Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 118
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(12), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2197038

ABSTRACT

Background As mobile phone use grows, so it brings benefits and risks. As an important part of adolescents healthy growth, resilience plays an indispensable role. Thus, it is important to identify when mobile phone use of an adolescent becomes an addiction. This study proposed to explore the effects of adolescent resilience on mobile phone addiction, and tested the mediating role of coping style and depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS) on phone addiction among 2,268 adolescents in the Henan province, China. Methods The adolescents were surveyed via an online questionnaire, a mobile phone addiction index (MPAI), a depression, anxiety, and stress scale with 21 items (DASS-21), the Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents (RSCA), and the Simplified coping style questionnaire (SCSQ), and we used structural equation modeling to examine the correlations and moderation effects. All data analyses were performed using SPSS 26.0 and Amos 23.0. Results The results show that adolescences resilience were negatively related to negative coping, DASS, and mobile phone addiction;both coping style and DASS could mediate the relationship between adolescent resilience and mobile phone addiction among Chinese adolescents. The relationship between adolescent resilience and mobile phone addiction in Chinese adolescents was mediated by the chain of coping styles and DASS. Conclusions There is a negative relationship which exists between resilience and mobile phone addiction in this population. In addition, stress, anxiety, depression, and coping style significantly influence the risk of adolescent mobile phone addiction and play an intermediary role in Chinese adolescent resilience and mobile phone addiction.

4.
Elife ; 112022 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145045

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiological studies observed gender differences in COVID-19 outcomes, however, whether sex hormone plays a causal in COVID-19 risk remains unclear. This study aimed to examine associations of sex hormone, sex hormones-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and COVID-19 risk. Methods: Two-sample Mendelian randomization (TSMR) study was performed to explore the causal associations between testosterone, estrogen, SHBG, IGF-1, and the risk of COVID-19 (susceptibility, hospitalization, and severity) using genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary level data from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative (N=1,348,701). Random-effects inverse variance weighted (IVW) MR approach was used as the primary MR method and the weighted median, MR-Egger, and MR Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier (MR-PRESSO) test were conducted as sensitivity analyses. Results: Higher genetically predicted IGF-1 levels have nominally significant association with reduced risk of COVID-19 susceptibility and hospitalization. For one standard deviation increase in genetically predicted IGF-1 levels, the odds ratio was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.97, p=0.027) for COVID-19 susceptibility, 0.62 (95% CI: 0.25-0.51, p=0.018) for COVID-19 hospitalization, and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.52-1.38, p=0.513) for COVID-19 severity. There was no evidence that testosterone, estrogen, and SHBG are associated with the risk of COVID-19 susceptibility, hospitalization, and severity in either overall or sex-stratified TSMR analysis. Conclusions: Our study indicated that genetically predicted high IGF-1 levels were associated with decrease the risk of COVID-19 susceptibility and hospitalization, but these associations did not survive the Bonferroni correction of multiple testing. Further studies are needed to validate the findings and explore whether IGF-1 could be a potential intervention target to reduce COVID-19 risk. Funding: We acknowledge support from NSFC (LR22H260001), CRUK (C31250/A22804), SHLF (Hjärt-Lungfonden, 20210351), VR (Vetenskapsrådet, 2019-00977), and SCI (Cancerfonden).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome-Wide Association Study , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Estrogens , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Hospitalization , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Testosterone
5.
Drug Saf ; 45(12): 1477-1490, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129484

