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1.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046014

ABSTRACT

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 has exerted tremendous influences on the wellbeing of international students and the sustainable development of higher education. The current study adopts an 8-month exploratory case study to trace eight Chinese international students’ psychological and academic adjustments in the United Kingdom amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging from the qualitative data constitutive of semi-structured interviews, self-reflection writings, memoing, together with stimulated-recall interviews, findings have demonstrated the three main types of obstruction for such students’ adjustments in the foreign land including COVID-specific challenges (i.e., the threat of infect, reduced access to university facilities and resources);COVID-enhanced challenges (i.e., anxiety exacerbated by parents and social media use, anti-Asian racism and hate incidents);and language barriers and cultural differences as long-standing issues. Students’ previous lockdown experience, individual resilience, development of monocultural friendship patterns, and institutional provision and support are all factors that have contributed to their ability to overcome or at least mitigate the psychological and academic difficulties. The study offers insight into the impacts of COVID-19 on international students, providing implications that could contribute to the sustainable adjustments of international students in times of disruptive events and inform future responses to global health crises from individual and higher education perspectives.

2.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947381

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with potential resistance to existing drugs emphasizes the need for new therapeutic modalities with broad variant activity. Here we show that ensovibep, a trispecific DARPin (designed ankyrin repeat protein) clinical candidate, can engage the three units of the spike protein trimer of SARS-CoV-2 and inhibit ACE2 binding with high potency, as revealed by cryo-electron microscopy analysis. The cooperative binding together with the complementarity of the three DARPin modules enable ensovibep to inhibit frequent SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron sublineages BA.1 and BA.2. In Roborovski dwarf hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2, ensovibep reduced fatality similarly to a standard-of-care monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktail. When used as a single agent in viral passaging experiments in vitro, ensovibep reduced the emergence of escape mutations in a similar fashion to the same mAb cocktail. These results support further clinical evaluation of ensovibep as a broad variant alternative to existing targeted therapies for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 856711, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924078

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) could cause lethal diarrhea and dehydration in suckling piglets, which can adversely affect the development of the global swine industry. The lack of effective therapeutical and prophylactic treatment especially for PEDV variant strains underlines the importance of effective antiviral strategies, such as identification of novel antiviral agents. In the present study, the antiviral activity of cinchonine against PEDV was investigated in Vero CCL81 and LLC-PK1 cells at a non-cytotoxic concentration determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay in vitro. We found that cinchonine exhibited a significant suppression effect against PEDV infection and its inhibitory action was primarily focused on the early stage of PEDV replication. Moreover, we also observed that cinchonine could significantly induce autophagy by detecting the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II by using western blot analysis. Cinchonine treatment could inhibit PEDV replication in a dose-dependent manner in Vero CCL81 cells, while this phenomenon disappeared when autophagy was attenuated by pre-treatment with autophagy inhibitor 3MA. Consequently, this study indicated that cinchonine can inhibit PEDV replication via inducing cellular autophagy and thus from the basis for successful antiviral strategies which potentially suggest the possibility of exploiting cinchonine as a novel antiviral agent.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autophagy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cinchona Alkaloids , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2921, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864741

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus OC43 is a globally circulating common cold virus sustained by recurrent reinfections. How it persists in the population and defies existing herd immunity is unknown. Here we focus on viral glycoprotein S, the target for neutralizing antibodies, and provide an in-depth analysis of its antigenic structure. Neutralizing antibodies are directed to the sialoglycan-receptor binding site in S1A domain, but, remarkably, also to S1B. The latter block infection yet do not prevent sialoglycan binding. While two distinct neutralizing S1B epitopes are readily accessible in the prefusion S trimer, other sites are occluded such that their accessibility must be subject to conformational changes in S during cell-entry. While non-neutralizing antibodies were broadly reactive against a collection of natural OC43 variants, neutralizing antibodies generally displayed restricted binding breadth. Our data provide a structure-based understanding of protective immunity and adaptive evolution for this endemic coronavirus which emerged in humans long before SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Epitopes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Sci Immunol ; 7(73): eabp9312, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807305

ABSTRACT

The ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of Omicron, which displays notable immune escape potential through mutations at key antigenic sites on the spike protein. Many of these mutations localize to the spike protein ACE2 receptor binding domain, annulling the neutralizing activity of therapeutic antibodies that were effective against other variants of concern (VOCs) earlier in the pandemic. Here, we identified a receptor-blocking human monoclonal antibody, 87G7, that retained potent in vitro neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants including the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron (BA.1/BA.2) VOCs. Using cryo-electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis experiments, we showed that 87G7 targets a patch of hydrophobic residues in the ACE2-binding site that are highly conserved in SARS-CoV-2 variants, explaining its broad neutralization capacity. 87G7 protected mice and hamsters prophylactically against challenge with all current SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and showed therapeutic activity against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in both animal models. Our findings demonstrate that 87G7 holds promise as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent for COVID-19 that is more resilient to SARS-CoV-2 antigenic diversity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mice , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
6.
Frontiers in molecular biosciences ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695081

