure depressive symptoms. Multiple logistic regression model was used to assess the association between napping status and depressive symptoms in the participants. : The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20.6% in the participants during the epidemic. Daytime napping behavior, especially napping time ≤30 min, was associated with a lower risk of prevalent depressive symptoms (=0.61, 95%: 0.47-0.79, <0.01) and incident depressive symptoms in the population (=0.66, 95%: 0.50-0.88, <0.01). Among those with depressive symptoms at baseline, napping time ≤ was beneficial for the outcome of depressive symptoms (=0.42, 95%: 0.21-0.82, <0.05). : One in five urban residents have depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 epidemic, and a short nap during the day may be a protective factor against depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Factors , Urban Population
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 91, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751707

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is no effective drugs for treating clinically COVID-19 except dexamethasone. We previously revealed that human identical sequences of SARS-CoV-2 promote the COVID-19 progression by upregulating hyaluronic acid (HA). As the inhibitor of HA synthesis, hymecromone is an approved prescription drug used for treating biliary spasm. Here, we aimed to investigate the relation between HA and COVID-19, and evaluate the therapeutic effects of hymecromone on COVID-19. Firstly, HA was closely relevant to clinical parameters, including lymphocytes (n = 158; r = -0.50; P < 0.0001), C-reactive protein (n = 156; r = 0.55; P < 0.0001), D-dimer (n = 154; r = 0.38; P < 0.0001), and fibrinogen (n = 152; r = 0.37; P < 0.0001), as well as the mass (n = 78; r = 0.43; P < 0.0001) and volume (n = 78; r = 0.41; P = 0.0002) of ground-glass opacity, the mass (n = 78; r = 0.48; P < 0.0001) and volume (n = 78; r = 0.47; P < 0.0001) of consolidation in patient with low level of hyaluronan (HA < 48.43 ng/mL). Furthermore, hyaluronan could directly cause mouse pulmonary lesions. Besides, hymecromone remarkably reduced HA via downregulating HAS2/HAS3 expression. Moreover, 89% patients with hymecromone treatment had pulmonary lesion absorption while only 42% patients in control group had pulmonary lesion absorption (P < 0.0001). In addition, lymphocytes recovered more quickly in hymecromone-treated patients (n = 8) than control group (n = 5) (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that hymecromone is a promising drug for COVID-19 and deserves our further efforts to determine its effect in a larger cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyaluronic Acid , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hymecromone/metabolism , Hymecromone/pharmacology , Mice , Prescriptions , SARS-CoV-2
13.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330164

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has caused serious casualties worldwide. In recent months, the virus has mutated into an increasingly infectious form (Delta variant) and spread rapidly. Methods In the current study, we analyzed the clinical, epidemiological and viral genetic characteristics of the first four imported Delta cases in Anhui Province, China. Results The four imported Delta cases developed chest inflammation, tissue damage and recovered after admission, the serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and CRP levels showed a first increasing and then decreasing trend. The changes of hs-CRP /CRP and serum neutralizing antibodies (Nab) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) levels were associated with the regression of chest lesions. The combination of genetic sequencing and epidemiological analysis suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant infection of these four patients may originate from Russia. Conclusions Our study found the certain correlations of serum hs-CRP/CRP and Nab levels with the occurrence, development and outcome of COVID-19 delta variant, suggesting that monitoring hs-CRP/CRP and Nab levels of COVID-19 delta variant patients at hospital admission may be useful for understanding the severity of patients’ current conditions.

