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1.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125393

ABSTRACT

Development of safe and efficient vaccines is still necessary to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we reported that yeast-expressed recombinant RBD proteins either from wild-type or Delta SARS-CoV-2 were able to elicit immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. The wild-type RBD (wtRBD) protein was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, and the purified protein was used as the antigen to immunize mice after formulating an aluminium hydroxide (Alum) adjuvant. Three immunization programs with different intervals were compared. It was found that the immunization with an interval of 28 days exhibited the strongest immune response to SARS-CoV-2 than the one with an interval of 14 or 42 days based on binding antibody and the neutralizing antibody (NAb) analyses. The antisera from the mice immunized with wtRBD were able to neutralize the Beta variant with a similar efficiency but the Delta variant with 2~2.5-fold decreased efficiency. However, more NAbs to the Delta variant were produced when the Delta RBD protein was used to immunize mice. Interestingly, the NAbs may cross react with the Omicron variant. To increase the production of NAbs, the adjuvant combination of Alum and CpG oligonucleotides was used. Compared with the Alum adjuvant alone, the NAbs elicited by the combined adjuvants exhibited an approximate 10-fold increase for the Delta and a more than 53-fold increase for the Omicron variant. This study suggested that yeast-derived Delta RBD is a scalable and an effective vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1890-1899, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915484

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of many coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has been shown to decrease to varying extents against new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants, which are responsible for the continuing COVID-19 pandemic. Combining intramuscular and intranasal vaccination routes is a promising approach for achieving more potent immune responses. We evaluated the immunogenicity of prime-boost protocols with a chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 68 vector-based vaccine, ChAdTS-S, administered via both intranasal and intramuscular routes in BALB/c mice. Intramuscular priming followed by an intranasal booster elicited the highest levels of IgG, IgA, and pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titres among all the protocols tested at day 42 after prime immunization compared with the intranasal priming/intramuscular booster and prime-boost protocols using only one route. In addition, intramuscular priming followed by an intranasal booster induced high T-cell responses, measured using the IFN-γ ELISpot assay, that were similar to those observed upon intramuscular vaccination. All ChAdTS-S vaccination groups induced Th1-skewing of the T-cell response according to intracellular cytokine staining and Meso Scale Discovery cytokine profiling assays on day 56 after priming. This study provides reference data for assessing vaccination schemes of adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccines with high immune efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunization, Secondary , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pan troglodytes , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2135, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805610

ABSTRACT

Chronological age is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19. Previous findings indicate that epigenetic age could be altered in viral infection. However, the epigenetic aging in COVID-19 has not been well studied. In this study, DNA methylation of the blood samples from 232 healthy individuals and 413 COVID-19 patients is profiled using EPIC methylation array. Epigenetic ages of each individual are determined by applying epigenetic clocks and telomere length estimator to the methylation profile of the individual. Epigenetic age acceleration is calculated and compared between groups. We observe strong correlations between the epigenetic clocks and individual's chronological age (r > 0.8, p < 0.0001). We also find the increasing acceleration of epigenetic aging and telomere attrition in the sequential blood samples from healthy individuals and infected patients developing non-severe and severe COVID-19. In addition, the longitudinal DNA methylation profiling analysis find that the accumulation of epigenetic aging from COVID-19 syndrome could be partly reversed at late clinic phases in some patients. In conclusion, accelerated epigenetic aging is associated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and developing severe COVID-19. In addition, the accumulation of epigenetic aging from COVID-19 may contribute to the post-COVID-19 syndrome among survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aging/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Affect Disord ; 308: 337-342, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic could increase the number of older adults who are socially isolated including community-dwelling older adults, and result in the secondary damage of mental health. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association between social isolation transitions and psychological distress among the community-dwelling older adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in rural China. METHODS: A total of 2749 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years and older in rural Shandong, China were included. We used the generalized estimating equations (GEE) model to estimate the impact of social isolation transitions on psychological distress before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The percentage of high and very high psychological distress (K10 ≥ 22) was 23.54% and 31.36% before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively, indicating a 7.82% increase (P < 0.001). Compared with the group remaining nonisolated, "became socially isolated" and "remained isolated" groups were more likely to have a deterioration of psychological distress after experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic (became socially isolated: b = 0.92, P < 0.001; remained isolated: b = 0.98, P < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: The main variables in this study were measured by self-report information, which might result in recall bias. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, psychological distress increased among the community-dwelling older adults in rural China. There was a significant risk of psychological distress among those who had transitioned from nonisolation before the pandemic to social isolation after experiencing the pandemic, thus intervention on social isolation process during the pandemic may be important to protect older adults' mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 757481, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775973

