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1.
Front Psychol ; 13: 903147, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903165

ABSTRACT

With improvements in the public awareness regarding volunteer opportunities, more people are participating in social work, particularly during emergency events. The mental health of volunteers has been attracting more academic attention due to its increasing social significance. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior, a qualitative interview was conducted to identify important attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control factors guiding people's volunteering behaviors in an emergency context. Then, a sequential quantitative survey was implemented based on the results of the qualitative study to explore the impact of the aforementioned factors and job involvement on eudemonic well-being. The moderating role of empathy in these relationships was also investigated in this nested design. The results indicate that behavioral attitudes, perceived control, and job involvement have significant positive effects on volunteers' eudemonic well-being. A high perspective taking (cognitive empathy) of volunteers positively moderates the relationship between job involvement and eudemonic well-being, while high personal distress (affective empathy) buffers this relationship. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed in relation to emergency volunteer activities.

2.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 49(8): 2994-3004, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844354

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Distinct physiological states arise from complex interactions among the various organs present in the human body. PET is a non-invasive modality with numerous successful applications in oncology, neurology, and cardiology. However, while PET imaging has been applied extensively in detecting focal lesions or diseases, its potential in detecting systemic abnormalities is seldom explored, mostly because total-body imaging was not possible until recently. METHODS: In this context, the present study proposes a framework capable of constructing an individual metabolic abnormality network using a subject's whole-body 18F-FDG SUV image and a normal control database. The developed framework was evaluated in the patients with lung cancer, the one discharged after suffering from Covid-19 disease, and the one that had gastrointestinal bleeding with the underlying cause unknown. RESULTS: The framework could successfully capture the deviation of these patients from healthy subjects at the level of both system and organ. The strength of the altered network edges revealed the abnormal metabolic connection between organs. The overall deviation of the network nodes was observed to be highly correlated to the organ SUV measures. Therefore, the molecular connectivity of glucose metabolism was characterized at a single subject level. CONCLUSION: The proposed framework represents a significant step toward the use of PET imaging for identifying metabolic dysfunction from a systemic perspective. A better understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms and the physiological interpretation of the interregional connections identified in the present study warrant further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Whole Body Imaging
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321361

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as an infectious disease with cytokine storm, has become an emerging global challenge. To assess the duration of SARS-COV-2 viral shedding and associated risk factors in COVID-19 patients. Methods: : COVID-19 patients with interleukin (IL)-1b, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokines data consecutively admitted to Tongji Hospital from January 27, 2020 through February 5, 2020 were enrolled and been followed up until March 24, 2020. We utilized Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to assess the duration of viral shedding and risk factors affecting virus clearance. Results: : 246 inpatients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled. The median duration of viral shedding was 24 days, ranging from 6 to 63 days. Age, severity of COVID-19, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, ferritin and sIL-2R were associated with duration of viral shedding. Administration of lopinavir-ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir and intravenous immunoglobulin did not shorten viral shedding time. Multivariate cox regression analysis revealed that sIL-2R, LDH and severity of COVID-19 were independent factors associated with duration of viral shedding. At stratified analysis, the viral shedding time was positively correlated with age, sIL-2R and LDH in non-corticosteroid subgroup, while negatively correlated with lymphocyte count in corticosteroid group. Conclusions: : The present study demonstrated that elevated sIL-2R, increased LDH and severe status were related to prolongation of viral shedding in COVID-19 inpatients. Further research is urgent to investigate the mechanism of immune reaction involved in the virus clearance process and aim to the optimal antiviral therapy.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4012-e4019, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of leflunomide, an approved dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor, to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with prolonged postsymptomatic viral shedding. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients with prolonged polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either leflunomide (50 mg every 12 hours, 3 consecutive times, orally; then 20 mg once daily for 8 days), in addition to nebulized interferon alpha 2a (IFN-α-2a, 3 million IU each time, twice daily for 10 days), or nebulized IFN-α-2a alone for 10 days. The primary endpoint was the duration of viral shedding. RESULTS: A total of 50 COVID-19 patients with prolonged PCR positivity were randomized into 2 groups: 26 were assigned to the leflunomide plus IFN-α-2a group, and 24 were assigned to the interferon-alone group. Treatment with leflunomide was not associated with a difference from the interferon-alone group in the duration of viral shedding (hazard ratio for negative reverse-transcription PCR, 0.70 [95% confidence interval, .391-1.256]; P = .186). In addition, the patients given leflunomide did not have a substantially shorter length of hospital stay than patients treated with interferon alone, with median durations of 29.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 19.3-47.3) days and 33.0 (IQR, 29.3-42.8) days, respectively (P = .170). Two leflunomide recipients were unable to complete the full 10-day course of administration due to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients with prolonged PCR positivity, no benefit in terms of the duration of viral shedding was observed with the combined treatment of leflunomide and IFN-α-2a beyond IFN-α-2a alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Leflunomide/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Virus Shedding
5.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(2): e1251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to gain an understanding of the paradox of the immunity in COVID-19 patients with T cells showing both functional defects and hyperactivation and enhanced proliferation. METHODS: A total of 280 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 were evaluated for cytokine profiles and clinical features including viral shedding. A mouse model of acute infection by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was applied to dissect the relationship between immunological, virological and pathological features. The results from the mouse model were validated by published data set of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The levels of soluble CD25 (sCD25), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were higher in severe COVID-19 patients than non-severe cases, but only sCD25 was identified as an independent risk factor for disease severity by multivariable binary logistic regression analysis and showed a positive association with the duration of viral shedding. In agreement with the clinical observation, LCMV-infected mice with high levels of sCD25 demonstrated insufficient anti-viral response and delayed viral clearance. The elevation of sCD25 in mice was mainly contributed by the expansion of CD25+CD8+ T cells that also expressed the highest level of PD-1 with pro-inflammatory potential. The counterpart human CD25+PD-1+ T cells were expanded in BALF of COVID-19 patients with severe disease compared to those with modest disease. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high levels of sCD25 in COVID-19 patients probably result from insufficient anti-viral immunity and indicate an expansion of pro-inflammatory T cells that contribute to disease severity.

