Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 143
Filter
1.
Clinical Lung Cancer ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819457

ABSTRACT

Background Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, patients may encounter lung cancer care delays. Here, we sought to examine the impact of extended treatment delay for stage III-IV non-small-cell lung cancer on patient survival. Materials and Methods Using National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) and National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) data, Cox regression analysis with penalized smoothing splines was performed to examine the association between treatment delay and all-cause mortality for stage III-IV lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. In the NCDB, propensity score-matched analysis was used to compare cumulative survival in patients who received “early” versus “delayed” treatment (i.e., 0-30 versus 90-120 days following diagnosis). Results Cox regression analysis of the NLST (n=392) and NCDB (n=275,198) cohorts showed a decrease in hazard ratio the longer treatment was delayed. In propensity score-matched analysis, no significant differences in survival were found between early and delayed treatment for patients with stage IIIA, IIIB (T3-4,N2,M0), IIIC, and IV (M1B-C) adenocarcinoma and patients with IIIA, IIIB, IIIC, and IV squamous cell carcinoma (all log-rank P>0.05). For patients with stage IIIB (T1-2,N3,M0) and stage IV (M1A) adenocarcinoma, delayed treatment was associated with improved survival (log-rank P=0.03, P=0.02). The findings were consistent in sensitivity analysis accounting for wait time bias. Conclusion In this national analysis, for patients with stage III-IV adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, an extended treatment delay by 3-4 months was not associated with significantly decreased overall survival compared to prompt treatment. These findings can be used to guide decision-making during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. MICRO During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients may encounter lung cancer care delays. Using Cox regression analysis with penalized smoothing splines, propensity score-matched analysis, and LASSO regression models for 275,590 patients, we found that extended treatment delay from diagnosis was not associated with decreased survival compared to prompt treatment. These findings can help guide care priorities and decision-making during the pandemic.

2.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
3.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 801436, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775736

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study is designed to understand the situation of full-term infants breastfeeding within 6 months of birth in Xi'an before the Covid-19 pandemic and analyze the influencing factors of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods: Five hospitals in Xi'an province have been selected as research centers. Full-term infants who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited from these centers between January 1 and February 28, 2019. The feeding situation at 10 days, 42 days, 3 months, and 6 months after birth were investigated. A self-designed breastfeeding questionnaire was used for investigation and follow-up. SPSS 22.0 was applied for statistical analysis of the data. Results: The exclusive breastfeeding rate of full-term infants on days 10 and 42 and at months three and six after birth was 61.38%, 54.78%, 48.83%, and 38.78%, respectively, with a decreasing trend over time. During breastfeeding within 48 h after delivery, 1,653 cases (91.83%) of puerpera had different grades of pain, including 1,325 cases (80.16%) of mild discomfort, 321 cases (19.42%) of moderate pain, and seven cases (0.42%) of severe pain. Within 24-48 h postpartum, 1,607 (89.27%) mothers faced problems related to postpartum breastfeeding. Among them, 694 (43,19%) neonates could not be fed effectively; 665 (41.38%) mothers had wound pain and had inconvenience to turn over; 598 (37.21%) neonates were difficult to wake up; 439 (27.32%) mothers had incorrect feeding posture; 181 (11.26%) mothers experienced other problems. The Cox risk regression model showed that weight gain during pregnancy was higher than the recommended standard. Living in suburban counties was a risk factor of exclusive breastfeeding for full-term infants. Participation in breastfeeding courses during pregnancy, feeding more than eight times daily after delivery, were the protective factors of exclusive breastfeeding for full-term infants. Conclusion: The body weight gain of parturients should be controlled within a reasonable range during pregnancy. Parturients were encouraged by medical staff to participate in breastfeeding courses or watch the breastfeeding process during pregnancy to increase their self-confidence and improve the rate of exclusive breastfeeding for full-term infants. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen the publicity of breastfeeding in suburban areas to promote breastfeeding.

4.
Green Energy & Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1773326

ABSTRACT

Air-borne pollutants in particulate matter (PM) form, produced either physically during industrial processes or certain biological routes, have posed a great threat to human health. Particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic, effective filtration of the virus is an urgent matter worldwide. In this review, we first introduce some fundamentals about PM, including its source and classification, filtration mechanisms, and evaluation parameters. Advanced filtration materials and their functions are then summarized, among which polymers and MOFs are discussed in detail together with their antibacterial performance. The discussion on the application is divided into end-of-pipe treatment and source control. Finally, we conclude this review with our prospective view on future research in this area.