ABSTRACT

Background: Some studies found that family doctor contract services (FDCSs) had positive impact on the self-measurement behaviors of hypertension patients. However, evidence concerning the association between FDCSs and blood pressure measurement awareness among hypertension patients is not clear. Objective: This study aims to explore the relationship between FDCSs and blood pressure measurement awareness among the hypertension patients, and examine whether there is a difference in this relationship among middle-aged and aged adults in rural Shandong, China. Methods: A multi-stage stratified random sampling was adopted in 2018 in Shandong Province to conduct a questionnaire survey among the sample residents, in which 982 hypertension patients were included in the study. Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression model were employed using SPSS 24.0 to explore the association between FDCSs and blood pressure measurement awareness. Results: 76.8% of hypertension patients would measure blood pressure regularly. The blood pressure measurement awareness of the signing group was significantly higher than that of the non-signing group when controlling other variables (P < 0.001, OR = 2.075, 95% CI 1.391-3.095). The interaction of age and contracting status were significantly correlated with blood pressure measurement awareness (P = 0.042, OR = 1.747, 95% CI 1.020-2.992; P = 0.019, OR = 2.060, 95% CI 1.129-3.759). Factors including gender (P = 0.011, OR = 0.499, 95% CI 0.291-0.855), household income (P = 0.031, OR = 1.764, 95% CI 1.052-2.956), smoking status (P = 0.002, OR = 0.439, 95% CI 0.260-0.739), sports habits (P < 0.001, OR = 2.338, 95% CI 1.679-3.257), self-reported health (P = 0.031, OR = 1.608, 95% CI 1.043-2.477), distance to the village clinic (P = 0.006, OR = 1.952, 95% CI 1.208-3.153) and medications (P < 0.001, OR = 3.345, 95% CI 2.282-4.904) were also found to be associated with the blood pressure measurement awareness of hypertension patients. Conclusion: The government should take efforts to strengthen publicity and education of family doctors and pay more attention to uncontracted, middle-aged, female patients and patients with unhealthy life behaviors to improve the blood pressure measurement awareness.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Contract Services , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hypertension , Adult , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Physicians, Family , Rural Population
7.
Clin Lab ; 67(9)2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest CT is important for the diagnosis of Corona Virus Disease 2019, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2 via the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. This study aimed to present special chest CT changes in the detection and management of COVID-19. METHODS: From February 20 to March 6, 2020, clinical data and chest CT of patients with COVID-19 being treated by the Hubei Medical Team were retrospectively analyzed with a time-interval of 2 weeks. In addition, the expressions of ACE2 in different parts of the respiratory system were detected by immunohistochemical staining to explain the special chest CT features of COVID-19 by ACE2 expression. RESULTS: Of 58 patients, the main respiratory manifestations were fever and cough. Spherical or patchy GGO was the initial CT manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia. CT findings manifested as rapid evolution from focal unilateral to diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities (GGO) that progressed to or co-existed with consolidations in chest CT scans. Lung consolidation increased as the disease progressed, accounting for 63.2%, 76.3%, and 87.5% in group 1 (disease course with 0 - 2 weeks), group 2 (2 - 4 weeks), and group 3 (> 4 weeks). Fibrous lesions (72.3%), high density vascular shadow (69.2%), reticular pattern (63.1%), and subpleural parallel sign (61.5%) were common signs of chest CT of COVID-19. IHC results showed that ACE2-expression in the pulmonary alveoli was significantly higher than that in the bronchial mucosa and pleura (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The special change of CT features in the lung of COVID-19 pneumonia patients have a connection with ACE2 expression patterns in the respiratory system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 43(4):620-623, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1352921