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Hong Kong, CoronaVac and BNT162b2 have been approved for emergency use owing to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Reactions towards the vaccine and the risk of post-vaccination adverse events may be different between recipients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of adverse events of special interest (AESI) and acute diabetic complications in the T2DM population after COVID-19 vaccination in Hong Kong. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Self-controlled case-series analysis was conducted. Patients with T2DM who received at least one dose of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac between 23 February 2021 and 31 January 2022 from electronic health records in Hong Kong were included. The incidence rates of 29 AESIs and acute diabetic complications (any of severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome) requiring hospitalization within 21 days after the first or second dose of vaccination were reported. The risks of these outcomes were evaluated using conditional Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 141,224 BNT162b2 recipients and 209,739 CoronaVac recipients with T2DM, the incidence per 100,000 doses and incidence per 100,000 person-years of individual AESIs and acute diabetic complications ranged from 0 to 24.4 and 0 to 438.6 in BNT162b2 group, and 0 to 19.5 and 0 to 351.6 in CoronaVac group. We did not observe any significantly increased risk of individual AESIs or acute diabetic complications after first or second doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccine. Subgroup analysis based on HbA1c < 7% and ≥ 7% also did not show significantly excess risk after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T2DM do not appear to have higher risks of AESI and acute diabetic complications after BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccination. Moreover, given the low incidence of AESIs and acute diabetic complications after vaccination, the absolute risk increment was likely minimal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e39676, 2022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and its corresponding preventive and control measures have increased the mental burden on the public. Understanding and tracking changes in public mental status can facilitate optimizing public mental health intervention and control strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to build a social media-based pipeline that tracks public mental changes and use it to understand public mental health status regarding the pandemic. METHODS: This study used COVID-19-related tweets posted from February 2020 to April 2022. The tweets were downloaded using unique identifiers through the Twitter application programming interface. We created a lexicon of 4 mental health problems (depression, anxiety, insomnia, and addiction) to identify mental health-related tweets and developed a dictionary for identifying health care workers. We analyzed temporal and geographic distributions of public mental health status during the pandemic and further compared distributions among health care workers versus the general public, supplemented by topic modeling on their underlying foci. Finally, we used interrupted time series analysis to examine the statewide impact of a lockdown policy on public mental health in 12 states. RESULTS: We extracted 4,213,005 tweets related to mental health and COVID-19 from 2,316,817 users. Of these tweets, 2,161,357 (51.3%) were related to "depression," whereas 1,923,635 (45.66%), 225,205 (5.35%), and 150,006 (3.56%) were related to "anxiety," "insomnia," and "addiction," respectively. Compared to the general public, health care workers had higher risks of all 4 types of problems (all P<.001), and they were more concerned about clinical topics than everyday issues (eg, "students' pressure," "panic buying," and "fuel problems") than the general public. Finally, the lockdown policy had significant associations with public mental health in 4 out of the 12 states we studied, among which Pennsylvania showed a positive association, whereas Michigan, North Carolina, and Ohio showed the opposite (all P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: The impact of COVID-19 and the corresponding control measures on the public's mental status is dynamic and shows variability among different cohorts regarding disease types, occupations, and regional groups. Health agencies and policy makers should primarily focus on depression (reported by 51.3% of the tweets) and insomnia (which has had an ever-increasing trend since the beginning of the pandemic), especially among health care workers. Our pipeline timely tracks and analyzes public mental health changes, especially when primary studies and large-scale surveys are difficult to conduct.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Infodemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy
7.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With accruing case reports on de novo or relapsing glomerular diseases (GD) following different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, we evaluated the risk of GD following BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccines. METHODS: A modified self-controlled case series analysis was conducted using anonymized, territory-wide SARS-CoV-2 vaccination records in Hong Kong. All Hong Kong residents aged 18 years or above with outcomes of interest were included. Outcomes of interest were GD, proteinuria or hematuria within 42 days following each dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Incidence per 100 000 doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines administered was calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using conditional Poisson regression with seasonality adjustment. RESULTS: Between 23 February 2021 and 31 March 2022, 4062 patients had an incident diagnosis of GD, proteinuria or hematuria, with 2873 of them being vaccinated during the observation period. The incidences of the composite events 1-41 days after vaccination were 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.4) per 100 000 doses of BNT162b2 administered, and 6.5 (95% CI 5.7-7.5) per 100 000 doses CoronaVac administered. There was no significant increase in the risks of composite events following the first (BNT162b2: IRR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.56-1.03; CoronaVac: IRR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.72-1.19), second (BNT162b2: IRR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.72-1.17; CoronaVac: IRR = 0.88. 95% CI 0.68-1.14) or third (BNT162b2: IRR = 0.39. 95% CI 0.15-1.03; CoronaVac: IRR = 1.18. 95% CI 0.53-2.63) dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of increased risks of de novo or relapsing GD with either BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccines.