5.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis ; 12(1):87-95, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1763854

ABSTRACT

Natural long-chain alkanol and alkyl carboxylic acid were used to prepare novel hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents (HDESs). These HDESs are liquid at room temperature and have low viscosity (<12.26 mPa·s), low polarity (lower than that of methanol, ChCl-based deep eutectic solvents and other reported HDESs), and low density (<0.928 g/mL). A simple one-pot method based on a novel HDES -water two-phase extraction system was constructed for the extraction of weak-polarity bioactive components, anthraquinones, from Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. This HDES-based new extraction method does not consume hazardous organic solvents and can obtain a total anthraquinone yield of 21.52 mg/g, which is close to that obtained by the Chinese pharmacopoeia method (21.22 mg/g) and considerably higher than those by other reported HDESs-based extraction methods (14.20-20.09 mg/g, p < 0.01). The high extraction yield can be mainly attributed to the severe destruction of the RRR cell walls by the extraction system and the excellent dissolving ability of novel HDESs for anthraquinones.

6.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 81: 103869, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763976

ABSTRACT

The notion of social segregation refers to the degrees of separation between socially different population groups. Many studies have examined spatial and residential separations among different socioeconomic or racial populations. However, with the advancement of transportation and communication technologies, people's activities and social interactions are no longer limited to their residential areas. Therefore, there is a growing necessity to investigate social segregation from a mobility perspective by analyzing people's mobility patterns. Taking advantage of crowdsourced mobility data derived from 45 million mobile devices, we innovatively quantify social segregation for the twelve most populated U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). We analyze the mobility patterns between different communities within each MSA to assess their separations for two years. Meanwhile, we particularly explore the dynamics of social segregation impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The results demonstrate that New York and Washington D.C. are the most and least segregated MSA respectively among the twelve MSAs. Since the COVID-19 began, six of the twelve MSAs experienced a statistically significant increase in segregation. This study also shows that, within each MSA, the most and least vulnerable groups of communities are prone to interacting with their similar communities, indicating a higher degree of social segregation.

8.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756617

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has evolved into a panel of variants of concern (VOCs) and constituted a sustained threat to global health. The wildtype (WT) SARS-CoV-2 isolates fail to infect mice, while the Beta variant, one of the VOCs, has acquired the capability to infect standard laboratory mice, raising a spreading risk of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to mice. However, the infectivity and pathogenicity of other VOCs in mice remain not fully understood. In this study, we systematically investigated the infectivity and pathogenicity of three VOCs, Alpha, Beta, and Delta, in mice in comparison with two well-understood SARS-CoV-2 mouse-adapted strains, MASCp6 and MASCp36, sharing key mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) with Alpha or Beta, respectively. Our results showed that the Beta variant had the strongest infectivity and pathogenicity among the three VOCs, while the Delta variant only caused limited replication and mild pathogenic changes in the mouse lung, which is much weaker than what the Alpha variant did. Meanwhile, Alpha showed comparable infectivity in lungs in comparison with MASCp6, and Beta only showed slightly lower infectivity in lungs when compared with MASCp36. These results indicated that all three VOCs have acquired the capability to infect mice, highlighting the ongoing spillover risk of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to mice during the continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2, and that the key amino acid mutations in the RBD of mouse-adapted strains may be referenced as an early-warning indicator for predicting the spillover risk of newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

9.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753655

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly and led to over 5 million deaths to date globally. Due to the successively emerging mutant strains, therapeutics and prevention against the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), are urgently needed. Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in public and hospital areas is essential to reduce the frequency of infections. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with virucidal effects have been reported. Therefore, we investigated the virucidal activity and safety of ten types of AgNPs with different surface modifications and particle sizes, in cells exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. The AgNPs could effectively inhibit the activity of SARS-CoV-2, and different surface modifications and particle sizes conferred different virucidal effects, of which 50-nm BPEI showed the strongest antiviral effect. We concluded that the efficacy of each type of AgNP type was positively correlated with the corresponding potential difference (R2 = 0.82). These in vitro experimental data provide scientific support for the development of therapeutics against COVID-19, as well as a research basis for the development of broad-spectrum virucides. Given the increasing acquired resistance of pathogens against conventional chemical and antibody-based drugs, AgNPs may well be a possible solution for cutting off the route of transmission, either as an external material or a potential medicine.

