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1.
Risk Anal ; 2022 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846283

ABSTRACT

With the recurrence of infectious diseases caused by coronaviruses, which pose a significant threat to human health, there is an unprecedented urgency to devise an effective method to identify and assess who is most at risk of contracting these diseases. China has successfully controlled the spread of COVID-19 through the disclosure of track data belonging to diagnosed patients. This paper proposes a novel textual track-data-based approach for individual infection risk measurement. The proposed approach is divided into three steps. First, track features are extracted from track data to build a general portrait of COVID-19 patients. Then, based on the extracted track features, we construct an infection risk indicator system to calculate the infection risk index (IRI). Finally, individuals are divided into different infection risk categories based on the IRI values. By doing so, the proposed approach can determine the risk of an individual contracting COVID-19, which facilitates the identification of high-risk populations. Thus, the proposed approach can be used for risk prevention and control of COVID-19. In the empirical analysis, we comprehensively collected 9455 pieces of track data from 20 January 2020 to 30 July 2020, covering 32 provinces/provincial municipalities in China. The empirical results show that the Chinese COVID-19 patients have six key features that indicate infection risk: place, region, close-contact person, contact manner, travel mode, and symptom. The IRI values for all 9455 patients vary from 0 to 43.19. Individuals are classified into the following five infection risk categories: low, moderate-low, moderate, moderate-high, and high risk.

2.
Vaccine ; 40(16): 2370-2378, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773835

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae, Mhp) are two of the most common pathogens involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. Vaccination is the most effective approach to disease prevention. Since PRRSV and Mhp co-infections are very common, an efficient dual vaccine against these pathogens is required for the global swine industry. Compared with traditional vaccines, multi-epitope vaccines have several advantages, they are comparatively easy to produce and construct, are chemically stable, and do not have an infectious potential. In this study, to develop a safe and effective vaccine, B cell and T cell epitopes of PRRSV-GP5, PRRSV-M, Mhp-P46, and Mhp-P65 protein had been screened to construct a recombinant epitope protein rEP-PM that has good hydrophilicity, strong antigenicity, and high surface accessibility, and each epitope is independent and complete. After immunization in mice, rEP-PM could induce the production of high levels of antibodies, and it had good immunoreactivity with anti-rEP-PM, anti-PRRSV, and anti-Mhp antibodies. The anti-rEP-PM antibody specifically recognizes proteins from PRRSV and Mhp. Moreover, rEP-PM induced a Th1-dominant cellular immune response in mice. Our results showed that the rEP-PM protein could be a potential candidate for the development of a safe and effective multi-epitope peptide combined vaccine to control PRRSV and Mhp infections.


Subject(s)
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Mice , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/prevention & control , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Swine
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324277

ABSTRACT

Background: Covid-19 is an emerging and evolving infectious and communicable diseases which gravely endanger the lives of critically ill patients with it. It is crucial to determine the clinical implication of secondary pulmonary bacterial infection for the outcome of critically ill patients with severe Covid-19.Methods All critically ill patients with Covid-19(30 deceased and 35 discharged) between January 26, 2020 and March 15, 2020 in two ICUs of Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China, were retrospectively reviewed, to investigate the clinical implication of secondary pulmonary bacterial infection in the prognosis of critically ill patients with severe Covid-19.Results The fatality rate between patients with positive and negative sputum bacterial culture is 75.0%vs 33.3% (P = 0.003). The ROC analyses demonstrate that NLR[0.921(0.858–0.984)P༜0.001], CRP[0.908(0.837–0.978)P༜0.001],neutrophil[0.832(0.728–0.937)P༜0.001],lymphocyte[0.858(0.755–0.960)P༜0.001],leucocyte[0.753(0.626–0.879)P༜0.001] and PCT [0.733(0.605–0.860)P = 0.001] have the discrimination power for the fatality. The Kaplan-Meier analyses show that the patients with negative sputum bacterial culture(P༜0.001) have higher cumulative overall survival rates, in comparison with the opposite. The positive sputum bacterial culture is positively correlated with leukocyte(r = 0.706), CRP(r = 0.733), NLR(r = 0.554) and PCT(r = 0.549)(all P༜0.001). A multivariate Cox regression analysis shows that sputum bacterial culture[15.36(4.291–54.980) P༜0.001], CRP[2.022(2.013–2.030) P༜0.001] and NLR[2.012(2.000-2.024) P = 0.045] are positively correlated with the fatality of the patients.Conclusions The critically ill patients with severe Covid-19 who are complicated with secondary pulmonary bacterial infection may have an unfavorable outcome, in comparison with those who are not. Secondary pulmonary bacterial infection is an independent factor for the fatality of critically patients with Covid-19.

4.
Journal of Biosciences ; 46(3), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1265581

ABSTRACT

Obesity has been followed with interest as a risk factor for COVID-19, with triglycerides as one of four common criteria used to define obesity, which have been used to study the mechanism of obesity. In this study, we showed that angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is widely expressed in the mouse body, including the kidney, spleen, brain, heart, lung, liver, and testis, and that ACE2 levels increased after a high-fat diet. The ACE2 levels were recorded at 0 days, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days after a high-fat diet, and they increased at 14 days after high-fat diet initiation. In addition, triglyceride levels were also significantly increased at 14 days after high-fat diet initiation, but body weight was not changed. Furthermore, we examined the ACE2 levels in Calu3 cells (a lung cancer cell line) after triglyceride treatment, and the results indicated that ACE2 levels were increased at 25 μM and reached their peak at 200 μM. Finally, we found that the mRNA level of mthfd1 was significantly increased in the high-fat diet group. Given these findings, we hypothesize that triglycerides can regulate the expression of ACE2 and Mthfd1.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e19684, 2020 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its outbreak in January 2020, COVID-19 has quickly spread worldwide and has become a global pandemic. Social media platforms have been recognized as important tools for health-promoting practices in public health, and the use of social media is widespread among the public. However, little is known about the effects of social media use on health promotion during a pandemic such as COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the predictive role of social media use on public preventive behaviors in China during the COVID-19 pandemic and how disease knowledge and eHealth literacy moderated the relationship between social media use and preventive behaviors. METHODS: A national web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted by a proportionate probability sampling among 802 Chinese internet users ("netizens") in February 2020. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to examine and explore the relationships among all the variables. RESULTS: Almost half the 802 study participants were male (416, 51.9%), and the average age of the participants was 32.65 years. Most of the 802 participants had high education levels (624, 77.7%), had high income >¥5000 (US $736.29) (525, 65.3%), were married (496, 61.8%), and were in good health (486, 60.6%). The average time of social media use was approximately 2 to 3 hours per day (mean 2.34 hours, SD 1.11), and the most frequently used media types were public social media (mean score 4.49/5, SD 0.78) and aggregated social media (mean score 4.07/5, SD 1.07). Social media use frequency (ß=.20, P<.001) rather than time significantly predicted preventive behaviors for COVID-19. Respondents were also equipped with high levels of disease knowledge (mean score 8.15/10, SD 1.43) and eHealth literacy (mean score 3.79/5, SD 0.59). Disease knowledge (ß=.11, P=.001) and eHealth literacy (ß=.27, P<.001) were also significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Furthermore, eHealth literacy (P=.038) and disease knowledge (P=.03) positively moderated the relationship between social media use frequency and preventive behaviors, while eHealth literacy (ß=.07) affected this relationship positively and disease knowledge (ß=-.07) affected it negatively. Different social media types differed in predicting an individual's preventive behaviors for COVID-19. Aggregated social media (ß=.22, P<.001) was the best predictor, followed by public social media (ß=.14, P<.001) and professional social media (ß=.11, P=.002). However, official social media (ß=.02, P=.597) was an insignificant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Social media is an effective tool to promote behaviors to prevent COVID-19 among the public. Health literacy is essential for promotion of individual health and influences the extent to which the public engages in preventive behaviors during a pandemic. Our results not only enrich the theoretical paradigm of public health management and health communication but also have practical implications in pandemic control for China and other countries.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Media , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Communication , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sampling Studies , Young Adult
6.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 33-38, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is leading to numerous psychological outcomes, especially emotional distress. Individuals with early life adversity (ELA) may be more susceptible to those psychological stresses during this epidemic. AIMS: To measure the effect of the ELA on acute stress reactions, anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 epidemic, and to examine whether specific trauma types and frequencies of exposure are associated with a more severe acute stress reaction and increased risk of anxiety and depressive symptoms. METHOD: This investigation was performed at college students in a comprehensive University of China. The online self-report questionnaire included ELA experiences, exposure to epidemic-related events, acute stress reactions, and anxiety and depression symptoms during the COVID-19 epidemic. Logistic regression and stepwise regression were used to assess the associations and interactions among these variables. RESULTS: Participants with ELA reported more exposure to epidemic-related events and more severe stress reactions during the epidemics than did those with no ELA. The experience of ELA is associated with acute stress reactions, anxiety and depression in early adulthood. Furthermore, experiencing more ELA during childhood may not only increase the risk of anxiety and depression episode in early adulthood but also lead to more severe acute stress reactions during the epidemic. CONCLUSION: Regardless of specific ELA types, ELAs have longer time effects on individual's susceptibility to stress. Under this epidemic, the mental health in young adults with ELA needs more attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Universities , Young Adult
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 331, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634362

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Development and validation of a single-step and accurate reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique (RT-LAMP) for rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2 relative to commercial quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays to allow prompt initiation of proper medical care and containment of virus spread. Methods: Primers showing optimal in-silico features were subjected to analytical sensitivity and specificity to assess the limit of detection (LOD) and cross-reaction with closely- and distantly-related viral species, and clinically prominent bacterial and fungal species. In order to evaluate the clinical utility, our RT-LAMP was subjected to a large number of clinical samples, including 213 negative and 47 positive patients, relative to two commercial quantitative RT-PCR assays. Results: The analytical specificity and sensitivity of our assay was 100% and 500 copies/ml when serial dilution was performed in both water and sputum. Subjecting our RT-LAMP assay to clinical samples showed a high degree of specificity (99.5%), sensitivity (91.4%), positive predictive value (97.7%), and negative predictive value (98.1%) when used relative to qRT-PCR. Our RT-LAMP assay was two times faster than qRT-PCR and is storable at room temperature. A suspected case that later became positive tested positive using both our RT-LAMP and the two qRT-PCR assays, which shows the capability of our assay for screening purposes. Conclusions: We present a rapid RT-LAMP assay that could extend the capacity of laboratories to process two times more clinical samples relative to qRT-PCR and potentially could be used for high-throughput screening purposes when demand is increasing at critical situations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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