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a great source of threat to public health which could infect various species and cause diverse diseases. However, the epidemic’s spreading among different species remains elusive. This study proposed an in silico infection analysis (iSFA) system that includes pathogen genome or transcript mining in transcriptome data of the potential host and performed a comprehensive analysis about the infection of 38 coronaviruses in wild animals, based on 2,257 transcriptome datasets from 89 mammals’ lung and intestine, and revealed multiple potential coronavirus infections including porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection in Equus burchellii. Then, through our transmission network analysis, potential intermediate hosts of five coronaviruses were identified. Notably, iSFA results suggested that the expression of coronavirus receptor genes tended to be downregulated after infection by another virus. Finally, binding affinity and interactive interface analysis of S1 protein and ACE2 from different species demonstrated the potential inter-species transmission barrier and cross-species transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Meanwhile, the iSFA system developed in this study could be further applied to conduct the source tracing and host prediction of other pathogen-induced diseases, thus contributing to the epidemic prevention and control.

7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327732

ABSTRACT

The ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of Omicron, which displays striking immune escape potential. Many of its mutations localize to the spike protein ACE2 receptor-binding domain, annulling the neutralizing activity of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Here we describe a receptor-blocking human monoclonal antibody, 87G7, that retains ultrapotent neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants including the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron (BA.1/BA.2) Variants-of-Concern (VOCs). Structural analysis reveals that 87G7 targets a patch of hydrophobic residues in the ACE2-binding site that are highly conserved in SARS-CoV-2 variants, explaining its broad neutralization capacity. 87G7 protects mice and/or hamsters against challenge with all current SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. Our findings may aid the development of sustainable antibody-based strategies against COVID-19 that are more resilient to SARS-CoV-2 antigenic diversity. One sentence summary A human monoclonal antibody confers broad neutralization and protection against Omicron and other SARS-CoV-2 variants

8.
Interdiscip Sci ; 14(1): 15-21, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641016

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led to an rush to repurpose existing drugs, although the underlying evidence base is of variable quality. Drug repurposing is a technique by taking advantage of existing known drugs or drug combinations to be explored in an unexpected medical scenario. Drug repurposing, hence, plays a vital role in accelerating the pre-clinical process of designing novel drugs by saving time and cost compared to the traditional de novo drug discovery processes. Since drug repurposing depends on massive observed data from existing drugs and diseases, the tremendous growth of publicly available large-scale machine learning methods supplies the state-of-the-art application of data science to signaling disease, medicine, therapeutics, and identifying targets with the least error. In this article, we introduce guidelines on strategies and options of utilizing machine learning approaches for accelerating drug repurposing. We discuss how to employ machine learning methods in studying precision medicine, and as an instance, how machine learning approaches can accelerate COVID-19 drug repurposing by developing Chinese traditional medicine therapy. This article provides a strong reasonableness for employing machine learning methods for drug repurposing, including during fighting for COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(1): 72-81, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the performance of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in predicting adverse outcomes in women with preeclampsia. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Emcare databases from 1989 to March 2019 to identify studies correlating sFlt-1, PlGF, and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio with the occurrence of adverse outcomes in women with preeclampsia. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Two independent reviewers screened 3,194 studies using Covidence. Studies were included if they examined the performance of sFLT-1, PlGF, or the sFLT-1/PlGF ratio in predicting adverse outcomes in women with suspected or confirmed preeclampsia. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: We extracted contingency tables with true-positive, false-positive, true-negative, and false-negative results. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios, and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (area sROC) through a bivariate mixed-effects meta-analysis. Our literature search identified 3,194 articles, of which 33 (n=9,426 patients) were included. There was significant variation in the included studies with regard to the biomarkers and outcomes assessed. As such, few studies (n=4-8) were included in the meta-analysis component with significant heterogeneity between studies (I2=33-99). Nonetheless, both PlGF and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio demonstrated area sROC values between 0.68 and 0.87 for the prediction of composite adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes, preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. CONCLUSION: Placental growth factor and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio show prognostic promise for adverse outcomes in preeclampsia, but study heterogeneity limits their clinical utility. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42019136207.


Subject(s)
Placenta Growth Factor/blood , Pre-Eclampsia/blood , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4586, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387355

ABSTRACT

Heterogeneous immunoassays such as ELISA have become indispensable in modern bioanalysis, yet translation into point-of-care assays is hindered by their dependence on external calibration and multiple washing and incubation steps. Here, we introduce RAPPID (Ratiometric Plug-and-Play Immunodiagnostics), a mix-and-measure homogeneous immunoassay platform that combines highly specific antibody-based detection with a ratiometric bioluminescent readout. The concept entails analyte-induced complementation of split NanoLuc luciferase fragments, photoconjugated to an antibody sandwich pair via protein G adapters. Introduction of a calibrator luciferase provides a robust ratiometric signal that allows direct in-sample calibration and quantitative measurements in complex media such as blood plasma. We developed RAPPID sensors that allow low-picomolar detection of several protein biomarkers, anti-drug antibodies, therapeutic antibodies, and both SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. With its easy-to-implement standardized workflow, RAPPID provides an attractive, fast, and low-cost alternative to traditional immunoassays, in an academic setting, in clinical laboratories, and for point-of-care applications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/standards , Luminescent Measurements/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Calibration , GTP-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Immunoconjugates/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2511, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387317

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
J Infect Dis ; 223(12): 2020-2028, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246725

ABSTRACT

Effective clinical intervention strategies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed. Although several clinical trials have evaluated use of convalescent plasma containing virus-neutralizing antibodies, levels of neutralizing antibodies are usually not assessed and the effectiveness has not been proven. We show that hamsters treated prophylactically with a 1:2560 titer of human convalescent plasma or a 1:5260 titer of monoclonal antibody were protected against weight loss, had a significant reduction of virus replication in the lungs, and showed reduced pneumonia. Interestingly, this protective effect was lost with a titer of 1:320 of convalescent plasma. These data highlight the importance of screening plasma donors for high levels of neutralizing antibodies. Our data show that prophylactic administration of high levels of neutralizing antibody, either monoclonal or from convalescent plasma, prevent severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a hamster model, and could be used as an alternative or complementary to other antiviral treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Weight Loss/drug effects
13.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 377(2): 265-272, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234275

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an established cardiac side effect of a wide range of medications and represents a significant concern for drug safety. The rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ currents, mediated by channels encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) and KCNQ1 + KCNE1, respectively, are two main currents responsible for ventricular repolarization. The common cause for drugs to induce LQTS is through impairing the hERG channel. For the recent emergence of COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, several drugs have been investigated as potential therapies; however, there are concerns about their QT prolongation risk. Here, we studied the effects of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir on hERG channels. Our results showed that although chloroquine acutely blocked hERG current (IhERG), with an IC50 of 3.0 µM, hydroxychloroquine acutely blocked IhERG 8-fold less potently, with an IC50 of 23.4 µM. Azithromycin and remdesivir did not acutely affect IhERG When these drugs were added at 10 µM to the cell culture medium for 24 hours, remdesivir increased IhERG by 2-fold, which was associated with an increased mature hERG channel expression. In addition, these four drugs did not acutely or chronically affect KCNQ1 + KCNE1 channels. Our data provide insight into COVID-19 drug-associated LQTS and cardiac safety concerns. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This work demonstrates that, among off-label potential COVID-19 treatment drugs chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir, the former two drugs block hERG potassium channels, whereas the latter two drugs do not. All four drugs do not affect KCNQ1 + KCNE1. As hERG and KCNQ1 + KCNE1 are two main K+ channels responsible for ventricular repolarization, and most drugs that induce long QT syndrome (LQTS) do so by impairing hERG channels, these data provide insight into COVID-19 drug-associated LQTS and cardiac safety concerns.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/pharmacology , ERG1 Potassium Channel/antagonists & inhibitors , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , ERG1 Potassium Channel/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use
14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many put their hopes in the rapid availability of effective immunizations. Human milk, containing antibodies against syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may serve as means of protection through passive immunization. We aimed to determine the presence and pseudovirus neutralization capacity of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA in human milk of mothers who recovered from COVID-19, and the effect of pasteurization on these antibodies. METHODS: This prospective case control study included lactating mothers, recovered from (suspected) COVID-19 and healthy controls. Human milk and serum samples were collected. To assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies we used multiple complementary assays, namely ELISA with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (specific for IgA and IgG), receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) protein for IgG in serum, and bridging ELISA with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and N protein for specific Ig (IgG, IgM and IgA in human milk and serum). To assess the effect of pasteurization, human milk was exposed to Holder (HoP) and High Pressure Pasteurization (HPP). RESULTS: Human milk contained abundant SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 83% of the proven cases and in 67% of the suspected cases. Unpasteurized milk with and without these antibodies was found to be capable of neutralizing a pseudovirus of SARS-CoV-2 in (97% and 85% of the samples respectively). After pasteurization, total IgA antibody levels were affected by HoP, while SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody levels were affected by HPP. Pseudovirus neutralizing capacity of the human milk samples was only retained with the HPP approach. No correlation was observed between milk antibody levels and neutralization capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk from recovered COVID-19-infected mothers contains SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies which maintained neutralization capacity after HPP. All together this may represent a safe and effective immunization strategy after HPP.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lactation , Milk, Human/immunology , Pasteurization , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans
15.
Sci Adv ; 7(23)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219234

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody escape mutations highlights the urgent need for broadly neutralizing therapeutics. We previously identified a human monoclonal antibody, 47D11, capable of cross-neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV and protecting against the associated respiratory disease in an animal model. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of both trimeric spike ectodomains in complex with the 47D11 Fab. 47D11 binds to the closed receptor-binding domain, distal to the ACE2 binding site. The CDRL3 stabilizes the N343 glycan in an upright conformation, exposing a mutationally constrained hydrophobic pocket, into which the CDRH3 loop inserts two aromatic residues. 47D11 stabilizes a partially open conformation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike, suggesting that it could be used effectively in combination with other antibodies targeting the exposed receptor-binding motif. Together, these results reveal a cross-protective epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 spike and provide a structural roadmap for the development of 47D11 as a prophylactic or postexposure therapy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Structure-Activity Relationship
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1362-1370, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202205

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can infect many animal species, including minks, cats, and dogs. To gain insights into SARS-CoV-2 infections in cats and dogs, we developed and validated a set of serologic assays, including ELISA and virus neutralization. Evaluation of samples from animals before they acquired coronavirus disease and samples from cats roaming SARS-CoV-2-positive mink farms confirmed the suitability of these assays for specific antibody detection. Furthermore, our findings exclude SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein as an antigen for serologic screening of cat and dog samples. We analyzed 500 serum samples from domestic cats and dogs in the Netherlands during April-May 2020. We showed 0.4% of cats and 0.2% of dogs were seropositive. Although seroprevalence in cats and dogs that had unknown SARS-CoV-2 exposure was low during the first coronavirus disease wave, our data stress the need for development of continuous serosurveillance for SARS-CoV-2 in these 2 animal species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , Mink , Netherlands/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1715, 2021 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139739

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus spike glycoprotein, located on the virion surface, is the key mediator of cell entry and the focus for development of protective antibodies and vaccines. Structural studies show exposed sites on the spike trimer that might be targeted by antibodies with cross-species specificity. Here we isolated two human monoclonal antibodies from immunized humanized mice that display a remarkable cross-reactivity against distinct spike proteins of betacoronaviruses including SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV and the endemic human coronavirus HCoV-OC43. Both cross-reactive antibodies target the stem helix in the spike S2 fusion subunit which, in the prefusion conformation of trimeric spike, forms a surface exposed membrane-proximal helical bundle. Both antibodies block MERS-CoV infection in cells and provide protection to mice from lethal MERS-CoV challenge in prophylactic and/or therapeutic models. Our work highlights an immunogenic and vulnerable site on the betacoronavirus spike protein enabling elicitation of antibodies with unusual binding breadth.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/classification , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Humans , Mice , Protein Conformation , Protein Subunits , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 108, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As pregnancy is a physiological prothrombotic state, pregnant women may be at increased risk of developing coagulopathic and/or thromboembolic complications associated with COVID-19. METHODS: Two biomedical databases were searched between September 2019 and June 2020 for case reports and series of pregnant women with a diagnosis of COVID-19 based either on a positive swab or high clinical suspicion where no swab had been performed. Additional registry cases known to the authors were included. Steps were taken to minimise duplicate patients. Information on coagulopathy based on abnormal coagulation test results or clinical evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and on arterial or venous thrombosis, were extracted using a standard form. If available, detailed laboratory results and information on maternal outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: One thousand sixty-three women met the inclusion criteria, of which three (0.28, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.6) had arterial and/or venous thrombosis, seven (0.66, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.1) had DIC, and a further three (0.28, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.6) had coagulopathy without meeting the definition of DIC. Five hundred and thirty-seven women (56%) had been reported as having given birth and 426 (40%) as having an ongoing pregnancy. There were 17 (1.6, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.3) maternal deaths in which DIC was reported as a factor in two. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that coagulopathy and thromboembolism are both increased in pregnancies affected by COVID-19. Detection of the former may be useful in the identification of women at risk of deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Thromboembolism/virology , Venous Thrombosis/virology
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