10.
J Nat Prod ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747274

ABSTRACT

Eight new aspulvinone analogues, aspulvins A-H (1-8) and aspulvinones D, M, O, and R (9-12), were isolated from cultures of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. 7951. Detailed spectroscopic analyses were conducted to determine the structures of the new compounds. All isolates displayed different degrees of inhibitory activity against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 main protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro) at 10 µM. Notably, compounds 9, 10, and 12 showed potential SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibition with IC50 values of 10.3 ± 0.6, 9.4 ± 0.6, and 7.7 ± 0.6 µM, respectively. For all compounds except 3 and 4, the anti-inflammatory activity occurred by inhibiting the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with IC50 values ranging from 0.7 to 7.4 µM. Compound 10 showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting Casp-1 cleavage, IL-1ß maturation, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and pyroptosis. The findings reveal that the aspulvinone analogues 9, 10, and 12 could be promising candidates for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment as they inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection and reduce inflammatory reactions caused by SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736940

ABSTRACT

Contrary to public perception, hypertension remains one of the most important public health problems in the United States, affecting 46% of adults with increased risk for heart attack, stroke, and kidney diseases. The mechanisms underlying poorly controlled hypertension remain incompletely understood. Recent development in the Cre/LoxP approach to study gain or loss of function of a particular gene has significantly helped advance our new insights into the role of proximal tubule angiotensin II (Ang II) and its AT1 (AT1a) receptors in basal blood pressure control and the development of Ang II-induced hypertension. This novel approach has provided us and others with an important tool to generate novel mouse models with proximal tubule-specific loss (deletion) or gain of the function (overexpression). The objective of this invited review article is to review and discuss recent findings using novel genetically modifying proximal tubule-specific mouse models. These new studies have consistently demonstrated that deletion of AT1 (AT1a) receptors or its direct downstream target Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) selectively in the proximal tubules of the kidney lowers basal blood pressure, increases the pressure-natriuresis response, and induces natriuretic responses, whereas overexpression of an intracellular Ang II fusion protein or AT1 (AT1a) receptors selectively in the proximal tubules increases proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption, impairs the pressure-natriuresis response, and elevates blood pressure. Furthermore, the development of Ang II-induced hypertension by systemic Ang II infusion or by proximal tubule-specific overexpression of an intracellular Ang II fusion protein was attenuated in mutant mice with proximal tubule-specific deletion of AT1 (AT1a) receptors or NHE3. Thus, these recent studies provide evidence for and new insights into the important roles of intratubular Ang II via AT1 (AT1a) receptors and NHE3 in the proximal tubules in maintaining basal blood pressure homeostasis and the development of Ang II-induced hypertension.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Angiotensin II/genetics , Animals , Blood Pressure , Disease Models, Animal , Gain of Function Mutation , Humans , Hypertension/genetics , Loss of Function Mutation , Mice , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3/metabolism
12.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(3): e193-e202, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721237

ABSTRACT

Background: Safe and effective vaccines are urgently needed to end the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to assess the preliminary safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). Methods: This single centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1 trial of ARCoV was conducted at Shulan (Hangzhou) hospital in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled and randomly assigned using block randomisation to receive an intramuscular injection of vaccine or placebo. Vaccine doses were 5 µg, 10 µg, 15 µg, 20 µg, and 25 µg. The first six participants in each block were sentinels and along with the remaining 18 participants, were randomly assigned to groups (5:1). In block 1 sentinels were given the lowest vaccine dose and after a 4-day observation with confirmed safety analyses, the remaining 18 participants in the same dose group proceeded and sentinels in block 2 were given their first administration on a two-dose schedule, 28 days apart. All participants, investigators, and staff doing laboratory analyses were masked to treatment allocation. Humoral responses were assessed by measuring anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG using a standardised ELISA and neutralising antibodies using pseudovirus-based and live SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation assays. SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific T-cell responses, including IFN-γ and IL-2 production, were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay. The primary outcome for safety was incidence of adverse events or adverse reactions within 60 min, and at days 7, 14, and 28 after each vaccine dose. The secondary safety outcome was abnormal changes detected by laboratory tests at days 1, 4, 7, and 28 after each vaccine dose. For immunogenicity, the secondary outcome was humoral immune responses: titres of neutralising antibodies to live SARS-CoV-2, neutralising antibodies to pseudovirus, and RBD-specific IgG at baseline and 28 days after first vaccination and at days 7, 15, and 28 after second vaccination. The exploratory outcome was SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses at 7 days after the first vaccination and at days 7 and 15 after the second vaccination. This trial is registered with www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR2000039212). Findings: Between Oct 30 and Dec 2, 2020, 230 individuals were screened and 120 eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive five-dose levels of ARCoV or a placebo (20 per group). All participants received the first vaccination and 118 received the second dose. No serious adverse events were reported within 56 days after vaccination and the majority of adverse events were mild or moderate. Fever was the most common systemic adverse reaction (one [5%] of 20 in the 5 µg group, 13 [65%] of 20 in the 10 µg group, 17 [85%] of 20 in the 15 µg group, 19 [95%] of 20 in the 20 µg group, 16 [100%] of 16 in the 25 µg group; p<0·0001). The incidence of grade 3 systemic adverse events were none (0%) of 20 in the 5 µg group, three (15%) of 20 in the 10 µg group, six (30%) of 20 in the 15 µg group, seven (35%) of 20 in the 20 µg group, five (31%) of 16 in the 25 µg group, and none (0%) of 20 in the placebo group (p=0·0013). As expected, the majority of fever resolved in the first 2 days after vaccination for all groups. The incidence of solicited systemic adverse events was similar after administration of ARCoV as a first or second vaccination. Humoral immune responses including anti-RBD IgG and neutralising antibodies increased significantly 7 days after the second dose and peaked between 14 and 28 days thereafter. Specific T-cell response peaked between 7 and 14 days after full vaccination. 15 µg induced the highest titre of neutralising antibodies, which was about twofold more than the antibody titre of convalescent patients with COVID-19. Interpretation: ARCoV was safe and well tolerated at all five doses. The acceptable safety profile, together with the induction of strong humoral and cellular immune responses, support further clinical testing of ARCoV at a large scale. Funding: National Key Research and Development Project of China, Academy of Medical Sciences China, National Natural Science Foundation China, and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.

14.
Innovation (N Y) ; 3(2): 100221, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713028

ABSTRACT

The highly pathogenic and readily transmissible SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global coronavirus pandemic, urgently requiring effective countermeasures against its rapid expansion. All available vaccine platforms are being used to generate safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we generated a live-attenuated candidate vaccine strain by serial passaging of a SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolate in Vero cells. Deep sequencing revealed the dynamic adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells, resulting in a stable clone with a deletion of seven amino acids (N679SPRRAR685) at the S1/S2 junction of the S protein (named VAS5). VAS5 showed significant attenuation of replication in multiple human cell lines, human airway epithelium organoids, and hACE2 mice. Viral fitness competition assays demonstrated that VAS5 showed specific tropism to Vero cells but decreased fitness in human cells compared with the parental virus. More importantly, a single intranasal injection of VAS5 elicited a high level of neutralizing antibodies and prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice as well as close-contact transmission in golden Syrian hamsters. Structural and biochemical analysis revealed a stable and locked prefusion conformation of the S trimer of VAS5, which most resembles SARS-CoV-2-3Q-2P, an advanced vaccine immunogen (NVAX-CoV2373). Further systematic antigenic profiling and immunogenicity validation confirmed that the VAS5 S trimer presents an enhanced antigenic mimic of the wild-type S trimer. Our results not only provide a potent live-attenuated vaccine candidate against COVID-19 but also clarify the molecular and structural basis for the highly attenuated and super immunogenic phenotype of VAS5.

15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 776829, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702153

ABSTRACT

Background: In spite of strict regulation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preventive measures and containment in China, there are still confirmed cases sporadically occurring in many cities. College students live in groups and have active social activities so that it will trigger a serious public health event once an infection event occurs. Thus, identifying the status and related factors of protective behaviors among them after receiving vaccination will be crucial for epidemic control. This study aimed to gather information on the protective behaviors and to identify the associations of COVID-19 risk perception, eHealth literacy, and protective behaviors for Chinese college students following vaccination. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of college students engaged in protective behaviors post vaccination was conducted using the COVID-19 risk perception scale, eHealth literacy scale, and protective behaviors following vaccination questionnaire in one of the groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to confirm the correlation among the COVID-19 risk perception, eHealth literacy, and protective behaviors for Chinese college students. Results: A total of 5,641 Chinese college students were included. Male students comprised 59.01% with an average age of (21.39 ± 2.75) years and most students rating their health as very good (44.85%) or pretty good (46.98%). A smaller percentage (13.76%) believed that they would likely or most likely be infected with COVID-19 after getting vaccinated. In addition, more than 1 in 10 (10.35%) college students had ever suspected to suffer from post-vaccination reactions following the COVID-19 vaccination. The mean score of protective behaviors was 26.06 ± 3.97. Approximately one-third (30.42%) of the students always or often did not wear a mask when going out. Some college students (29.25%) did not maintain distance of at least 1 m from others in social situations. Older female college students who were in good health and perceived as being at a low risk of getting infected with COVID-19, and those never suspected to suffer from post-vaccination reactions expected to engage in post-vaccination protective measures. Those with a higher level of perceived risk, severe risk perception and eHealth literacy, and a lower level of unknown risk perception were more likely to engage in further protective behaviors after getting vaccinated. Conclusions: Overall, the level of protective behaviors among the Chinese college students following vaccination could be improved, especially for male, younger college students in poor health. This study revealed the predictive effects of risk perception and eHealth literacy on protective behaviors, recommending that the negative and positive effects of risk perception should be balanced in epidemic risk management, and eHealth literacy promotion should also be emphasized for public health and social measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Vaccination , Young Adult
16.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695765

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has led to observed increases in reported mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety symptoms. There is evidence attentional bias is associated with depression and anxiety, and it has been further suggested that anxiety sensitivity has a role in both the development and maintenance of depression and anxiety symptoms. Understanding these relationships may help inform preventative interventions for those at risk of mental health concerns. The present study explores the role of anxiety sensitivity, specifically physical and cognitive concerns, as a potential mediator of the relationship between attentional bias with depression and anxiety symptoms. Method Participants (n = 460) were recruited from the general population in China, and completed an online survey between February and March, 2020 which included the Attention to Positive and Negative Information Scale (APNI), Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3) and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). After exploring the correlations between the measures, mediation analysis was performed to explore the role of anxiety sensitivity (physical and cognitive subscales) in the relationship between attentional bias and depression and anxiety (as measured by the DASS-21). Results The results indicated that negative attention bias was significantly positively correlated with physical and cognitive concerns, physical and cognitive concerns were significantly positively correlated with depression and anxiety, and negative attention bias was significantly positively correlated with depression and anxiety (all ps < 0.001). Physical and cognitive anxiety sensitivity mediated the relationship between negative attention bias and both anxiety and depression symptoms. Conclusion Negative bias was associated with levels of anxiety and depression, and physical and cognitive anxiety sensitivity mediated associations between negative bias and anxiety and depression symptoms. The study provides theoretical support for intervention and guidance on individual mental health during the pandemic, and helps individuals increase their concern to negative emotions.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319506

ABSTRACT

Background: : In spite of strict regulation of COVID-19 preventative measures and containment in China, there are still confirmed cases sporadically occuring in many cities. College students are at a high risk of being infected, especially with the approach of vacation;thus, identifying the status and related factors of protective behaviors among them after receiving vaccination will be crucial for epidemic control. This study aimed to gather information on the protective behaviors and to identify the associations of COVID-19 risk perception, eHealth literacy and protective behaviors for Chinese college students following vaccination Methods: : A cross-sectional survey of college students who engaged in protective behaviors post vaccination was conducted using the COVID-19 risk perception scale and eHealth literacy scale in one of the groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to confirm the correlation between COVID-19 risk perception, eHealth literacy and protective behaviors for Chinese college students. Results: : A total of 5641 Chinese college students were included. Male students comprised 59.01% with an average age of (21.39±2.75) years and most students rating their health as very good (44.85%) or pretty good (46.98%). A smaller percentage (13.76%) believed that they would likely or most likely be infected with COVID-19 after getting vaccinated. In addition, more than 1 in 10 (10.35%) college students had ever suspected to suffer from post-vaccination reactions following the COVID-19 vaccination. The mean score of protective behaviors was (26.06±3.97) at the middle level. Approximately one-third (30.42%) of the students always or often did not wear a mask when going out. Some college students (29.25%) did not keep at least 1 meter away from others in social situations. Older female college students who were in good health and perceived as being at a low risk of getting infected with COVID-19 did not expect to engage in post-vaccination protective measures. Those with a higher level of perceived risk, severe risk perception and eHealth literacy and a lower level of unknown risk perception were more likely to engage in further protective behaviors after getting vaccinated. Conclusions: : Overall, the level of protective behaviors among Chinese college students following vaccination could use improvement, especially for male, younger college students in poor health. This study revealed the predictive effects of risk perception and eHealth literacy on protective behaviors, recommending that the negative and positive effects of risk perception should be balanced in epidemic risk management, and eHealth literacy promotion should also be emphasized for public health and social measures.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312188