8.
Sustainability ; 14(21):14420, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2099801

ABSTRACT

At present, machine learning has been successfully applied in many fields and has achieved amazing results. Meanwhile, over the past few years, the pandemic has transformed the transportation industry. The two hot issues prompt us to rethink the traditional problem of passenger flow forecasting. As a special structure embedded in the machine learning model, the attention mechanism is used to automatically learn and calculate the contribution degree of input data to output data. Therefore, this paper uses the attention mechanism to find the best model to predict OD passenger flow under COVID-19. Holiday characteristics, minimum temperature, COVID-19 factors, and past origin-destination (OD) passenger flow were used as input characteristics. In the first stage, the attention mechanism was used to capture the advantages of the trained random forest, extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT), and Adaboost models, and then the MLP was trained. Afterward, the weight distribution of the two models is carried out by using the historical passenger flow. The multi-model attention+ MLP model was used to evaluate the OD passenger flow prediction of Dalian Metro Line 1 under COVID-19. All the possible choices in this process were taken as a comparison experiment. The results show that only the fusion model combining the attention mechanism of random forest and XGBoost with MLP has the highest prediction accuracy.

9.
The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific ; : 100630, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095737

ABSTRACT

Summary Background COVID-19 vaccines are important for patients with heart failure (HF) to prevent severe outcomes but the safety concerns could lead to vaccine hesitancy. This study aimed to investigate the safety of two COVID-19 vaccines, BNT162b2 and CoronaVac, in patients with HF. Methods We conducted a self-controlled case series analysis using the data from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority and the Department of Health. The primary outcome was hospitalization for HF and the secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and all hospitalization. We identified patients with a history of HF before February 23, 2021 and developed the outcome event between February 23, 2021 and March 31, 2022 in Hong Kong. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using conditional Poisson regression to evaluate the risks following the first three doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac. Findings We identified 32,490 patients with HF, of which 3035 were vaccinated and had a hospitalization for HF during the observation period (BNT162b2 = 755;CoronaVac = 2280). There were no increased risks during the 0–13 days (IRR 0.64 [95% confidence interval 0.33–1.26];0.94 [0.50–1.78];0.82 [0.17–3.98]) and 14–27 days (0.73 [0.35–1.52];0.95 [0.49–1.84];0.60 [0.06–5.76]) after the first, second and third doses of BNT162b2. No increased risks were observed for CoronaVac during the 0–13 days (IRR 0.60 [0.41–0.88];0.71 [0.45–1.12];1.64 [0.40–6.77]) and 14–27 days (0.91 [0.63–1.32];0.79 [0.46–1.35];1.71 [0.44–6.62]) after the first, second and third doses. We also found no increased risk of MACE or all hospitalization after vaccination. Interpretation Our results showed no increased risk of hospitalization for HF, MACE or all hospitalization after receiving BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccines in patients with HF. Funding The project was funded by a Research Grant from the Food and Health Bureau, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Ref. No. COVID19F01). F.T.T.L. (Francisco T.T. Lai) and I.C.K.W. (Ian C.K. Wong)'s posts were partly funded by the D24H;hence this work was partly supported by AIR@InnoHK administered by Innovation and Technology Commission.

11.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 31(3): 496-503, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Home enteral nutrition was reported to be a treatment reducing malnutrition rates and improving the rational allocation of medical resources. We aim to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and improved the management of home enteral nutrition. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: 3953 patients with home enteral nutrition were enrolled in West China Hospital, located in Sichuan province, between January 1, 2021, and December 31, 2021. RESULTS: 7238 visit records (3429 females and 3809 males) were included. The median age was 59.0, with the age from 1 to 115. The top two diseases were oncologic disorders (40.3%) and digestive disorders (15.9%). Oral nutritional supplements (86.2%) was the major treatment of home enteral nutrition. The median daily energy intake and daily protein intake were 575.1 kcal and 31.2 g. 25.8%, 39.3%, 34.9% patients choose online clinic (1867), offline clinic (2843) and hospital to home (2528) respectively. Interestingly, 63.6% patients were revisited, and the rate of online clinic, offline clinic and hospital to home was increasingly lower (91.9%, 71.5%, 33.8%) among them, revealing online clinic improving the revisit rate. Most patients lived in Chengdu (60.5%), and 67.4% patients from Chengdu were revisited. The median monthly cost of hospital to home patients (¥ 1863.8) was higher than the total median monthly cost (¥ 1714.5), illustrating the cost may reduce the revisit rate. CONCLUSIONS: Distance, cost and convenience may be the key factors to determine the method of visit and revisit in patients of home enteral nutrition. Online clinic may enhance the patients' follow-up.


Subject(s)
Enteral Nutrition , Malnutrition , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Proteins , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
J Travel Med ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In view of limited evidence that specifically addresses vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the older population, this study aims to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac in older adults during the Omicron BA.2 outbreak. METHODS: This case-control study analysed data available between January and March 2022 from the electronic health databases in Hong Kong and enrolled individuals aged 60 or above. Each case was matched with up to 10 controls by age, sex, index date and Charlson Comorbidity Index for the four outcomes (COVID-19 infection, COVID-19-related hospitalisation, severe complications, and all-cause mortality) independently. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to evaluate VE of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac against COVID-19-related outcomes within 28 days after COVID-19 infection among participants stratified by age groups (60-79, ≥ 80 years old). RESULTS: A dose-response relationship between the number of vaccine doses received and protection against severe or fatal disease was observed. Highest VE (95% CI) against COVID-19 infection was observed in individuals aged ≥80 who received three doses of BNT162b2 [75.5% (73.1%-77.7%)] or three doses of CoronaVac [53.9% (51.0%-56.5%)] compared to those in the younger age group who received three doses of BNT162b2 [51.1% (49.9%-52.4%)] or three doses of CoronaVac [2.0% (-0.1%-4.1%)]. VE (95% CI) was higher for other outcomes, reaching 91.9% (89.4%-93.8%) and 86.7% (84.3%-88.8%) against COVID-19-related hospitalisation; 85.8% (61.2%-94.8%) and 89.8% (72.4%-96.3%) against COVID-19-related severe complications; and 96.4% (92.9%-98.2%) and 95.0% (92.1%-96.8%) against COVID-19-related mortality after three doses of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac in older vaccine recipients, respectively. A similar dose-response relationship was established in younger vaccine recipients and after stratification by sex and Charlson Comorbidity Index. CONCLUSION: Both BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccination were effective in protecting older adults against COVID-19 infection and COVID-19-related severe outcomes amidst the Omicron BA.2 pandemic, and VE increased further with the third dose.

13.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 339, 2022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In view of accumulating case reports of thyroid dysfunction following COVID-19 vaccination, we evaluated the risks of incident thyroid dysfunction following inactivated (CoronaVac) and mRNA (BNT162b2) COVID-19 vaccines using a population-based dataset. METHODS: We identified people who received COVID-19 vaccination between 23 February and 30 September 2021 from a population-based electronic health database in Hong Kong, linked to vaccination records. Thyroid dysfunction encompassed anti-thyroid drug (ATD)/levothyroxine (LT4) initiation, biochemical picture of hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism, incident Graves' disease (GD), and thyroiditis. A self-controlled case series design was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of thyroid dysfunction in a 56-day post-vaccination period compared to the baseline period (non-exposure period) using conditional Poisson regression. RESULTS: A total of 2,288,239 people received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination (57.8% BNT162b2 recipients and 42.2% CoronaVac recipients). 94.3% of BNT162b2 recipients and 92.2% of CoronaVac recipients received the second dose. Following the first dose of COVID-19 vaccination, there was no increase in the risks of ATD initiation (BNT162b2: IRR 0.864, 95% CI 0.670-1.114; CoronaVac: IRR 0.707, 95% CI 0.549-0.912), LT4 initiation (BNT162b2: IRR 0.911, 95% CI 0.716-1.159; CoronaVac: IRR 0.778, 95% CI 0.618-0.981), biochemical picture of hyperthyroidism (BNT162b2: IRR 0.872, 95% CI 0.744-1.023; CoronaVac: IRR 0.830, 95% CI 0.713-0.967) or hypothyroidism (BNT162b2: IRR 1.002, 95% CI 0.838-1.199; CoronaVac: IRR 0.963, 95% CI 0.807-1.149), GD, and thyroiditis. Similarly, following the second dose of COVID-19 vaccination, there was no increase in the risks of ATD initiation (BNT162b2: IRR 0.972, 95% CI 0.770-1.227; CoronaVac: IRR 0.879, 95%CI 0.693-1.116), LT4 initiation (BNT162b2: IRR 1.019, 95% CI 0.833-1.246; CoronaVac: IRR 0.768, 95% CI 0.613-0.962), hyperthyroidism (BNT162b2: IRR 1.039, 95% CI 0.899-1.201; CoronaVac: IRR 0.911, 95% CI 0.786-1.055), hypothyroidism (BNT162b2: IRR 0.935, 95% CI 0.794-1.102; CoronaVac: IRR 0.945, 95% CI 0.799-1.119), GD, and thyroiditis. Age- and sex-specific subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed consistent neutral associations between thyroid dysfunction and both types of COVID-19 vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study showed no evidence of vaccine-related increase in incident hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism with both BNT162b2 and CoronaVac.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hyperthyroidism , Hypothyroidism , Female , Humans , Male , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hyperthyroidism/chemically induced , Hyperthyroidism/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , Thyroxine , Vaccines
14.
Epilepsia ; 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The risk of seizure following BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccinations has been sparsely investigated. This study aimed to evaluate this association. METHOD: Patients who had their first seizure-related hospitalization between February 23, 2021 and January 31, 2022, were identified in Hong Kong. All seizure episodes happening on the day of vaccination (day 0) were excluded, since clinicians validated that most of the cases on day 0 were syncopal episodes. Within-individual comparison using a modified self-controlled case series analysis was applied to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of seizure using conditional Poisson regression. RESULTS: We identified 1656 individuals who had their first seizure-related hospitalization (BNT162b2: 426; CoronaVac: 263; unvaccinated: 967) within the observation period. The incidence of seizure was 1.04 (95% CI .80-1.33) and 1.11 (95% CI .80-1.50) per 100 000 doses of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac administered, respectively. Sixteen and 17 individuals, respectively, received a second dose after having a first seizure within 28 days after the first dose of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccinations. None had recurrent seizures after the second dose. There was no increased risk during day 1-6 after the first (BNT162b2: IRR = 1.39, 95% CI = .75-2.58; CoronaVac: IRR = 1.19, 95% CI = .50-2.83) and second doses (BNT162b2: IRR = 1.36, 95% CI = .72-2.57; CoronaVac: IRR = .71, 95% CI = .22-2.30) of vaccinations. During 7-13, 14-20, and 21-27 days post-vaccination, no association was observed for either vaccine. SIGNIFICANCE: The findings demonstrated no increased risk of seizure following BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccinations. Future studies will be warranted to evaluate the risk of seizure following COVID-19 vaccinations in different populations, with subsequent doses to ensure the generalizability.

15.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002547

ABSTRACT

Porcine circoviruses (PCVs), including PCV1 to PCV4, are non-enveloped DNA viruses with a diameter of about 20 nm, belonging to the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae. PCV2 is an important causative agent of porcine circovirus disease or porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVD/PCVAD), which is highly prevalent in pigs and seriously affects the swine industry globally. Furthermore, PCV2 mainly causes subclinical symptoms and immunosuppression, and PCV3 and PCV4 were detected in healthy pigs, sick pigs, and other animals. Although the pathogenicity of PCV3 and PCV4 in the field is still controversial, the infection rates of PCV3 and PCV4 in pigs are increasing. Moreover, PCV3 and PCV4 rescued from infected clones were pathogenic in vivo. It is worth noting that the interaction between virus and host is crucial to the infection and pathogenicity of the virus. This review discusses the latest research progress on the molecular mechanism of PCVs-host interaction, which may provide a scientific basis for disease prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Circoviridae Infections , Circovirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Circovirus/genetics , Cross Reactions , Swine
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2304-2314, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991970