14.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733247

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoints (ICPs) consist of paired receptor-ligand molecules that exert inhibitory or stimulatory effects on immune defense, surveillance, regulation, and self-tolerance. ICPs exist in both membrane and soluble forms in vivo and in vitro. Imbalances between inhibitory and stimulatory membrane-bound ICPs (mICPs) in malignant cells and immune cells in the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) have been well documented. Blockades of inhibitory mICPs have emerged as an immense breakthrough in cancer therapeutics. However, the origin, structure, production regulation, and biological significance of soluble ICPs (sICPs) in health and disease largely remains elusive. Soluble ICPs can be generated through either alternative mRNA splicing and secretion or protease-mediated shedding from mICPs. Since sICPs are found in the bloodstream, they likely form a circulating immune regulatory system. In fact, there is increasing evidence that sICPs exhibit biological functions including (1) regulation of antibacterial immunity, (2) interaction with their mICP compartments to positively or negatively regulate immune responses, and (3) competition with their mICP compartments for binding to the ICP blocking antibodies, thereby reducing the efficacy of ICP blockade therapies. Here, we summarize current data of sICPs in cancer and infectious diseases. We particularly focus on sICPs in COVID-19 and HIV infection as they are the two ongoing global pandemics and have created the world’s most serious public health challenges. A “storm” of sICPs occurs in the peripheral circulation of COVID-19 patients and is associated with the severity of COVID-19. Similarly, sICPs are highly dysregulated in people living with HIV (PLHIV) and some sICPs remain dysregulated in PLHIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART), indicating these sICPs may serve as biomarkers of incomplete immune reconstitution in PLHIV on ART. We reveal that HIV infection in the setting of alcohol misuse exacerbates sICP dysregulation as PLHIV with heavy alcohol consumption have significantly elevated plasma levels of many sICPs. Thus, both stimulatory and inhibitory sICPs are present in the bloodstream of healthy people and their balance can be disrupted under pathophysiological conditions such as cancer, COVID-19, HIV infection, and alcohol misuse. There is an urgent need to study the role of sICPs in immune regulation in health and disease.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 76: 103861, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 infection has resulted in COVID-19 accompanied by diverse clinical manifestations. However, the underlying mechanism of how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with host and develops multiple symptoms is largely unexplored. METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis determined the sequence similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and human genomes. Diverse fragments of SARS-CoV-2 genome containing Human Identical Sequences (HIS) were cloned into the lentiviral vector. HEK293T, MRC5 and HUVEC were infected with laboratory-packaged lentivirus or transfected with plasmids or antagomirs for HIS. Quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay detected gene expression and H3K27ac enrichment, respectively. UV-Vis spectroscopy assessed the interaction between HIS and their target locus. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay evaluated the hyaluronan (HA) levels of culture supernatant and plasma of COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: Five short sequences (24-27 nt length) sharing identity between SARS-CoV-2 and human genome were identified. These RNA elements were highly conserved in primates. The genomic fragments containing HIS were predicted to form hairpin structures in silico similar to miRNA precursors. HIS may function through direct genomic interaction leading to activation of host enhancers, and upregulation of adjacent and distant genes, including cytokine genes and hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). HIS antagomirs and Cas13d-mediated HIS degradation reduced HAS2 expression. Severe COVID-19 patients displayed decreased lymphocytes and elevated D-dimer, and C-reactive proteins, as well as increased plasma hyaluronan. Hymecromone inhibited hyaluronan production in vitro, and thus could be further investigated as a therapeutic option for preventing severe outcome in COVID-19 patients. INTERPRETATION: HIS of SARS-CoV-2 could promote COVID-19 progression by upregulating hyaluronan, providing novel targets for treatment. FUNDING: The National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC1005004), Major Special Projects of Basic Research of Shanghai Science and Technology Commission (18JC1411101), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31872814, 32000505).


Subject(s)
Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Genome, Human , Hyaluronic Acid/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antagomirs/metabolism , Argonaute Proteins/genetics , Base Sequence , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Disease Progression , Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics , Humans , Hyaluronan Synthases/genetics , Hyaluronan Synthases/metabolism , Hyaluronic Acid/blood , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Up-Regulation
16.
JAMA Neurol ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729079

ABSTRACT

Importance: Determining the long-term impact of COVID-19 on cognition is important to inform immediate steps in COVID-19 research and health policy. Objective: To investigate the 1-year trajectory of cognitive changes in older COVID-19 survivors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study recruited 3233 COVID-19 survivors 60 years and older who were discharged from 3 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. Their uninfected spouses (N = 466) were recruited as a control population. Participants with preinfection cognitive impairment, a concomitant neurological disorder, or a family history of dementia were excluded, as well as those with severe cardiac, hepatic, or kidney disease or any kind of tumor. Follow-up monitoring cognitive functioning and decline took place at 6 and 12 months. A total of 1438 COVID-19 survivors and 438 control individuals were included in the final follow-up. COVID-19 was categorized as severe or nonsevere following the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was change in cognition 1 year after patient discharge. Cognitive changes during the first and second 6-month follow-up periods were assessed using the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40, respectively. Based on the cognitive changes observed during the 2 periods, cognitive trajectories were classified into 4 categories: stable cognition, early-onset cognitive decline, late-onset cognitive decline, and progressive cognitive decline. Multinomial and conditional logistical regression models were used to identify factors associated with risk of cognitive decline. Results: Among the 3233 COVID-19 survivors and 1317 uninfected spouses screened, 1438 participants who were treated for COVID-19 (691 male [48.05%] and 747 female [51.95%]; median [IQR] age, 69 [66-74] years) and 438 uninfected control individuals (222 male [50.68%] and 216 female [49.32%]; median [IQR] age, 67 [66-74] years) completed the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of cognitive impairment in survivors 12 months after discharge was 12.45%. Individuals with severe cases had lower Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 scores than those with nonsevere cases and control individuals at 12 months (median [IQR]: severe, 22.50 [16.00-28.00]; nonsevere, 30.00 [26.00-33.00]; control, 31.00 [26.00-33.00]). Severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (odds ratio [OR], 4.87; 95% CI, 3.30-7.20), late-onset cognitive decline (OR, 7.58; 95% CI, 3.58-16.03), and progressive cognitive decline (OR, 19.00; 95% CI, 9.14-39.51), while nonsevere COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.30-2.27) when adjusting for age, sex, education level, body mass index, and comorbidities. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 survival was associated with an increase in risk of longitudinal cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of immediate measures to deal with this challenge.