7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 108, 2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases has rapidly increased all over the world. Specific information about immunity in non-survivors with COVID-19 is scarce. This study aimed to analyse the clinical characteristics and abnormal immunity of the confirmed COVID-19 non-survivors. METHODS: In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 125 patients with COVID-19 who were died between January 13 and March 4, 2020 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. A total of 414 randomly recruited patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were discharged from the same hospital during the same period served as control. The demographic, clinical characteristics and laboratory findings at admission, and treatment used in these patients were collected. The immunity-related risk factors associated with in-hospital death were tested by logistic regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Non-survivors (70 years, IQR: 61.5-80) were significantly older than survivors (54 years, IQR: 37-65) (P <  0.001). 56.8% of non-survivors was male. Nearly half of the patients (44.9%) had chronic medical illness. In non-survivors, hypertension (49.6%) was the most common comorbidity, followed by diabetes (20.0%) and coronary heart disease (16.0%). The common signs and symptoms at admission of non-survivors were fever (88%), followed by cough (64.8%), dyspnea (62.4%), fatigue (62.4%) and chest tightness (58.4%). Compared with survivors, non-survivors had higher white blood cell (WBC) count (7.85 vs 5.07 × 109/L), more elevated neutrophil count (6.41 vs 3.08 × 109/L), smaller lymphocyte count (0.69 vs 1.20 × 109/L) and lower platelet count (172 vs 211 × 109/L), raised concentrations of procalcitonin (0.21 vs 0.06 ng/mL) and CRP (70.5 vs 7.2 mg/L) (P < 0.001). This was accompanied with significantly decreased levels of CD3+ T cells (277 vs 814 cells/µl), CD4+ T cells (172 vs 473 cells/µl), CD8+ T cells (84 vs 262.5 cells/µl, P < 0.001), CD19+ T cells (88 vs 141 cells/µl) and CD16+ 56+ T cells (79 vs 128.5 cells/µl) (P < 0.001). The concentrations of immunoglobulins (Ig) G (13.30 vs 11.95 g/L), IgA (2.54 vs 2.21 g/L), and IgE (71.30 vs 42.25 IU/ml) were increased, whereas the levels of complement proteins (C)3 (0.89 vs 0.99 g/L) and C4 (0.22 vs 0.24 g/L) were decreased in non-survivors when compared with survivors (all P < 0.05). The non-survivors presented lower levels of oximetry saturation (90 vs 97%) at rest and lactate (2.40 vs 1.90 mmol/L) (P < 0.001). Old age, comorbidity of malignant tumor, neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, low CD4+ T cells, decreased C3, and low oximetry saturation were the risk factors of death in patients with confirmed COVID-19. The frequency of CD4+ T cells positively correlated with the numbers of lymphocytes (r = 0.787) and the level of oximetry saturation (r = 0.295), Whereas CD4+ T cells were negatively correlated with age (r =-0.323) and the numbers of neutrophils (r = - 0.244) (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal cellular immunity and humoral immunity were key features of non-survivors with COVID-19. Neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, low CD4+ T cells, and decreased C3 were immunity-related risk factors predicting mortality of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 219-225, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the proportion and characteristics of asymptomatic infection among healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: This study retrospectively investigated 1407 HCWs who were screened for COVID-19 by chest computed tomography (CT) scans and nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. Demographics, CT features, nasopharyngeal swabs, baseline symptoms, and laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: Of 1407 HCWs, 235 had symptoms and 1172 were asymptomatic close contacts, of which, 107 were symptomatic cases and 84 were close contacts who had abnormal CT findings. Of 152 symptomatic individuals and 908 close contacts tested for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, 122 symptomatic cases and 38 close contacts had positive reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain (RT-PCR) test results. The rate of confirmed asymptomatic infections was 4.2% (38/908). Both symptomatic and asymptomatic infected cases had high titrations of specific IgG or had ≥four-fold increase in IgG during convalescence compared with the acute phase. Combining the RT-PCR tests and serological findings, the rate of asymptomatic infections was 9.7% (88/908). In terms of the duration of viral shedding, there was no significant difference between symptomatic mild/moderate participants and asymptomatic infections. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrated that a high rate of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers existed among healthcare worker close contacts during the outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Teaching , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , COVID-19 , Carrier State , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
9.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 725-733, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659402

ABSTRACT

We recently reported that inhibitors against human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) have broad-spectrum antiviral activities including their inhibitory efficacies on SARS-CoV-2 replication in infected cells. However, there are limited data from clinical studies to prove the application of DHODH inhibitors in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In the present study, we evaluated Leflunomide, an approved DHODH inhibitor widely used as a modest immune regulator to treat autoimmune diseases, in treating COVID-19 disease with a small-scale of patients. Cases of 10 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients of moderate type with obvious opacity in the lung were included. Five of the patients were treated with Leflunomide, and another five were treated as blank controls without a placebo. All the patients accepted standard supportive treatment for COVID-19. The patients given Leflunomide had a shorter viral shedding time (median of 5 days) than the controls (median of 11 days, P = 0.046). The patients given Leflunomide also showed a significant reduction in C-reactive protein levels, indicating that immunopathological inflammation was well controlled. No obvious adverse effects were observed in Leflunomide-treated patients, and they all discharged from the hospital faster than controls. This preliminary study on a small-scale compassionate use of Leflunomide provides clues for further understanding of Leflunomide as a potential antiviral drug against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Leflunomide/administration & dosage , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects
10.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(5): 1811-1823, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global pandemic disease, with more than 4 million cases and nearly 300,000 deaths. Little is known about COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to evaluate the influence of preexisting COPD on the progress and outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study. We enrolled 1,048 patients aged 40 years and above, including 50 patients with COPD and 998 patients without COPD, and with COVID-19 confirmed via high-throughput sequencing or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, between December 11, 2019 and February 20, 2020. We collected data of demographics, pathologic test results, radiologic imaging, and treatments. The primary outcomes were composite endpoints determined by admission to an intensive care unit, the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: Compared with patients who had COVID-19 but not COPD, those with COPD had higher rates of fatigue (56.0% vs. 40.2%), dyspnea (66.0% vs. 26.3%), diarrhea (16.0% vs. 3.6%), and unconsciousness (8.0% vs. 1.7%) and a significantly higher proportion of increased activated partial thromboplastin time (23.5% vs. 5.2%) and D-dimer (65.9% vs. 29.3%), as well as ground-glass opacities (77.6% vs. 60.3%), local patchy shadowing (61.2% vs. 41.4%), and interstitial abnormalities (51.0% vs. 19.8%) on chest computed tomography. Patients with COPD were more likely to develop bacterial or fungal coinfection (20.0% vs. 5.9%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (20.0% vs. 7.3%), septic shock (14.0% vs. 2.3%), or acute renal failure (12.0% vs. 1.3%). Patients with COPD and COVID-19 had a higher risk of reaching the composite endpoints [hazard ratio (HR): 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-3.38; P=0.001] or death (HR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.15-4.51; P=0.019), after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, patients with COPD who developed COVID-19 showed a higher risk of admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, or death.