ABSTRACT

Data regarding protection against mortality and severe complications after Omicron BA.2 infection with CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccines remains limited. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the risk of severe complications and mortality following 1-3 doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 using electronic health records database. Cases were adults with their first COVID-19-related mortality or severe complications between 1 January and 31 March 2022, matched with up-to 10 controls by age, sex, index date, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19-related mortality and severe complications by type and number of doses was estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for comorbidities and medications. Vaccine effectiveness (95% CI) against COVID-19-related mortality after two doses of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac were 90.7% (88.6-92.3) and 74.8% (72.5-76.9) in those aged ≥65, 87.6% (81.4-91.8) and 80.7% (72.8-86.3) in those aged 50-64, 86.6% (71.0-93.8) and 82.7% (56.5-93.1) in those aged 18-50. Vaccine effectiveness against severe complications after two doses of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac were 82.1% (74.6-87.3) and 58.9% (50.3-66.1) in those aged ≥65, 83.0% (69.6-90.5) and 67.1% (47.1-79.6) in those aged 50-64, 78.3% (60.8-88.0) and 77.8% (49.6-90.2) in those aged 18-50. Further risk reduction with the third dose was observed especially in those aged ≥65 years, with vaccine effectiveness of 98.0% (96.5-98.9) for BNT162b2 and 95.5% (93.7-96.8) for CoronaVac against mortality, 90.8% (83.4-94.9) and 88.0% (80.8-92.5) against severe complications. Both CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccination were effective against COVID-19-related mortality and severe complications amidst the Omicron BA.2 pandemic, and risks decreased further with the third dose.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
19.
Exp Anim ; 71(3): 316-328, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978875

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) damages lung epithelial stem/progenitor cells. Ideal anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug candidates should be screened to prevent secondary injury to the lungs. Here, we propose that in vitro three-dimensional organoid and lung injury repair mouse models are powerful models for the screening antiviral drugs. Lung epithelial progenitor cells, including airway club cells and alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, were co-cultured with supportive fibroblast cells in transwell inserts. The organoid model was used to evaluate the possible effects of hydroxychloroquine, which is administered as a symptomatic therapy to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, on the function of mouse lung stem/progenitor cells. Hydroxychloroquine was observed to promote the self-renewal of club cells and differentiation of ciliated and goblet cells in vitro. Additionally, it inhibited the self-renewal ability of AT2 cells in vitro. Naphthalene- or bleomycin-induced lung injury repair mouse models were used to investigate the in vivo effects of hydroxychloroquine on the regeneration of club and AT2 cells, respectively. The naphthalene model indicated that the proliferative ability and differentiation potential of club cells were unaffected in the presence of hydroxychloroquine. The bleomycin model suggested that hydroxychloroquine had a limited effect on the proliferation and differentiation abilities of AT2 cells. These findings suggest that hydroxychloroquine has limited effects on the regenerative ability of epithelial stem/progenitor cells. Thus, stem/progenitor cell-derived organoid technology and lung epithelial injury repair mouse models provide a powerful platform for drug screening, which could possibly help end the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Animals , Bleomycin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Differentiation , Disease Models, Animal , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Lung , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Mice , Naphthalenes , Organoids , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
20.
Technology Analysis & Strategic Management ; : 1-19, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1972836

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of disruptive technologies and digital acceleration caused by COVID-19, educating the maritime workforce by equipping them with relevant knowledge is crucial to the industry’s success. Drawing from the knowledge-based view and business logistic management framework, the objective of this study was to construct a framework that identifies and ranks existing and upcoming relevant knowledge domains and their sub-domains for maritime shipping executives. After reviewing the literature, five domains – digitalisation, maritime business, sustainability, personnel development, and supply chain management (SCM) – and 23 sub-knowledge domains were developed. Surveys were conducted with shipping company managers in Singapore and their responses were analysed using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process methodology. The results revealed that digitalisation knowledge was the most important, followed by maritime business, personnel development, sustainability, and SCM knowledge. Overall, this research has updated the knowledge and competency framework for maritime shipping executives, contributed to research on the interface between technology and knowledge management, and informed education strategies. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Technology Analysis & Strategic Management is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL