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1.
Front Physiol ; 13: 880966, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35492597

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of ultrasound medical imaging technology has greatly broadened the scope of application of ultrasound, which has been widely used in the screening, diagnosis of breast diseases and so on. However, the presence of excessive speckle noise in breast ultrasound images can greatly reduce the image resolution and affect the observation and judgment of patients' condition. Therefore, it is particularly important to investigate image speckle noise suppression. In the paper, we propose fast speckle noise suppression algorithm in breast ultrasound image using three-dimensional (3D) deep learning. Firstly, according to the gray value of the breast ultrasound image, the input breast ultrasound image contrast is enhanced using logarithmic and exponential transforms, and guided filter algorithm was used to enhance the details of glandular ultrasound image, and spatial high-pass filtering algorithm was used to suppress the excessive sharpening of breast ultrasound image to complete the pre-processing of breast ultrasound image and improve the image clarity; Secondly, the pre-processed breast ultrasound images were input into the 3D convolutional cloud neural network image speckle noise suppression model; Finally, the edge sensitive terms were introduced into the 3D convolutional cloud neural network to suppress the speckle noise of breast ultrasound images while retaining image edge information. The experiments demonstrate that the mean square error and false recognition rate all reduced to below 1.2% at the 100th iteration of training, and the 3D convolutional cloud neural network is well trained, and the signal-to-noise ratio of ultrasound image speckle noise suppression is greater than 60 dB, the peak signal-to-noise ratio is greater than 65 dB, the edge preservation index value exceeds the experimental threshold of 0.45, the speckle noise suppression time is low, the edge information is well preserved, and the image details are clearly visible. The speckle noise suppression time is low, the edge information is well preserved, and the image details are clearly visible, which can be applied to the field of breast ultrasound diagnosis.

2.
Brain Sci ; 12(6)2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35741636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multi-modal neuroimaging with appropriate atlas is vital for effectively differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from healthy controls (HC). METHODS: The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and structural MRI (sMRI) of 69 MCI patients and 61 HC subjects were collected. Then, the gray matter volumes obtained from the sMRI and Hurst exponent (HE) values calculated from rs-fMRI data in the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL-90), Brainnetome (BN-246), Harvard-Oxford (HOA-112) and AAL3-170 atlases were extracted, respectively. Next, these characteristics were selected with a minimal redundancy maximal relevance algorithm and a sequential feature collection method in single or multi-modalities, and only the optimal features were retained after this procedure. Lastly, the retained characteristics were served as the input features for the support vector machine (SVM)-based method to classify MCI patients, and the performance was estimated with a leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV). RESULTS: Our proposed method obtained the best 92.00% accuracy, 94.92% specificity and 89.39% sensitivity with the sMRI in AAL-90 and the fMRI in HOA-112 atlas, which was much better than using the single-modal or single-atlas features. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that the multi-modal and multi-atlas integrated method could effectively recognize MCI patients, which could be extended into various neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases.

3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(12)2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35745403

ABSTRACT

Low-bandgap (Eg~1.25 eV) mixed tin-lead (Sn-Pb) perovskites are promising candidates for efficient solar cells and self-powered photodetectors; however, they suffer from huge amounts of defects due to the unintentional p-type self-doping. In this work, the synergistic effects of maltol and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were achieved to improve the performance of low-bandgap perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and unbiased perovskite photodetectors (PPDs) by passivating the defects and tuning charge transfer dynamics. Maltol eliminated the Sn-related traps in perovskite films through a strong metal chelating effect, whereas PCBM elevated the built-in electric potential and thus improved voltage through the spike energy alignment. Combining both advantages of maltol and PCBM, high-quality perovskite films were obtained, enabling low-bandgap PSCs with the best efficiency of 20.62%. Moreover, the optimized PSCs were further applied as self-powered PPDs in a visible light communication system with a response time of 0.736 µs, presenting a satisfactory audio transmission capability.

4.
Elife ; 112022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748536

ABSTRACT

B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Clinically, metformin is used to treat PCOS, but it is unclear whether metformin exerts its therapeutic effect by regulating B cells. Here, we showed that the expression level of TNF-α in peripheral blood B cells from PCOS patient was increased. Metformin used in vitro and in vivo was able to reduce the production of TNF-α in B cells from PCOS patient. Administration of metformin improved mouse PCOS phenotypes induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and also inhibited TNF-α expression in splenic B cells. Further, metformin induced metabolic reprogramming of B cells in PCOS patients, including the alteration in mitochondrial morphology, the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production and glucose uptake. In DHEA-induced mouse PCOS model, metformin altered metabolic intermediates in splenic B cells. Moreover, the inhibition of TNF-α expression and metabolic reprogramming in B cells of PCOS patients and mouse model by metformin were associated with decreased mTOR phosphorylation. Together, TNF-α-producing B cells are involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS, and metformin inhibits mTOR phosphorylation and affects metabolic reprogramming, thereby inhibiting TNF-α expression in B cells, which may be a new mechanism of metformin in the treatment of PCOS.

5.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 166, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes of total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk surgery and hybrid debranching surgery for acute type A aortic dissection patients. METHODS: From January 2017 to December 2019, the clinical data of acute type A aortic dissection patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed. There were 142 patients underwent total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk surgery and 35 patients underwent hybrid debranching surgery. RESULT: The age, the body mass index and the renal insufficiency of patients in the hybrid group were higher than those in the total arch replacement (TAR) group (all P < 0.01). The operation time, the cardiopulmonary bypass time and the aortic occlusion time of patients in the TAR group were significantly longer than those in the hybrid group (all P < 0.01). Patients in the debranching group had shorter ventilator-assisted breathing time, shorter postoperative hospital stay time and shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay time. The incidence of pulmonary infection and transient neurological dysfunction were lower, and the transfusions of red blood cells and plasma during the perioperative period were smaller. The survival rates at 2 years were 91.9% and 85.9% in the TAR and hybrid groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hybrid debranching operation is a safe and effective method for acute type A aortic dissection. Compared with TAR surgery, hybrid debranching surgery has the characteristics of less trauma, rapid recovery and lower incidence of complication.

6.
Ann Oper Res ; : 1-25, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729984

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to study the intelligent customs declaration of cross-border e-commerce commodities from algorithm design and implementation. The difficulty of this issue is the recognition of commodity names, materials, and processing processes. Because the process of recognizing these three kinds of commodity information is similar, this paper chooses to identify the commodity name as the experimental research object. The algorithm in this paper is based on the premise of pre-clustering, using an optimal window mechanism to obtain the best word embedding vector representation. The Vision Transformer model extracts image features instead of traditional CNN models, and then text features are fused with image features to generate a multi-modal semantically feature vector. Finally, a deep forest classifier replaces the conventional neural network classifiers to complete the commodity name recognition task. The experimental results show that, for more than 600 different commodities on the 120,000 data records, the precision is 0.85, the recall is 0.87, and the F 1 _score is 0.86. So, our algorithm can effectively and accurately recognize e-commerce commodity names and provide a new perspective on the research of e-commerce intelligence declarations.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731691

ABSTRACT

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) own rapidly increasing power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), but their concentrated counterparts (i.e., PCSCs) show a much lower performance. A deeper understanding of PCSCs relies on a thorough study of the intensive energy losses of the device along with increasing the illumination intensity. Taking the low band gap Sn-Pb PCSC as an example, we realize a device-level optoelectronic simulation to thoroughly disclose the internal photovoltaic physics and mechanisms by addressing the fundamental electromagnetic and carrier-transport processes within PCSCs under various concentration conditions. We find that the primary factor limiting the performance improvement of PCSCs is the significantly increased bulk recombination under the increased light concentration, which is attributed mostly to the inferior transport/collection ability of holes determined by the hole transport layer (HTL). We perform further electrical manipulation on the perovskite layer and the HTL so that the carrier-transport capability is significantly improved. Under the optoelectronic design, we fabricate low band gap PCSCs, which exhibit particularly high PCEs of up to 22.36% at 4.17 sun.