17.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 149, 2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of drastic curricular changes necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic on medical students' education and wellbeing have remained largely unstudied. Out study aimed to characterize how medical students were affected by the pandemic, specifically how limitations introduced by the pandemic may have affected the quality, delivery, and experience of medical education. METHODS: Three hundred students from 5 U.S. allopathic medical schools were surveyed to determine students' perceptions about their quality of medical education, professional development, and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic (October 2020-December 2020). RESULTS: A large majority of students report that while lecture-based learning has not been significantly affected by the pandemic, small-group and clinical learning have greatly declined in quality. Students also reported higher levels of depression, anxiety, and uncertainty with regards to their futures as physicians. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the medical student education and wellbeing. Although medical schools have implemented measures to continue to train medical students as effectively as they can, further strategies must be devised to ensure the well-being of students in the present and for future national emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical/psychology , United States/epidemiology
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 829273, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715010

ABSTRACT

Detection of serum-specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody has become a complementary means for the identification of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As we already know, the neutralizing antibody titers in patients with COVID-19 decrease during the course of time after convalescence, whereas the duration of antibody responses in the convalescent patients has not been defined clearly. In the current study, we collected 148 serum samples from 37 confirmed COVID-19 cases with different disease severities. The neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), IgM and IgG against COVID-19 were determined by CLIA Microparticle and microneutralization assay, respectively. The time duration of serum titers of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were recorded. Our results indicate that IgG (94.44%) and Nabs (89.19%) can be detected at low levels within 190-266 days of disease onset. The findings can advance knowledge regarding the antibody detection results for COVID-19 patients and provide a method for evaluating the immune response after vaccination.

19.
Coatings ; 12(2):198, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1715152

ABSTRACT

A simple photolysis route was proposed to prepare Amphiphilic Janus Particles (AJP) based on SiO2 microspheres. The surface of SiO2 microspheres were modified by photoactive alkoxysilane, which was synthesized by dealcoholization condensation of 6-nitroveratroyloxycarbonyl and isocyanatopropyl-triethoxysilane. UV irradiation caused eater-breaking allowed for the precise control of hydrophilic modification of the hemispherical exposed particles surfaces. The component and morphology of the obtained particles were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and the Janus feature was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dispersity in the oil–water dual-phases. The following results were obtained. The AJP with 450 nm size processes the hydrophilic amino groups on one side and the hydrophobic 6-nitroveratryloxycarbonyl moieties on the other. Additionally, the AJP were located at the phase boundary between water and n-hexane, and the negative charged gold nanoparticles with 25 nm size were adsorbed only onto the side with the positive charged amino groups. The AJP have interfacial adsorption energies that can be as much as three times larger than that of homogeneous particles and thus exhibit excellent surface activities.

20.
Transplant Proc ; 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Collapsing glomerulopathy (CGN) secondary to HIV or COVID-19 infection mainly occurs in patients of African American descent due to APOL-1 gene mutations, but CGN is occasionally reported in white patients. CGNs are rarely reported in renal transplant biopsies and their association with idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patient #1 was a 48-year-old Caucasian white man who had a renal transplant 8 years ago and was recently diagnosed with COVID-19 infection. Two weeks post infection, his serum creatinine (SCr) increased to 2.01 mg/dL from a baseline of 1.40 mg/dL, and he developed concomitant nephrotic range proteinuria. The first renal transplant biopsy showed FSGS. Four weeks later, his sCr level increased to 2.65 mg/dL with worsening proteinuria, and a second renal transplant biopsy revealed CGN. Patient #2 was a 32-year-old African American man whose native renal biopsy revealed primary FSGS. He received a renal transplant with initial post-transplant sCr level at 1.17 mg/dL. Four months later, his sCr and protein-to-creatinine ratio began to rise. Sequential biopsies revealed that the patient had developed recurrent FSGS, which progressed to show features of CGN. The CGN was further confirmed in his transplant kidney graft at autopsy later. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case report of CGN in a white renal recipient with COVID-19 infection. The pathologic presentations of FSGS progressing to collapsing FSGS in our 2 renal transplant recipients suggest that FSGS and GGN may share a common pathophysiologic mechanism of podocytopathy.

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