11.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2684-2692, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has turned into a public health emergency of international concern. Epidemiological research has shown that sex is associated with the severity of COVID-19, but the underlying mechanism of sex predisposition remains poorly understood. We aim to study the gendered differences in inflammation reaction, and the association with severity and mortality of COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 548 COVID-19 inpatients from Tongji Hospital from 26 January to 5 February 2020, and followed up to 3 March 2020. Epidemiological, demographic and clinical features, and inflammatory indexes were collected and compared between males and females. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to identify the gendered effect on mortality of COVID-19 after adjusting for age, comorbidity, and smoking history. The multiple linear regression method was used to explore the influence of sex on inflammation reaction. RESULTS: Males had higher mortality than females did (22.2% vs 10.4%), with an hazard ratio of 1.923 (95% confidence interval, 1.181-3.130); elder age and comorbidity were significantly associated with decease of COVID-19 patients. Excess inflammation reaction was related to severity of COVID-19. Male patients had greater inflammation reaction, with higher levels of interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor-α, lactose dehydrogenase, ferritin, and hyper-sensitive C-reactive protein, but a lower lymphocyte count than females adjusted by age and comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Sex, age, and comorbidity are critical risk factors for mortality of COVID-19. Excess innate immunity and proinflammation activity, and deficiency in adaptive immunity response promote males, especially elder males, to develop a cytokine storm, causing potential acute respiratory distressed syndrome, multiple organ failure and decease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Young Adult
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(1): 110-118, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurred in Wuhan. Data on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 are limited. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the severity on admission, complications, treatment, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to Tongji Hospital from January 26, 2020, to February 5, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled and followed-up until March 3, 2020. Potential risk factors for severe COVID-19 were analyzed by a multivariable binary logistic model. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used for survival analysis in severe patients. RESULTS: We identified 269 (49.1%) of 548 patients as severe cases on admission. Older age, underlying hypertension, high cytokine levels (IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α), and high lactate dehydrogenase level were significantly associated with severe COVID-19 on admission. The prevalence of asthma in patients with COVID-19 was 0.9%, markedly lower than that in the adult population of Wuhan. The estimated mortality was 1.1% in nonsevere patients and 32.5% in severe cases during the average 32 days of follow-up period. Survival analysis revealed that male sex, older age, leukocytosis, high lactate dehydrogenase level, cardiac injury, hyperglycemia, and high-dose corticosteroid use were associated with death in patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with older age, hypertension, and high lactate dehydrogenase level need careful observation and early intervention to prevent the potential development of severe COVID-19. Severe male patients with heart injury, hyperglycemia, and high-dose corticosteroid use may have a high risk of death.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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