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the advent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, in most parts of the world, people are still at risk of the disease. We aimed to establish a set of disability weights (DWs) for COVID-19 symptoms, evaluate the disease burden of inpatients, analyze the characteristics, and influencing factors of the disease. Methods: : The symptoms were identified by literature review and medical staff questionnaire. DWs of COVID-19 symptoms were determined by the person-trade-off approach proposed by the World Health Organization. The extracted medical records data of 2,702 randomly selected inpatients with COVID-19 at three temporary military hospitals in Wuhan, China, were analyzed and used to calculate the disability adjusted life years (DALY). Means DALY between gender and age groups were tested by analysis of variance. Multiple line regression models were used to determine the relationship between DALY and age, gender, body mass index, length of stay, symptom duration before admission, and native place. Results: : For the DALY of each inpatient, severe expiratory dyspnea and mild cough and sore throat had the highest (0.399) and lowest (0.004) weights, respectively. The average synthetic DALY and daily DALY were 2.29±1.33 and 0.18±0.15 days, respectively. Fever and fatigue contributed the largest DALY at 31.36%;nausea and vomiting, and anxiety and depression contributed the least at 7.05%. There were significant differences between gender and age groups in both synthetic and daily DALY. Age, body mass index, length of stay, and symptom duration before admission were strongly related to both synthetic and daily DALY. Conclusions: : COVID-19 and its symptoms could cause heavy disease burden. Although the disease burden was higher among females than in the males;however, their daily disease burdens were similar. Life value differs for different age groups;taking the changing life value with age into account;the disease burden in the younger population was higher than that in the older population. Besides, treatment at the hospitals relieved the disease burden efficiently, while delay in hospitalization could worsen it. Therefore, deployment of adequate medical resources for early hospitalization of patients with moderate or severe symptoms is needed by the public health authority.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311936

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak was announced as a global pandemic by the World Health Organisation in March 2020 and has affected a growing number of people in the past few weeks. In this context, advanced artificial intelligence techniques are brought to the fore in responding to fight against and reduce the impact of this global health crisis. In this study, we focus on developing some potential use-cases of intelligent speech analysis for COVID-19 diagnosed patients. In particular, by analysing speech recordings from these patients, we construct audio-only-based models to automatically categorise the health state of patients from four aspects, including the severity of illness, sleep quality, fatigue, and anxiety. For this purpose, two established acoustic feature sets and support vector machines are utilised. Our experiments show that an average accuracy of .69 obtained estimating the severity of illness, which is derived from the number of days in hospitalisation. We hope that this study can foster an extremely fast, low-cost, and convenient way to automatically detect the COVID-19 disease.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309717

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term functional outcome of discharged patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unresolved. We aimed to describe a six-month follow-up of functional status of COVID-19 survivors. Methods: We reviewed the data of COVID-19 patients who had been consecutively admitted to the Tumor Center of Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) between 15 February and 14 March 2020. We quantified a six-month functional outcome reflecting symptoms and disability in COVID-19 survivors using a post-COVID-19 functional status scale ranging from 0 to 5 (PCFS). We examined the risk factors for the incomplete functional status defined as a PCFS > 0 at a six-month follow-up after discharge. Results: We included a total of 95 COVID-19 survivors with a median age of 62 (IQR 53-69) who had a complete functional status (PCFS grade 0) at baseline in this retrospective observational study. At six-month follow-up, 67 (70.5%) patients had a complete functional outcome (grade 0), 9 (9.5%) had a negligible limited function (grade 1), 12 (12.6%) had a mild limited function (grade 2), 7 (7.4%) had moderate limited function (grade 3). Univariable logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the onset symptoms of muscle or joint pain and an increased risk of incomplete function (unadjusted OR 4.06, 95%CI 1.33 - 12.37). This association remained after adjustment for age and admission delay (adjusted OR 3.39, 95%CI 1.06 - 10.81, p = 0.039). Conclusions: A small proportion of discharged COVID-19 patients may have an incomplete functional outcome at a six-month follow-up;intervention strategies are required.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL