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1.
Transportation Research Procedia ; 66:49-56, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2157235

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The COVID-19 pandemic not only limited pilots' proficiency in performing routine tasks, but also increased stress levels and operational risk due to new procedures in flight operations related to safety and health regulations. There is, therefore, an increasing need to improve pilots' mental and physical health to maintain aviation safety Research question. (1) Does the practice of psychophysiological coherence using heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback and the Quick Coherence Technique (QCT) improve pilots' resilience? (2) What effects does psychophysiological coherence practice have on pilots' resilience and wellbeing? Method. Eighteen commercial pilots' perceived stress and wellness were evaluated subjectively by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Ardell Wellness Self-Assessment (AWSA). They were taught the QCT for facilitating psychophysiological coherence, and their HRV data reflecting automatic nervous system (ANS) activities were collected as they practiced QCT via Inner Balance HRV sensors. Results. The QCT training improved pilots' AWSA scores (t = -3.55, p = .002) and decreased PSS scores (t = 6.37, p < .001). Pilots' post-training HRV were improved with SDNNs higher than pre-training, t = -4.88, p < .001;normalized low frequency (LF) power increased (t = -10.91, p < .001) and low-frequency to high-frequency (LF/HF) ratios increased (t = -3.92, p = .001). Additionally, pilots' post-training respiration rates were lower than pre-training, t = -2,45, p = .025. Discussion. Based on the empirical data analysis, HRV-biofeedback QCT can improve psychophysiological coherence and thereby increase pilots' resilience and wellbeing. Increased post-training SDNNs, normalized LF power, and LF/HF ratio indicate the improvement of ANS control and balance, and stress management capacity. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of HRV-biofeedback QCT training in improving psychophysiological coherence, which confers real-time and post-practice benefits of optimal energy utility and self-regulation in challenging situations on flight operations and everyday life. Conclusion. This research demonstrates significant benefits of a short session of HRV-biofeedback QCT on pilots' resilience and cognitive process by improving psychophysiological coherence. HRV-biofeedback QCT training can be an effective intervention for aviation authorities and airline operators to develop peer support programs for pilots to increase psychological resilience and wellbeing. This may be particularly beneficial given the various challenges presented to pilots in their preparation for return to normal operations.

3.
Medicina ; 58(12):1704, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2123748

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused global public panic, leading to severe mental illnesses, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to establish a risk prediction model of PTSD based on a machine learning algorithm to provide a basis for the extensive assessment and prediction of the PTSD risk status in adults during a pandemic. Materials and Methods: Model indexes were screened based on the cognitive-phenomenological-transactional (CPT) theoretical model. During the study period (1 March to 15 March 2020), 2067 Chinese residents were recruited using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap). Socio-demographic characteristics, PTSD, depression, anxiety, social support, general self-efficacy, coping style, and other indicators were collected in order to establish a neural network model to predict and evaluate the risk of PTSD. Results: The research findings showed that 368 of the 2067 participants (17.8%) developed PTSD. The model correctly predicted 90.0% (262) of the outcomes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and their associated area under the ROC curve (AUC) values suggested that the prediction model possessed an accurate discrimination ability. In addition, depression, anxiety, age, coping style, whether the participants had seen a doctor during the COVID-19 quarantine period, and self-efficacy were important indexes. Conclusions: The high prediction accuracy of the model, constructed based on a machine learning algorithm, indicates its applicability in screening the public mental health status during the COVID-19 pandemic quickly and effectively. This model could also predict and identify high-risk groups early to prevent the worsening of PTSD symptoms.

5.
Cancer Cell Int ; 22(1): 331, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To summarize the impact of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy delays on patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively included 233 patients with stage II-IVa NPC treated with RT and chemotherapy between December 11, 2019 and March 11, 2020. The outcomes were elevation in the EBV DNA load between two adjacent cycles of chemotherapy or during RT, and 1-year disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: RT delay occurred in 117 (50%) patients, and chemotherapy delay occurred in 220 (94%) patients. RT delay of ≥ 6 days was associated with a higher EBV DNA elevation rate (20.4% vs. 3.6%, odds ratio [OR] = 6.93 [95% CI = 2.49-19.32], P < 0.001), and worse 1-year DFS (91.2% vs. 97.8%, HR = 3.61 [95% CI = 1.37-9.50], P = 0.006), compared with on-schedule RT or delay of < 6 days. Chemotherapy delay of ≥ 10 days was not associated with a higher EBV DNA elevation rate (12.5% vs. 6.8%, OR = 1.94 [95% CI = 0.70-5.40], P = 0.20), or worse 1-year DFS (93.8% vs. 97.1%, HR = 3.73 [95% CI = 0.86-16.14], P = 0.059), compared with delay of < 10 days. Multivariable analyses showed RT delay of ≥ 6 days remained an independent adverse factor for both EBV DNA elevation and DFS. CONCLUSION: To ensure treatment efficacy for patients with nonmetastatic NPC, initiation of RT should not be delayed by more than 6 days; the effect of chemotherapy delay requires further investigation.

6.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(10): 1092-1097, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090827

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical features of children infected with the Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: The medical data of 19 children who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection from January 28 to March 3, 2022 in Hangzhou were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Among the 19 children, there were 7 boys (37%) and 12 girls (63%), and their age ranged from 6 months to 16 years, with a median age of 2 years and 1 month. Most of these children were infants and young children (aged ≤3 years, accounting for 53%). Among these children, 11 (58%) were unvaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and 8 (42%) were vaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and 3 children (16%) had a history of underlying diseases. All 19 children had a clear history of close contact with persons infected with SARS-CoV-2, and 10 children (53%) were involved in the cluster outbreak in a maternal and infant care center. In terms of clinical classification, 13 children (68%) had mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 6 (32%) had common COVID-19, with no severe cases of COVID-19. The most common clinical symptoms were cough (100%) and fever (63%). The children with a normal peripheral white blood cell count accounted for 84%, and those with a normal lymphocyte count accounted for 68%. There were no significant abnormalities in platelet count, procalcitonin, liver function parameters (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), and renal function parameters (creatinine and urea). Six children (32%) had obvious signs of pneumonia on chest CT. All 19 children were given symptomatic treatment, and 12 children (63%) were given aerosol inhalation of interferon α. All children were cured and discharged. CONCLUSIONS: Children infected with Omicron variant strains are more common in infants and young children, with mild symptoms and good prognosis. Most of the children have a history of close contact with persons infected with SARS-CoV-2, and epidemic prevention and control should be strengthened in places with many infants and children, such as maternal and infant care centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Infant , Male , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology
7.
Ergonomics ; : 1-14, 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087428

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the effect of quick coherence technique (QCT) on commercial pilots' resilience to the unprecedented impact of a pandemic. Eighteen commercial pilots voluntarily participated in a 2-day training course on QCT followed by 2 months of self-regulated QCT practicing during controlled rest in the flight deck and day-to day life. There are subjective and objective assessments to evaluate the effects of QCT on commercial pilots' psychophysiological resilience. Results demonstrated that QCT training can significantly increase pilots' psychophysiological resilience thereby improving their mental/physical health, cognitive functions, emotional stability and wellness on both subjective (PSS & AWSA) and objective measures (coherence scores). Moreover, pilots who continued practicing self-regulated QCT gained the maximum benefits. Current research has identified great potential to enhance pilots' mental/physical health via QCT training. Operators can develop peer support programs for pilots to increase resilience and maintain mental and physical health using the QCT technique. Practitioner summary: QCT breathing has been proven to increase commercial pilots' resilience by moderating psychophysiological coherence, strengthening mental/physical capacity and sustaining positive emotions to deal with the challenges both on the flight deck and in everyday life.HIGHLIGHTSPilots have suffered from the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic across many factors including social, economic, mental, physical, emotional, and operational issuesBiofeedback training can increase commercial pilots' resilience by moderating psychophysiological coherence, strengthening mental and physical capacitySelf-regulated practicing QCT to form a habitual behaviour is required to sustain the maximum benefits either in the flight or day-to-day lifeQCT is an effective intervention for aviation authorities and airline operators to develop peer support programs to increase pilots' fatigue resilience.

8.
Application of Natural Products in SARS-CoV-2 ; : 313-338, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2085830

ABSTRACT

Vitamins are very important to stay healthy. Taking macronutrients and micronutrients based on the body’s needs prevents us from diseases and can treat them. Vitamins have proven to help deal with severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients. Vitamin C intake seems to boost immunity. Several studies suggested that vitamin C intake can lower the extent of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) besides its other biological functions such as collagen formation and wound healing. Vitamin C works as an anti-oxidant, counteracting the free radicals during an infection. Whenever an infection or disease occurs, it causes the production of reactive oxygen species, or such oxidizing agents help in the inactivation of viruses. Vitamin D is another important micronutrient to treat and prevent URTIs. Commonly, it is recommended for bone and teeth health, but it has also been used for regulating and boosting the immune system. Nutraceutical applications of vitamins are inevitable. Different natural products and foods are good sources of vitamins that can be taken for improved functions of the human body and treatment of diseases. Besides the oral route, vitamins C and D can also be supplied via micro or nanoparticles through other routes. An adequate intake of vitamins positively affects the body in the fight against infections. So, it can also help reduce the severity of illness and morbidity of patients suffering from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1013038, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080196

ABSTRACT

Ambroxol is a commonly used mucolytic agent principally used to treat respiratory diseases, which may have a role as adjunctive therapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but there is lack of evidence about its effectiveness on coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. To study the association between ambroxol use and clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients of COVID-19 infection. We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study involving 3,111 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from three hospitals in Wuhan from 19 December 2019 to 15 April 2020, and the primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. COVID-19 patients were classified into ambroxol and non-ambroxol groups based on the administration of ambroxol during hospitalization. Two analyses including propensity score matching (PSM) to obtain a 1:1 balanced cohort and logistic regression were used to control for confounding factors. The average age of 3,111 patients was 57.55 ± 14.93 years old, 127 of them died during hospitalization, and 924 of them used ambroxol. Treatment with ambroxol did not have a significant effect on in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients when compared with non-ambroxol in PSM model after adjusting for confounders (8.0% vs. 3.5%, adjusted OR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.54-1.97], p = 0.936). Adverse events such as nausea/vomiting, headache, and rash were comparable between the two groups. Our results suggest that the use of ambroxol is not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients, which provides evidence for evaluating the effects of ambroxol on COVID-19 patient outcomes and may be helpful for physicians considering medication alternatives for COVID-19 patients.

10.
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation ; 114:103026, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061418

ABSTRACT

An accurate estimation of trophic state of lakes with satellite remote sensing is a challenge due to the optical complexity and variability associated with inland waters. Match-up data from 393 sampling stations that has concurrent Sentinel-3 OLCI images were acquired across Wuhan lakes. Trophic Level Index (TLI) algorithms were developed within a global Optical Water Type (OWT) classification system. The performance of algorithms with limited training data gathered by using spectral similarity of highest Sowt was not improved compared with that on basis of no classification. In contrast, using spectral similarity of Sowt > 0.9 rather than the highest Sowt to group more training data with similar traits for each OWT can help build more robust algorithms, which performance is better than that on basis of no classification. Algorithm performance statistics of the test dataset for the stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) method were the following: Mean Absolute Error (MAE) = 5.56;Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) = 11.02 %;Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 7.24 and for the back propagation neural network on the basis of the Levenberg-Marquardt-Bayesian regularization algorithm (LMBR-BPNN) method MAE = 4.56;MAPE = 8.33 %;RMSE = 5.98. We detected 8 different OWTs (2,3,4,5,9,10,11,12) in Wuhan lakes and clear spatio-temporal patterns of the trophic state between 2018 and 2020.Our results revealed that the trophic state of Wuhan lakes did not decrease as expected during the COVID-19 lockdown period.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2202322119, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050721

ABSTRACT

An overarching goal of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease research is to discover effective therapeutic strategies applicable to a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the extent to which targetable pathogenic mechanisms are shared among these seemingly diverse diseases. Translational control is critical for maintaining proteostasis during aging. Gaining control of the translation machinery is also crucial in the battle between viruses and their hosts. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we show that overexpression of SARS-CoV-2-encoded nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) robustly rescued neuromuscular degeneration and behavioral phenotypes in Drosophila models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These diseases share a common mechanism: the accumulation of aberrant protein species due to the stalling and collision of translating ribosomes, leading to proteostasis failure. Our genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that Nsp1 acted in a multipronged manner to resolve collided ribosomes, abort stalled translation, and remove faulty translation products causative of disease in these models, at least in part through the ribosome recycling factor ABCE1, ribosome-associated quality-control factors, autophagy, and AKT signaling. Nsp1 exhibited exquisite specificity in its action, as it did not modify other neurodegenerative conditions not known to be associated with ribosome stalling. These findings uncover a previously unrecognized mechanism of Nsp1 in manipulating host translation, which can be leveraged for combating age-related neurodegenerative diseases that are affecting millions of people worldwide and currently without effective treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Ribosomes , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Alzheimer Disease , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Drosophila , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Ribosomes/genetics , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
12.
J Clin Med ; 11(18)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043799

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the maternal-neonatal outcomes of obstetric deliveries performed in negative pressure isolated delivery rooms (NPIDRs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) omicron variant pandemic period in a single tertiary center in northern Taiwan. Methods: Confirmed positive and suspected-positive COVID-19 cases delivered in NPIDRs and COVID-19-negative mothers delivered in conventional delivery rooms (CDRs) in the period of 1 May 2022 to 31 May 2022 during the COVID-19 omicron variant pandemic stage were reviewed. The maternal-neonatal outcomes between the two groups of mothers were analyzed. All deliveries were performed following the obstetric and neonatologic protocols conforming to the epidemic prevention regulations promulgated by the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (T-CDC). Multiple gestations, deliveries at gestational age below 34 weeks, and major fetal anomalies were excluded from this study. Results: A total of 213 obstetric deliveries were included. Forty-five deliveries were performed in NPIDRs due to a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test (n = 41) or suspected COVID-19 positive status (n = 4). One hundred and sixty-eight deliveries with negative COVID-19 PCR tests were performed in CDRs. There was no statistical difference in maternal characteristics between the two groups of pregnant women. All COVID-19-confirmed cases either presented with mild upper-airway symptoms (78%) or were asymptomatic (22%); none of these cases developed severe acute respiratory syndrome. The total rate of cesarean section was not statistically different between obstetric deliveries in NPIDRs and in CDRs (38.1% vs. 40.0%, p = 0.82, respectively). Regardless of delivery modes, poorer short-term perinatal outcomes were observed in obstetric deliveries in NPIDRs: there were significant higher rates of neonatal respiratory distress (37.8% vs. 10.7%, p < 0.001, respectively), meconium-stained amniotic fluid (22.2% vs. 4.2%, p < 0.001, respectively) and newborn intensive care unit admission (55.6% vs. 8.3%, p < 0.001, respectively) in obstetric deliveries performed in NPIDRs than in CDRs. Maternal surgical outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups of patients. There was no vertical transmission or nosocomial infection observed in COVID-19 confirmed cases in this study period. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that obstetric deliveries for positive and suspected COVID-19 omicron-variant cases performed in NPIDRs are associated with poorer short-term perinatal outcomes. Reasonable use of personal protective equipment in NPIDRs could effectively prevent nosocomial infection during obstetric deliveries for pregnant women infected with the COVID-19 omicron variant.

13.
American journal of cancer research ; 12(8):4040-4049, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034528

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), making the fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) more pronounced. We explored the effects of FCR on immunotherapy efficacy and quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic in China among the 124 NSCLC patients enrolled in this study. Quality of life and immunotherapy efficacy were compared between high- and low-FCR groups after completing 4-6 courses of treatment or cancer progression. Worse immunotherapy efficacy and quality of life were reported for the high-FCR group than for the low-FCR group. These findings emphasize the need to pay close attention to the level of FCR in NSCLC patients. Efforts should be taken to alleviate FCR levels among NSCLC patients. Moreover, research is needed to investigate the possible link between immunotherapy efficacy and FCR.

14.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(10): 1133-1139, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A successful public health response during the COVID-19 pandemic pivots on the ability of health care workers (HCWs) to work through immense workplace-related physical and psychological pressures. OBJECTIVE: The aim of current study was to explore support needs of HCWs during the COVID-19 outbreak in Singapore and to identify implications for practice and workplace policies. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative approach was adopted in this study. HCWs from a major public health care cluster in Singapore (n = 612) responded to an open-ended question in an online survey. Results were analyzed using content analysis via an inductive approach. RESULTS: Five main themes that borrows from Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs emerged from content analysis, with 17 categories under the themes. The 5 main themes are: physical needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study indicate that there were many unmet needs among HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. An overview of various need areas identified in this study may guide future research and development of interventions to mitigate the negative impact of disease outbreaks on HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Singapore/epidemiology
15.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(12): 4011-4017, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035054

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, many reports have indicated that children shed the virus longer than adults in stool, and that most of the children had mild or even asymptomatic infections, which increased the potential risk for feces to be a source of contamination and may play an important role in the spread of the virus. In this review, we collected relevant literature to summarize the duration of fecal viral shedding in children with COVID-19. We found that in about 60% of the cases, the fecal shedding time was between 28 and 42 days, which was much longer than that of adults. We further explored the possible reason for prolonged shedding and its the potential impact. The poor hand hygiene practices of children, their tendency to swallow sputum and/or saliva, the significant difference in expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in intestine between children and adults, and the variance in immune status and intestinal microbiome could be considered as potential casual agents of longer fecal viral shedding duration of children.   Conclusion: Children with COVID-19 show prolonged fecal shedding compared to adults. Several mechanisms may be involved in the longer fecal viral shedding. Viral shedding in the stool could be contributing to a possible route of transmission. Therefore, we think that further preventive measures in children should be taken to reduce the spread of the disease. What is Known: • Children with COVID-19 are more likely to have asymptomatic infections and to experience mild symptoms. • Some patients continue to shed the virus in feces, despite respiratory samples testing negative. What is New: • Children with COVID-19 carried a longer-term fecal viral shedding than adults. • The poor hand hygiene practices of children, their tendency to swallow sputum and/or saliva, the difference in expression of ACE2 in intestine between children and adults, and the variance in immune status and intestinal microbiome could be considered as potential casual agents of longer fecal viral shedding duration of children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Adult , Humans , Virus Shedding , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections , RNA, Viral , Feces
17.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 68, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021289

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic remains a global public health crisis, presenting a broad range of challenges. To help address some of the main problems, the scientific community has designed vaccines, diagnostic tools and therapeutics for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The rapid pace of technology development, especially with regard to vaccines, represents a stunning and historic scientific achievement. Nevertheless, many challenges remain to be overcome, such as improving vaccine and drug treatment efficacies for emergent mutant strains of SARS-CoV-2. Outbreaks of more infectious variants continue to diminish the utility of available vaccines and drugs. Thus, the effectiveness of vaccines and drugs against the most current variants is a primary consideration in the continual analyses of clinical data that supports updated regulatory decisions. The first two vaccines granted Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs), BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, still show more than 60% protection efficacy against the most widespread current SARS-CoV-2 variant, Omicron. This variant carries more than 30 mutations in the spike protein, which has largely abrogated the neutralizing effects of therapeutic antibodies. Fortunately, some neutralizing antibodies and antiviral COVID-19 drugs treatments have shown continued clinical benefits. In this review, we provide a framework for understanding the ongoing development efforts for different types of vaccines and therapeutics, including small molecule and antibody drugs. The ripple effects of newly emergent variants, including updates to vaccines and drug repurposing efforts, are summarized. In addition, we summarize the clinical trials supporting the development and distribution of vaccines, small molecule drugs, and therapeutic antibodies with broad-spectrum activity against SARS-CoV-2 strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
18.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 1459232, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020470

ABSTRACT

Bufei decoction (BFD) has been applied to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for centuries as a recognized traditional Chinese herbal formula. However, mechanisms of BFD on COPD are unclear. This study conducts an inquiry into the underlying mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of BFD on COPD. A COPD rat model with qi deficiency in lungs was established through induction using cigarette and sawdust smoking combined with intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide following BFD treatment for 28 days. Changes in Th17/Treg cells of COPD rats with the syndrome of lung qi deficiency after BFD administration were verified using pulmonary function, ELISA, flow cytometry, histopathology, and Western blotting assays. The findings showed that BFD protected COPD rats from decreased lung function and lung injury. BFD administration reduced proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-17 secretion, promoted inhibitory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-ß secretion, decreased Th17/Treg cell ratio, markedly downregulated the Th17 cell transcription factor ROR-γt expression, and upregulated transcription factor Foxp3 expression in Treg cells. We speculate that lung tonic soup improved pulmonary qi deficiency in rats with COPD by regulating the balance of Th17/Treg cells.

19.
Virol J ; 19(1): 140, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection is the cornerstone of prompt patient care. However, the reliability of the antigen rapid diagnostic test (Ag-RDT) in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains inconclusive. METHODS: We conducted a field evaluation of Ag-RDT performance during the Shanghai Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine and screened 7225 individuals visiting our Emergency Department. 83 asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 (+) individuals were enrolled in the current study. Simultaneously, Ag-RDT was performed to evaluate its testing performance. RESULTS: For the Ag-RDT(-) cases, the average cycle threshold (Ct) values of the N gene were 27.26 ± 4.59, which were significantly higher than the Ct value (21.9 ± 4.73) of the Ag-RDT(+) individuals (p < 0.0001). The overall sensitivity of Ag-RDT versus that of RT-PCR was 43.37%. The Ag-RDT(+) individuals regarding the N gene's Ct value were 16 cases in the < 20 range, 12 in 20-25, 5 in 25-30, and 3 in 30-35. The corresponding sensitivity was 84.21%, 52.17%, 21.74% and 16.67%, respectively. Meanwhile, sampling had a straight specificity of 100% regardless of the Ct value. CONCLUSIONS: The Ag-RDT were extremely sensitive in asymptomatic COVID-19 individuals with a Ct value < 20.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Primary Health Care , Quarantine , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
J Affect Disord ; 318: 456-464, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various populations have experienced significant increases in depression and decreased quality of life (QOL) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This network analysis study was designed to elucidate interconnections between particular depressive symptoms and different aspects of QOL and identify the most clinically important symptoms in this network among adults in Wuhan China, the initial epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional, convenience-sampling study (N = 2459) was conducted between May 25 to June 18, 2020, after the lockdown policy had been lifted in Wuhan. Depressive symptoms and QOL were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and first two items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire - brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. A network structure was constructed from the extended Bayesian Information Criterion (EBIC) model. Network centrality strength and bridge strength were evaluated along with the stability of the derived network model. RESULTS: Loss of energy (DEP-4) and Guilt feelings (DEP-6) were the two central symptoms with the highest strength as well as the two most prominent bridge symptoms connecting the clusters of depression and quality of life (QOL) in tandem with the two nodes from the QOL cluster. Network structure and bridge strengths remained stable after randomly dropping 75 % of the sample. CONCLUSION: Interventions targeting "Loss of energy" and "Guilt feelings" should be evaluated as strategies for reducing depressive symptoms and promoting improved QOL in COVID-19-affected populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
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