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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 411, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641963

ABSTRACT

Prior research using electronic health records for Covid-19 vaccine safety monitoring typically focuses on specific disease groups and excludes individuals with multimorbidity, defined as ≥2 chronic conditions. We examine the potential additional risk of adverse events 28 days after the first dose of CoronaVac or Comirnaty imposed by multimorbidity. Using a territory-wide public healthcare database with population-based vaccination records in Hong Kong, we analyze a retrospective cohort of patients with chronic conditions. Thirty adverse events of special interest according to the World Health Organization are examined. In total, 883,416 patients are included and 2,807 (0.3%) develop adverse events. Results suggest vaccinated patients have lower risks of adverse events than unvaccinated individuals, multimorbidity is associated with increased risks regardless of vaccination, and the association of vaccination with adverse events is not modified by multimorbidity. To conclude, we find no evidence that multimorbidity imposes extra risks of adverse events following Covid-19 vaccination.

2.
J Intern Med ; 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-marketing pharmacovigilance data are scant on the safety of Covid-19 vaccines among people with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with ordinary vaccine recipients. We compared the post-vaccination adverse events of special interests (AESI), accident and emergency room (A&E) visit, and hospitalization between these two groups. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a territory-wide public healthcare database with population-based vaccination records in Hong Kong. RESULTS: In total, 3922 vaccine recipients with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and 1,137,583 vaccine recipients without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. No significant association was observed between previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and AESI or hospitalization. Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly associated with a lower risk of A&E visit (CoronaVac: HR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.99; Comirnaty: HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.82). CONCLUSION: No safety signal of Covid-19 vaccination was detected from the comparison between vaccine recipients with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and those without. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 71: 102792, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616516

ABSTRACT

The cruise industry is gravely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic due to rising public health concerns. This study combines and examines health crisis management and marketing theories to address public health concerns and improve the usage of cruise services. Combining social exchange theory, customers' perceived value theory, and trust theory, a theoretical model is proposed. Survey data (n = 376) are then collected through an online survey that is conducted on the Chinese tourism market. The finding shows that quality management, health management, social and communication strategies, and financial strategies contribute to customers' perceived value of cruise service. In addition, perceived value directly and indirectly influences customers' intention to use cruise service through trust in cruise company's pandemic management capability. This study expands the current literature on cruise crisis recovery and provides recommendations for policy and strategy formulation for the cruise industry to cope with the pandemic by focusing on public health concerns and psychology.

5.
J Biol Dyn ; 16(1): 14-28, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612382

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease caused by infection with the virus 2019-nCoV, a single-stranded RNA virus. During the infection and transmission processes, the virus evolves and mutates rapidly, though the disease has been quickly controlled in Wuhan by 'Fangcang' hospitals. To model the virulence evolution, in this paper, we formulate a new age structured epidemic model. Under the tradeoff hypothesis, two special scenarios are used to study the virulence evolution by theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. Results show that, before 'Fangcang' hospitals, two scenarios are both consistent with the data. After 'Fangcang' hospitals, Scenario I rather than Scenario II is consistent with the data. It is concluded that the transmission pattern of COVID-19 in Wuhan obey Scenario I rather than Scenario II. Theoretical analysis show that, in Scenario I, shortening the value of L (diagnosis period) can result in an enormous selective pressure on the evolution of 2019-nCoV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bell's palsy is a rare adverse event reported in clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines. However, to our knowledge no population-based study has assessed the association between the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and Bell's palsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of Bell's palsy after BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccination. METHODS: In this case series and nested case-control study done in Hong Kong, we assessed the risk of Bell's palsy within 42 days following vaccination with BNT162b2 (Fosun-BioNTech [equivalent to Pfizer-BioNTech]) or CoronaVac (from Sinovac Biotech, Hong Kong) using data from voluntary surveillance reporting with the Hospital Authority, the COVID-19 Vaccine Adverse Event Online Reporting system for all health-care professionals, and the Hospital Authority's territory-wide electronic health records from the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System. We described reported cases of Bell's palsy among vaccine recipients (aged 18-110 years for CoronaVac and aged 16-110 years for BNT162b2). We compared the estimated age-standardised incidence of clinically confirmed cases among individuals who had received the CoronaVac or BNT162b2 vaccination (up to 42 days before presentation) with the background incidence in the population. A nested case-control study was also done using conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for risk of Bell's palsy and vaccination. Cases and controls were matched (1:4) by age, sex, admission setting, and admission date. FINDINGS: Between February 23 and May 4, 2021, 451 939 individuals received the first dose of CoronaVac and 537 205 individuals received the first dose of BNT162b2. 28 clinically confirmed cases of Bell's palsy were reported following CoronaVac and 16 cases were reported following BNT162b2. The age-standardised incidence of clinically confirmed Bell's palsy was 66·9 cases per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 37·2 to 96·6) following CoronaVac vaccination and 42·8 per 100 000 person-years (19·4 to 66·1) for BNT162b2 vaccination. The age-standardised difference for the incidence compared with the background population was 41·5 (95% CI 11·7 to 71·4) for CoronaVac and 17·0 (-6·6 to 40·6) for BNT162b2, equivalent to an additional 4·8 cases per 100 000 people vaccinated for CoronaVac and 2·0 cases per 100 000 people vaccinated for BNT162b2. In the nested case-control analysis, 298 cases were matched to 1181 controls, and the adjusted ORs were 2·385 (95% CI 1·415 to 4·022) for CoronaVac and 1·755 (0·886 to 3·477) for BNT162b2. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest an overall increased risk of Bell's palsy after CoronaVac vaccination. However, the beneficial and protective effects of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine far outweigh the risk of this generally self-limiting adverse event. Additional studies are needed in other regions to confirm our findings. FUNDING: The Food and Health Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

8.
Reliability Engineering & System Safety ; : 108305, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1586727

ABSTRACT

Container shipping makes significant contribution to the global economy and is confronted with various hazards and risks especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. These risks can disrupt resilient container shipping service, leading to further deterioration of the global economy. Hence, it is vital to develop resilient container shipping service, which is associated with being on-time, safe, and hassle-free. Theoretically, this research identifies 28 root risks using the PESTLE framework, conducts risk assessment using a hybrid method comprising failure modes and effects analysis, evidential reasoning, and rule-based Bayesian network. A three-hierarchy Bayesian network model is established. The results reveal that economic, political, and technical risks are the most threatening risks affecting resilient container shipping service. Moreover, the holistic container shipping risk is most sensitive to environmental risks. Managerially, this research provides container shipping companies with guidance of drafting risk mitigation plans with economic risks and political risks as priorities.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112550, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588217

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a family of viruses that can cause diseases such as the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). The universal outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. The ß-Coronaviruses, which caused SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), have spread in more than 213 countries, infected over 81 million people, and caused more than 1.79 million deaths. COVID-19 symptoms vary from mild fever, flu to severe pneumonia in severely ill patients. Difficult breathing, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney disease, liver damage, and multi-organ failure ultimately lead to death. Researchers are working on different pre-clinical and clinical trials to prevent this deadly pandemic by developing new vaccines. Along with vaccines, therapeutic intervention is an integral part of healthcare response to address the ongoing threat posed by COVID-19. Despite the global efforts to understand and fight against COVID-19, many challenges need to be addressed. This article summarizes the current pandemic, different strains of SARS-CoV-2, etiology, complexities, surviving medications of COVID-19, and so far, vaccination for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/trends , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , Vaccination/methods
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 47-50, 2021 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although clinical data have shown that the BNT162b2 vaccine, which is widely used in many countries, is safe and effective as a protection against the SARS-CoV-2 infection, extant research in adverse reactions using real-world data of various sociodemographic characteristics is scant. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study to compare age differences in self-reported reactogenicity of BNT162b2 in Hong Kong. A total of 1,516 participants were intensively followed up for two weeks following both doses of BNT162b2 vaccination, during which their basic demographic, health conditions, and medication information were collected. RESULTS: Results from the generalized mixed model showed that compared with adults aged 18 to 59 years, older adults aged 60 years or above had a lower risk of adverse reactions and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years had a moderately higher risk. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study should be informative to parents considering BNT162b2 vaccination for their children in that moderately increased reactogenicity compared with adults is anticipated.

11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581126

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) self-quarantine period, the transition to online-course has profoundly changed the learning modes of millions of school-aged children and put them at an increased risk of asthenopia. Therefore, we aimed to determine associations of the total screen/online-course time with asthenopia prevalence among that children during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the associations were mediated by psychological stress. Methods: Asthenopia was defined according to a validated computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q). We used CVS-Q to collect the frequency and intensity of 16 asthenopia-related eye symptoms of 25,781 children. Demographic features, eye care habits, visual disorders, lifestyle, psychological and environmental factors, were also collected. Results: The overall asthenopia prevalence was 12.1%, varying from 5.4 to 18.2% across grade/gender-classified subgroups. A 100-h increment of total screen/online-course time were associated with an increased risk of asthenopia by 9% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09] and 11% (OR = 1.11), respectively. Mediation analysis showed that the proportions of total effects mediated by psychological stress were 23.5 and 38.1%, respectively. Age, female gender, having myopia or astigmatism, bad habits when watching screens were also risk factors. Conversely, keeping 34-65 cm between eyes and screen, increased rest time between classes, and increased eye exercise were all associated with a decreased risk. Conclusion: Our study indicated that the influence of long total screen or online-course time on psychological stress increases asthenopia risk. The findings of this study have provided a new avenue for intervening screen-related asthenopia in addition to incorporating a reasonable schedule of online courses into educational policy.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia , COVID-19 , Asthenopia/epidemiology , Asthenopia/etiology , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
13.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(11): 1299-1303, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559084

ABSTRACT

SIGNIFICANCE: Previously, people had only recognized the discomfort of masks, and no one had ever realized the risk of ocular trauma associated with masks. We classify the causes of injuries into two categories and emphasize the importance of using masks properly. PURPOSE: This study aimed to characterize and classify ocular injuries caused by masks. CASE REPORTS: With the increase in the number of masks used during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, we have seen a rise in mask-related ocular injuries. This is a single-center retrospective case series of patients presenting to the Peking University Third Hospital Ophthalmology Department emergency department with ocular injuries secondary to masks from February to August 2020. Nine patients (six males, three females) were reviewed. All patients had a unilateral injury (four right eyes, five left eyes). The most frequently injured site was the cornea, which was seen in five patients. Some patients were injured in more than one area. Seven patients were injured by metal nose wires or other rigid, sharp parts of masks. The other two patients were injured by elastic mask straps. CONCLUSIONS: Masks can cause two types of ocular injuries that may require surgical intervention. One kind is metal nose wires or other rigid, sharp parts of masks causing lacerations or abrasions. The other is recoiling elastic mask straps snapping into the eyes and causing contusions. Our report emphasizes the importance of using masks properly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cornea , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 421, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528692

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To promote public health and resume university activities, COVID-19 vaccination has been mandated from an increasing number of universities worldwide. The objective of the study is to understand the factors that impact preference and willingness to take the vaccine among university students in Hong Kong universities utilizing an online questionnaire. The findings will be imperative for health education and the success of the vaccination program. RESULTS: We conducted a discrete choice experiment survey among university students in Hong Kong and applied conditional logit regression to estimate their vaccine preference and the weight of each attribute. Regression results showed adverse reactions, efficacy, origin of the vaccine, required number of doses and out-of-pocket price are significant determinants for the choice of vaccine, ranked from the most to least important. Similar preference weighting results were observed after adjusting age, sex, monthly household income, studying medical-related subjects and recent influenza vaccination. Safety, efficacy and origin of the vaccine are key drivers for vaccination decisions among young adults in Hong Kong. Health education and communication focused on these factors are urgently needed to overcome vaccine hesitancy and improve the vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities , Vaccination , Young Adult
15.
Journal of Global Health ; 11, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1525226

ABSTRACT

Background Better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transmission risks is needed to support decision-making around mitigation measures for COVID-19 in schools. Methods We updated a living systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools. In this update we modified our inclusion criteria to include: 1) cohort studies;2) cross-sectional studies that investigated and cross-assessed SARS-COV-2 positivity rates in schools and communities;and 3) pre-post studies. We performed risk of bias evaluation for all included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Results 6270 articles were retrieved and six new studies were added in this update. In total from the two updates and using the new inclusion criteria, we identified 11 cohort studies (1st update: n = 5;2nd update: n = 6) and one cross-sectional study (1st update: n = 1;2nd update: n = 0). We performed a meta-analysis on nine of the 11 cohort studies investigating IAR in schools. Nine cohort studies reported a total of 91 student and 52 staff index cases that exposed 5698 contacts with 101 secondary infections (overall infection attack rate (IAR) = 1.45%, 95% CI = 0.31%-3.26%). IARs for students and school staff were 1.66% (95% CI = 0.08%-4.78%) and 1.18% (95% CI = 0.00%-4.43%) respectively. The risk of bias was found to be high for most studies identified, limiting the confidence in results. Conclusions There is limited high-quality evidence available to quantify the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools or to compare it to community transmission. Emerging evidence suggests the overall IAR and SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate in school settings are low. Higher IAR were found in students, compared to staff. Note This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. This is the second version of the original article published on 23 December 2020 (J Glob Health 2020;11:021104), and previous versions can be found as data supplements. When citing this paper please consider adding the version number and date of access for clarity.

16.
BMJ ; 375: e068302, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence on the effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Biosis, Joanna Briggs, Global Health, and World Health Organization COVID-19 database (preprints). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Observational and interventional studies that assessed the effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was incidence of covid-19. Secondary outcomes included SARS-CoV-2 transmission and covid-19 mortality. DATA SYNTHESIS: DerSimonian Laird random effects meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of mask wearing, handwashing, and physical distancing measures on incidence of covid-19. Pooled effect estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were computed, and heterogeneity among studies was assessed using Cochran's Q test and the I2 metrics, with two tailed P values. RESULTS: 72 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 35 evaluated individual public health measures and 37 assessed multiple public health measures as a "package of interventions." Eight of 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis, which indicated a reduction in incidence of covid-19 associated with handwashing (relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.12, I2=12%), mask wearing (0.47, 0.29 to 0.75, I2=84%), and physical distancing (0.75, 0.59 to 0.95, I2=87%). Owing to heterogeneity of the studies, meta-analysis was not possible for the outcomes of quarantine and isolation, universal lockdowns, and closures of borders, schools, and workplaces. The effects of these interventions were synthesised descriptively. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that several personal protective and social measures, including handwashing, mask wearing, and physical distancing are associated with reductions in the incidence covid-19. Public health efforts to implement public health measures should consider community health and sociocultural needs, and future research is needed to better understand the effectiveness of public health measures in the context of covid-19 vaccination. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020178692.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Public Health , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Global Health , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Incidence , Masks , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Travel , World Health Organization
17.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484001

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between COVID-19 full vaccination (two completed doses) and possible arthritis flare. METHODS: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were identified from population-based electronic medical records with vaccination linkage and categorised into BNT162b2 (mRNA vaccine), CoronaVac (inactive virus vaccine) and non-vaccinated groups. The risk of possible arthritis flare after vaccination was compared using a propensity-weighted cohort study design. We defined possible arthritis flare as hospitalisation and outpatient consultation related to RA or reactive arthritis, based on diagnosis records during the episode. Weekly prescriptions of rheumatic drugs since the launch of COVID-19 vaccination programme were compared to complement the findings from a diagnosis-based analysis. RESULTS: Among 5493 patients with RA (BNT162b2: 653; CoronaVac: 671; non-vaccinated: 4169), propensity-scored weighted Poisson regression showed no significant association between arthritis flare and COVID-19 vaccination ((BNT162b2: adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.86, 95% Confidence Interval 0.73 to 1.01); CoronaVac: 0.87 (0.74 to 1.02)). The distribution of weekly rheumatic drug prescriptions showed no significant differences among the three groups since the launch of the mass vaccination programme (all p values >0.1 from Kruskal-Wallis test). CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence does not support that full vaccination of mRNA or inactivated virus COVID-19 vaccines is associated with possible arthritis flare.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259012, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480465

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the potential factors associated with mental health outcomes among Chinese adults during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: This is an online cross-sectional survey conducted among Chinese adults in February 2020. Outcome measurements included the three-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-3), two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-2), and two items from the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Scale. COVID-19 related factors, physical health, lifestyle, and self-efficacy were also measured. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were performed. RESULTS: This study included 1456 participants (age: 33.8±10.5 years; female: 59.1%). The prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and PTSD symptoms were 11.3%, 7.6%, 38.7%, and 33.9%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, loneliness was associated with being single, separated/divorced/widowed, low level of education, current location, medication, more somatic symptoms, lower self-efficacy, and going out frequently. Depression was associated with fear of infection, binge drinking, more somatic symptoms, lower self-efficacy, and longer screen time. Anxiety was associated with more somatic symptoms and lower self-efficacy. PTSD symptoms were associated with more somatic symptoms, lower self-efficacy, higher perceived risk of infection, fear of infection, and self-rated more negative influence due to the epidemic (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems during the COVID-19 epidemic were associated with various biopsychosocial and COVID-19 related factors. Psychological interventions should be aware of these influencing factors and prioritize support for those people at higher risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Loneliness , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
19.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 48674211051271, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is a socioeconomic gradient to depression risks, with more pronounced inequality amid macroenvironmental potential traumatic events. Between mid-2019 and mid-2020, the Hong Kong population experienced drastic societal changes, including the escalating civil unrest and the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the change of the socioeconomic gradient in depression and the potential intermediary role of daily routine disruptions. METHOD: We conducted repeated territory-wide telephone surveys in July 2019 and July 2020 with 1112 and 2034 population-representative Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong citizens above 15 years old, respectively. Stratified by year, we examined the association between socioeconomic indicators (education attainment, household income, employment status and marital status) and probable depression (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9] ⩾ 10) using logistic regression. Differences in the socioeconomic gradient between 2019 and 2020 were tested. Finally, we performed a path analysis to test for the mediating role of daily routine disruptions. RESULTS: Logistic regression showed that higher education attainment in 2019 and being married in 2020 were protective against probable depression. Interaction analysis showed that the inverse association of higher education attainment with probable depression attenuated in 2020 but that of being married increased. Path analysis showed that the mediated effects through daily routine disruptions accounted for 95.9% of the socioeconomic gradient of probable depression in 2020, compared with 13.1% in 2019. CONCLUSION: From July 2019 to July 2020, the mediating role of daily routine disruptions in the socioeconomic gradient of depression in Hong Kong increased. It is thus implied that infection control measures should consider the relevant potential mental health impacts accordingly.

20.
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