8.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; : e23149, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712856

ABSTRACT

Hepatic fibrosis (HF), a continuous wound-healing response of the liver to repeated injuries, is characterized by abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are considered a major cell type for ECM production. However, recent evidence indicates the lack of effective treatments for HF. Hesperetin, a Traditional Chinese Medicine monomer, has been isolated from the fruit peel of Citrusaurantium L. (Rutaceae). Growing evidence suggests the partial function of hesperetin in HF treatment. A hesperetin derivative (HD) was synthesized in our laboratory to increase the bioavailability and the water solubility of hesperetin. In this study, we detected the functions of HD in a mouse model of CCl4 -induced HF and transforming growth factor-ß1-stimulated HSC-T6 cells, in vivo and in vitro. HD reduced histological damage and CCl4 -induced HF. Moreover, HD interference was associated with the activation of indicators in HSC-T6 cells, showing that HD is involved in HSCs activation in HF. Mechanistically, the Hedgehog pathway is involved in the HD treatment of HF, and HD may attenuate the aberrant expression of patched1. In conclusion, the studies indicate that HD may function as a potential antifibrotic Traditional Chinese Medicine monomer in HF therapy.

9.
Nanomicro Lett ; 14(1): 129, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699797

ABSTRACT

Electronic devices generate heat during operation and require efficient thermal management to extend the lifetime and prevent performance degradation. Featured by its exceptional thermal conductivity, graphene is an ideal functional filler for fabricating thermally conductive polymer composites to provide efficient thermal management. Extensive studies have been focusing on constructing graphene networks in polymer composites to achieve high thermal conductivities. Compared with conventional composite fabrications by directly mixing graphene with polymers, preconstruction of three-dimensional graphene networks followed by backfilling polymers represents a promising way to produce composites with higher performances, enabling high manufacturing flexibility and controllability. In this review, we first summarize the factors that affect thermal conductivity of graphene composites and strategies for fabricating highly thermally conductive graphene/polymer composites. Subsequently, we give the reasoning behind using preconstructed three-dimensional graphene networks for fabricating thermally conductive polymer composites and highlight their potential applications. Finally, our insight into the existing bottlenecks and opportunities is provided for developing preconstructed porous architectures of graphene and their thermally conductive composites.

10.
Plant Sci ; 321: 111307, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696907

ABSTRACT

Cultivated strawberry is one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, and the fruit yields and economic benefits are largely dependent on the quality of floral initiation and floral organ development. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms controlling these processes in strawberry are largely unknown. In this study, the function of a GATA transcription factor gene, HANABA TARANU (HAN), in floral initiation and floral organ development was characterized in strawberry. FaHAN is expressed in four whorls of the floral organs. Overexpression (OE) of FaHAN in the strawberry cultivar 'Benihoppe' delayed flowering by at least one week by affecting key genes, such as TERMINAL FLOWER 1, APETALA 1…and increased the number of runners. FaHAN-OE plants also showed malformed floral organs, especially the deformed stigmas with disordered arrangement. Several key genes for pistil apical development such as STYLISH, YUCCA 1, and auxin-related genes such as GH3.5, PIN-FORMED 1, which play important roles in pistil primordium development in many plant species, were all down-regulated in FaHAN-OE plants. Further observations showed that the fruit deformity rate was nearly 4-fold higher than in control plants. Together, this study provides a new approach for exploring floral initiation and floral organ development in strawberry.


Subject(s)
Fragaria , Flowers/genetics , Fragaria/genetics , Fruit/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Indoleacetic Acids
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682933

ABSTRACT

Being in the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic, our lab tested 193,054 specimens for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by diagnostic multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) starting in March 2020, of which 17,196 specimens resulted positive. To investigate the dynamics of virus molecular evolution and epidemiology, whole genome amplification (WGA) and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) were performed on 9516 isolates. 7586 isolates with a high quality were further analyzed for the mutation frequency and spectrum. Lastly, we evaluated the utility of the mRT-PCR detection pattern among 26 reinfected patients with repeat positive testing three months after testing negative from the initial infection. Our results show a continuation of the genetic divergence in viral genomes. Furthermore, our results indicate that independent mutations in the primer and probe regions of the nucleocapsid gene amplicon and envelope gene amplicon accumulate over time. Some of these mutations correlate with the changes of detection pattern of viral targets of mRT-PCR. Our data highlight the significance of a continuous genetic divergence on a gene amplification-based assay, the value of the mRT-PCR detection pattern for complementing the clinical diagnosis of reinfection, and the potential for WGA and NGS to identify mutation hotspots throughout the entire viral genome to optimize the design of the PCR-based gene amplification assay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 217: 112608, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679735

ABSTRACT

Drug resistance and potential cardiotoxicity severely limit the DOX-mediated chemotherapy in clinical. Multi-drug combination is conducive to the realization of multi-modal synergy at the molecular level, which is crucial in drug dose optimization and improvement of therapeutic effect. In this work, fluorescent biotinylated Au Nanoclusters as an active targeting carrier was developed to realize real-time biological imaging and dual-drug delivery simultaneously. DNA toxin doxorubicin (DOX) and tyrosinase inhibitor gefitinib (GEF) were selected as dual-drug models for the treatment of human non-small cell lung cancer. The in vitro and in vivo results showed that dual-drug combination suppressed cancer cell growth more efficiently than any single formula at the same concentrations. GEF can block signaling in target cancer cells with mutated and overactive EGFR, thereby inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Combined with DOX chemotherapy, it will effectively overcome the problem of DOX resistance. In addition, the dual-drug delivery system produced excellent synergistic therapeutic effects without extra adverse toxicities. It provides a reference for the design and clinical application of the dual-drug delivery system.

13.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(7): 248, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678888

ABSTRACT

A dual-readout immunosensor coupled with electrochemical impedance and temperature signal was successfully proposed to detect autoimmune hepatitis markers (ASGPR). Nb2C MXene with excellent conductivity, abundant surface functional groups, and extraordinary photothermal conversion efficiency, was designed to be a multifunctional biological probe, whose specific binding with antigen enhanced steric hindrance to generate electrochemical impedance signal, and at the same time, it had a strong optical response in the near-infrared band to achieve temperature output. In addition, poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) was a temperature-sensitive polymer, which was adopted as the sensing matrix. When the multifunctional probe was specifically bound to the antigen, under 808-nm laser irradiation, the captured Nb2C MXene achieved photothermal conversion to increase the electrode surface temperature, and the conformation of PNIPAM changed from a free spiral to a spherical shape, further realizing double amplification of the EIS signal. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the impedance values and the temperature changes increased proportionally with the increase of the ASGPR concentration from 10-5 to 1 ng/mL, and the detection limit of the immunosensor was 3.3 × 10-6 ng/mL. The established dual-readout immunosensor exhibited good selectivity and acceptable stability and provided an effective detection method for autoimmune hepatitis marker detection.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrodes , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Polymers/chemistry
15.
Technol Health Care ; 2022 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The treatment of sacral fractures accompanied by nerve injury is complex and often leads to an unsatisfactory prognosis and poor quality of life in patients. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the clinical value of using 3.0T magnetic resonance contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (MR CE-3D) nerve view magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in the diagnosis and management of a sacral fracture accompanied by a sacral plexus injury. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with a sacral fracture accompanied by a sacral plexus injury, including 24 cases of Denis spinal trauma type II and 8 cases of type III, were enrolled in the study. All patients had symptoms or signs of lumbosacral nerve injury, and an MRN examination was performed to clarify the location and severity of the sacral nerve injury. Segmental localization of the sacral plexus was done to indicate the site of the injury as being intra-spinal (IS), intra-foraminal (IF), or extra-foraminal (EF), and the severity of the nerve injury was determined as being mild, moderate, or severe. Surgical nerve exploration was then conducted in six patients with severe nerve injury. The location and severity of the nerve injury were recorded using intra-operative direct vision, and the results were statistically compared with the MRN examination results. RESULTS: MRN showed that 81 segments had mild sacral plexus injuries (8 segments of IS, 20 segments of IF, 53 segments of EF), 78 segments had moderate sacral plexus injuries (8 segments of IS, 37 segments of IF, and 33 segments of EF), and 19 segments had severe sacral plexus injuries (7 segments of IS, 9 segments of IF, and 3 segments of EF). The six patients who underwent surgery had the following intra-operative direct vision results: 3 segments of moderate injury (IF) and 20 segments of severe injury (7 segments of IS, 10 segments of IF, 3 segments of EF). There was no statistically significant difference in the results between the intra-operative direct vision and those of the MRN examination (p> 0.05). CONCLUSION: MR CE-3D nerve view can clearly and accurately demonstrate the location and severity of sacral nerve injury accompanied by a sacral fracture, and has the potential for being the first choice of examination method for this kind of injury, which would be of important clinical value.

16.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5369516, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655520

ABSTRACT

Image segmentation is an effective tool for computer-aided medical treatment, to retain the detailed features and edges of the segmented image and improve the segmentation accuracy. Therefore, a segmentation algorithm using deep reinforcement learning (DRL) and dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) for multimodal brain tumor images is proposed. First, the bivariate concept in DTCWT is used to determine whether the image noise points belong to the real or imaginary region, and the noise probability is checked after calculation; second, the wavelet coefficients corresponding to the region where the noise is located are selected to transform the noise into normal pixel points by bivariate; then, the conditional probability of occurrence of marker points in the edge and center regions of the image is calculated with the target points, and the initial segmentation of the image is achieved by the known wavelet coefficients; finally, the segmentation framework is constructed using DRL, and the network is trained by loss function to optimize the segmentation results and achieve accurate image segmentation. The experiment was evaluated on BraTS2018 dataset, CQ500 dataset, and a hospital brain tumor dataset. The results show that the algorithm in this paper can effectively remove multimodal brain tumor image noise, and the segmented image has good retention of detail features and edges, and the segmented image has high similarity with the original image. The highest information loss index of the segmentation results is only 0.18, the image boundary error is only about 0.3, and F-value is high, which indicates that the proposed algorithm is accurate and can operate efficiently, and has practical applicability.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Wavelet Analysis , Algorithms , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Probability , Reinforcement, Psychology
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 893029, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655799

ABSTRACT

Post-traumatic stress disorder impedes pubertal development and disrupts pulsatile LH secretion in humans and rodents. The posterodorsal sub-nucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD) is an upstream modulator of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator, pubertal timing, as well as emotional processing and anxiety. Psychosocial stress exposure alters neuronal activity within the MePD increasing the expression of Urocortin3 (Ucn3) and its receptor corticotropin-releasing factor type-2 receptor (CRFR2) while enhancing the inhibitory output from the MePD to key hypothalamic reproductive centres. We test the hypothesis that psychosocial stress, processed by the MePD, is relayed to the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator to delay puberty in female mice. We exposed C57Bl6/J female mice to the predator odor, 2,4,5-Trimethylthiazole (TMT), during pubertal transition and examined the effect on pubertal timing, pre-pubertal LH pulses and anxiety-like behaviour. Subsequently, we virally infected Ucn3-cre-tdTomato female mice with stimulatory DREADDs targeting MePD Ucn3 neurons and determined the effect on pubertal timing and pre-pubertal LH pulse frequency. Exposure to TMT during pubertal development delayed puberty, suppressed pre-pubertal LH pulsatility and enhanced anxiety-like behaviour, while activation of MePD Ucn3 neurons reduced LH pulse frequency and delayed puberty. Early psychosocial stress exposure decreases GnRH pulse generator frequency delaying puberty while inducing anxiety-behaviour in female mice, an effect potentially involving Ucn3 neurons in the MePD.


Subject(s)
Luteinizing Hormone , Urocortins , Amygdala/metabolism , Animals , Female , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Luteinizing Hormone/metabolism , Mice , Sexual Maturation , Urocortins/metabolism , Urocortins/pharmacology
18.
J Card Surg ; 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652889

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to analyze the surgical outcomes of our center biventricular correction with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) and to explore the risk factors associated with postoperative mortality and postoperative pulmonary venous obstruction (PVO). METHODS: In total, 104 patients diagnosed with TAPVC and underwent biventricular correction from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2021, in Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated with Capital Medical University were included. The primary endpoints were early and late postoperative mortality and postoperative pulmonary vein obstruction. RESULTS: Multivariable analysis indicated that prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time was the only independent risk factor for early postoperative mortality. Emergency surgery, preoperative moderate, and severe pulmonary hypertension (PH), and prolonged CPB time were independent risk factors for postoperative PVO. According to ROC curve analysis, the cut-off value of CPB time for predicting early mortality was 148 min (AUC = 0.916, 95% CI 0.811-1.000). CONCLUSION: In the past 12 years, with surgical technique and perioperative management advancement, the prognosis of children treated with TAPVC biventricular correction in our center has generally improved. However, surgical repair remains challenging, and early mortality remains high in children with prolonged CPB time during surgery. Postoperative PVO often occurs in children who underwent emergency surgery, combined with moderate and severe PH and prolonged CPB time.

19.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653032

ABSTRACT

Chromium exposure has adverse impacts on human health and the environment, whereas chromate-induced hepatotoxicity's detailed mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to reveal the crucial signaling pathways and genes linked to sodium chromate-induced hepatotoxicity. GSE19662, a gene expression microarray, was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Six primary rat hepatocyte (PRH) samples from GSE19662 include sodium chromate-treated (n = 3) and the control PRH samples (n = 3). A total of 2,525 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, especially 962, and 1,563 genes were up- and downregulated in sodium chromate-treated PRHs compared to the control. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis suggested that those DEGs were involved in multiple biological processes, including the response to toxic substances, the positive regulation of apoptotic process, lipid and cholesterol metabolic process, and others. Signaling pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were mainly enriched in MAPK, PI3K-Akt, PPAR, AMPK, cellular senescence, hepatitis B, fatty acid biosynthesis, etc. Moreover, many genes, including CYP2E1, CYP1A2, CYP2C13, CDK1, NDC80, and CCNB1, might contribute to sodium chromate-induced hepatotoxicity. Taken together, this study enhances our knowledge of the potential molecular mechanisms of sodium chromate-induced hepatotoxicity.

20.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111344, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651090

ABSTRACT

A new Aspergillus niger whole-cell catalyst was cultured for the cascade hydrolysis of hesperidin (HES) to produce high-value hesperetin-7-O-glucoside (HG) and hesperetin with high conversion (above 90%). Moreover, the inducers used were shown to be useful for cell growth and to induce cells to produce specific enzymes. Remarkably, the type of inducers determined whether the cells can hydrolyze HES. The product composition was also controllable by adjusting different inducers. Transcriptome analysis suggested that both naringin-vs-blank group and saccharose-vs-blank group had obviously difference in gene expression. The naringin-vs-blank group was mainly up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), while saccharose-vs-blank group was mainly down-regulated DEGs. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that whether naringin or saccharose was added as an inducer would greatly affect the catalytic activity of cells. Furthermore, 3 genes related to rhamnosidase, 14 genes related to glucosidase and 5 genes related to hydrolase activity were found. These genes were not only involved in rhamnosidase and glucosidase activities, but also spliceosome and the sucrose and starch metabolic pathways. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the results of transcriptome sequencing were reliable. This study gave a new approach to hydrolyze HES, and new perspectives to understand the mechanisms associated with the hydrolysis of whole-cell catalyst.


Subject(s)
Citrus , Aspergillus , Aspergillus niger/genetics , Flavonoids , Glucosidases , Hydrolysis , Sucrose , Transcriptome
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