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by a new coronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), began in Wuhan, China. As of february 26, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has infected a total of 78 190 people and killed more than 2 700 people. Except China, Asia, Europe, North America, Africa, etc. Confirmed cases have been found in more than 20 countries. In addition, research data from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention showed that the proportion of asymptomatic new coronavirus infections accounted for about 1.2%. Besides, Asymptomatic infections are likely to remain infectious during the incubation periods. Conform the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and common detection methods will be vital for us to fight against this epidemic and to prevent a comeback of the new coronavirus in the future.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has alarming implications for individual and population level mental health. Although the future of COVID-19 is unknown at present, more countries or regions start to ease restrictions. The findings from this study have provided the empirical evidence of prevalence and patterns of mental disorders in Chinese general population before and after easing most COVID-19 restrictions, and information of the factors associated with these patterns. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based online survey was carried out from February to March 2020 in the general population across all provinces in China. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was incorporated in the survey. Latent class analyses were performed to investigate the patterns of mental disorders and multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine how individual and regional risk factors can predict mental disorder patterns. RESULTS: Four distinctive patterns of mental health were revealed in the general population. After the ease of most COVID-19 restrictions, the prevalence of high risk of mental disorders decreased from 25.8% to 20.9% and prevalence of being high risk of unhappiness and loss of confidence decreased from 10.1% to 8.1%. However, the prevalence of stressed, social dysfunction and unhappy were consistently high before and after easing restrictions. Several regional factors, such as case mortality rate and healthcare resources, were associated with mental health status. Of note, healthcare workers were less likely to have mental disorders, compared to other professionals and students. CONCLUSIONS: The dynamic management of mental health and psychosocial well-being is as important as that of physical health both before and after the ease of COVID-19 restrictions. Our findings may help in mental health interventions in other countries and regions while easing COVID-19 restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sadness , Stress, Psychological , Young Adult
10.
Clin Lab ; 67(7)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory epithelium expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the entry for novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), pathogen of the COVID-19 pneumonia outbreak, although a few recent studies have found different ACE2 expression in lung tissue of smokers. The effect of smoking on ACE2 expression and COVID-19 is still not clear. So, we did this research to determine the effect of smoking on ACE2 expression pattern and its relationship with the risk and severity of COVID-19. METHODS: The clinical data of COVID-19 patients with smoking and non-smoking were analyzed, and ACE2 expression of respiratory and digestive mucosa epithelia from smoker and non-smoker patients or healthy subjects were detected by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. RESULTS: Of all 295 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients, only 24 (8.1%) were current smokers with moderate smoking or above, which accounted for 54.2% of severe cases with higher mortality than non-smokers (8.3% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.018). Data analysis showed the proportion of smokers in COVID-19 patients was lower than that in general population of China (Z = 11.65, P < 0.001). IHC staining showed ACE2 expression in respiratory and digestive epithelia of smokers were generally downregulated. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of smokers in COVID-19 patients was lower, which may be explained by ACE2 downregulation in respiratory mucosa epithelia. However, smoking COVID-19 patients accounted for a higher proportion in severe cases and higher mortality than for non-smoking COVID-19 patients, which needs to be noted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects
11.
J Clin Apher ; 36(3): 429-436, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since early 2020, convalescent plasma has been widely used for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is limited information regarding donor tolerability of convalescent plasma donation. In this study, we evaluated the short-term donor tolerability of convalescent plasma donation. METHODS: A prospective study of 309 convalescent plasma donation related adverse events were conducted at Wuhan Blood Center of China, from February 12 to April 1, 2020. Additionally, up to 28-day post-donation follow-ups were performed on the donors. RESULTS: Sixteen (5.2%) adverse events were reported in 309 donations. All of these were mild vasovagal without loss of consciousness. The frequency of adverse reactions was higher in donors with a per donation volume of >8 mL/kg body weight or ≥ 600 mL, <100 mm Hg in pre-donation systolic blood pressure, or less than 28 days from the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. There was no correlation to donation history, weight, sex, ABO blood type, pre-donation diastolic blood pressure, pulse, or hemoglobin. CONCLUSION: The donation of convalescent plasma is generally safe. Mitigation of risk factors associated with adverse events can further enhance donor tolerability of convalescent plasma donation.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Plasma , Adult , China , Convalescence , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
12.
Clin Imaging ; 78: 223-229, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077833

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the extent of COVID-19 pneumonia on CT scans using quantitative CT imaging obtained early in the illness can predict its future severity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study on confirmed COVID-19 patients between January 18, 2020 and March 5, 2020. A quantitative AI algorithm was used to evaluate each patient's CT scan to determine the proportion of the lungs with pneumonia (VR) and the rate of change (RAR) in VR from scan to scan. Patients were classified as being in the severe or non-severe group based on their final symptoms. Penalized B-splines regression modeling was used to examine the relationship between mean VR and days from onset of symptoms in the two groups, with 95% and 99% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Median VR max was 18.6% (IQR 9.1-32.7%) in 21 patients in the severe group, significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than in the 53 patients in non-severe group (1.8% (IQR 0.4-5.7%)). RAR was increasing with a median RAR of 2.1% (IQR 0.4-5.5%) in severe and 0.4% (IQR 0.1-0.9%) in non-severe group, which was significantly different (P < 0.0001). Penalized B-spline analyses showed positive relationships between VR and days from onset of symptom. The 95% confidence limits of the predicted means for the two groups diverged 5 days after the onset of initial symptoms with a threshold of 11.9%. CONCLUSION: Five days after the initial onset of symptoms, CT could predict the patients who later developed severe symptoms with 95% confidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Lung , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 30, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic and the death toll is increasing. However, there is no definitive information regarding the type of clinical specimens that is the best for SARS-CoV-2 detection, the antibody levels in patients with different duration of disease, and the relationship between antibody level and viral load. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs, anal swabs, saliva, blood, and urine specimens were collected from patients with a course of disease ranging from 7 to 69 days. Viral load in different specimen types was measured using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Meanwhile, anti-nucleocapsid protein (anti-N) IgM and IgG antibodies and anti-spike protein receptor-binding domain (anti-S-RBD) IgG antibody in all serum samples were tested using ELISA. RESULTS: The positive detection rate in nasopharyngeal swab was the highest (54.05%), followed by anal swab (24.32%), and the positive detection rate in saliva, blood, and urine was 16.22%, 10.81%, and 5.41%, respectively. However, some patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs had other specimens tested positive. There was no significant correlation between antibody level and days after symptoms onset or viral load. CONCLUSIONS: Other specimens could be positive in patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs, suggesting that for patients in the recovery period, specimens other than nasopharyngeal swabs should also be tested to avoid false negative results, and anal swabs are recommended. The antibody level had no correlation with days after symptoms onset or the viral load of nasopharyngeal swabs, suggesting that the antibody level may also be affected by other factors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anal Canal/virology , Blood/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , False Negative Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling , Time Factors , Urine/virology
14.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 43(3):392-395, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-827730

ABSTRACT

In the process of novel coronavirus fighting, translational medicine has rapidly industrialized the existing scientific research achievements for clinical antiviral. On the other hand, it has feedback the clinical needs of the fight against virus to researchers, and has rapidly researched and developed new products for clinical use. Combined with the actual novel coronavirus, we summarized the important role played by translational medicine.

15.
Transfusion ; 60(8): 1773-1777, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus has caused an international outbreak. Currently, there are no specific therapeutic agents for coronavirus infections. Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy is a potentially effective treatment option. METHODS: Patients who had recovered from COVID-19 and had been discharged from the hospital for more than 2 weeks were recruited. COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP)-specific donor screening and selection were performed based on the following criteria: 1) aged 18-55 years; 2) eligible for blood donation; 3) diagnosed with COVID-19; 4) had two consecutive negative COVID-19 nasopharyngeal swab tests based on PCR (at least 24 hr apart) prior to hospital discharge; 5) had been discharged from the hospital for more than 2 weeks; and 6) had no COVID-19 symptoms prior to convalescent plasma donation. In addition, preference was given to CCP donors who had a fever lasting more than 3 days or a body temperature exceeding 38.5°C (101.3°F), and who donated 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms. CCP collection was performed using routine plasma collection procedures via plasmapheresis. In addition to routine donor testing, the CCP donors' plasma was also tested for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and S-RBD-specific IgG antibody. RESULTS: Of the 81 potential CCP donors, 64 (79%) plasma products were collected. There were 18 female donors and 46 male donors. There were 34 first-time blood donors and 30 repeat donors. The average time between CCP collection and initial symptom onset was 49.1 days, and the average time between CCP collection and hospital discharge was 38.7 days. The average volume of CCP collected was 327.7 mL. All Alanine transaminase (ALT) testing results met blood donation requirements. HIV Ag/Ab, anti-HCV, anti-syphilis, and HBsAg were all negative; NAT for HIV, HBV, and HCV were also negative. In addition, all of the CCP donors' plasma units were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Of the total 64 CCP donors tested, only one had an S-RBD-specific IgG titer of 1:160, all others had a titer of ≥1:320. CONCLUSION: Based on a feasibility study of a pilot CCP program in Wuhan, China, we demonstrated the success and feasibility of CCP collection. In addition, all of the CCP units collected had a titer of ≥1:160 for S-RBD-specific IgG antibody, which met the CCP quality control requirements based on the Chinese national guidelines for CCP.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Donor Selection/standards , Plasmapheresis/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Blood Donors , Blood Specimen Collection , COVID-19 , China , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult
16.
ACS Nano ; 14(9): 12125-12132, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720815

ABSTRACT

This article reports on a noninvasive approach in detecting and following-up individuals who are at-risk or have an existing COVID-19 infection, with a potential ability to serve as an epidemic control tool. The proposed method uses a developed breath device composed of a nanomaterial-based hybrid sensor array with multiplexed detection capabilities that can detect disease-specific biomarkers from exhaled breath, thus enabling rapid and accurate diagnosis. An exploratory clinical study with this approach was examined in Wuhan, China, during March 2020. The study cohort included 49 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 58 healthy controls, and 33 non-COVID lung infection controls. When applicable, positive COVID-19 patients were sampled twice: during the active disease and after recovery. Discriminant analysis of the obtained signals from the nanomaterial-based sensors achieved very good test discriminations between the different groups. The training and test set data exhibited respectively 94% and 76% accuracy in differentiating patients from controls as well as 90% and 95% accuracy in differentiating between patients with COVID-19 and patients with other lung infections. While further validation studies are needed, the results may serve as a base for technology that would lead to a reduction in the number of unneeded confirmatory tests and lower the burden on hospitals, while allowing individuals a screening solution that can be performed in PoC facilities. The proposed method can be considered as a platform that could be applied for any other disease infection with proper modifications to the artificial intelligence and would therefore be available to serve as a diagnostic tool in case of a new disease outbreak.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Nanostructures , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/analysis , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19 , China , Data Accuracy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Nature ; 583(7815): 282-285, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17844

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of viral pneumonia in China and across the world is associated with a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-21. This outbreak has been tentatively associated with a seafood market in Wuhan, China, where the sale of wild animals may be the source of zoonotic infection2. Although bats are probable reservoir hosts for SARS-CoV-2, the identity of any intermediate host that may have facilitated transfer to humans is unknown. Here we report the identification of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins (Manis javanica) seized in anti-smuggling operations in southern China. Metagenomic sequencing identified pangolin-associated coronaviruses that belong to two sub-lineages of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses, including one that exhibits strong similarity in the receptor-binding domain to SARS-CoV-2. The discovery of multiple lineages of pangolin coronavirus and their similarity to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that pangolins should be considered as possible hosts in the emergence of new coronaviruses and should be removed from wet markets to prevent zoonotic transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Eutheria/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genomics , Humans , Malaysia , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Zoonoses/virology
18.
Eur Radiol ; 30(8): 4407-4416, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-15134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between the imaging manifestations and clinical classification of COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study on patients with COVID-19 from Jan. 18, 2020 to Feb. 7, 2020 in Zhuhai, China. Patients were divided into 3 types based on Chinese guideline: mild (patients with minimal symptoms and negative CT findings), common, and severe-critical (patients with positive CT findings and different extent of clinical manifestations). CT visual quantitative evaluation was based on summing up the acute lung inflammatory lesions involving each lobe, which was scored as 0 (0%), 1 (1-25%), 2 (26-50%), 3 (51-75%), or 4 (76-100%), respectively. The total severity score (TSS) was reached by summing the five lobe scores. The consistency of two observers was evaluated. The TSS was compared with the clinical classification. ROC was used to test the diagnosis ability of TSS for severe-critical type. RESULTS: This study included 78 patients, 38 males and 40 females. There were 24 mild (30.8%), 46 common (59.0%), and 8 severe-critical (10.2%) cases, respectively. The median TSS of severe-critical-type group was significantly higher than common type (p < 0.001). The ICC value of the two observers was 0.976 (95% CI 0.962-0.985). ROC analysis showed the area under the curve (AUC) of TSS for diagnosing severe-critical type was 0.918. The TSS cutoff of 7.5 had 82.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of clinical mild-type patients with COVID-19 was relatively high; CT was not suitable for independent screening tool. The CT visual quantitative analysis has high consistency and can reflect the clinical classification of COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • CT visual quantitative evaluation has high consistency (ICC value of 0.976) among the observers. The median TSS of severe-critical type group was significantly higher than common type (p < 0.001). • ROC analysis showed the area under the curve (AUC) of TSS for diagnosing severe-critical type was 0.918 (95% CI 0.843-0.994). The TSS cutoff of 7.5 had 82.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. • The proportion of confirmed COVID-19 patients with normal chest CT was relatively high (30.8%); CT was not a suitable screening modality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Vision, Ocular
19.
Non-conventional | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-599888

ABSTRACT

From late December 2019 a new human-adapted coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was observed and isolated in clustered patients in Wuhan, China. It has been proved to be able to transmit human-to-human and cause pneumonia, leading to about 2% fatality. Its genome characteristics, immune responses and related potential treatments, such as chemical drugs, serum transfusion and vaccines including DNA vaccines, are discussed in this review for a brief summary.

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