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1.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) using a meta-analysis method. METHODS: The China Knowledge Network, VIP database, WanFang database PubMed database, Embase database, and Cochrane Library were searched for a collection of comparative studies on Arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019. Meta-analysis was used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of COVID-19. RESULTS: The results of the systematic review indicated that Arbidol had a higher positive-to-negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid on Day 7 [P=0.03], a higher positive-to-negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid on Day 14 [P=0.006], a higher improvement rate of chest CT on Day 14 [P=0.02], a lower incidence of adverse reactions [P=0.002] and lower rate of mortality[P=0.007]. There was no difference in the rate of cough disappearance on Day 14 [P=0.24] or the rate of severe/critical illness [P=0.07] between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Arbidol may be superior tolopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of COVID-19. However, due to the small number of included studies and the number of patients, high-quality multi-centre large-sample randomized double-blind controlled trials are still needed for verification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2133877, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530062

ABSTRACT

Importance: Telehealth use including secure messages has rapidly expanded since the COVID-19 pandemic, including for multidisciplinary aspects of cancer care. Recent reports described rapid uptake and various benefits for patients and clinicians, suggesting that telehealth may be in standard use after the pandemic. Objective: To examine attitudes and perceptions of multidisciplinary cancer care clinicians toward telehealth and secure messages. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional specialty-specific survey (ie, some questions appear only for relevant specialties) among multidisciplinary cancer care clinicians, collected from April 29, 2020, to June 5, 2020. Participants were all 285 clinicians in the fields of medical oncology, radiation oncology, surgical oncology, survivorship, and oncology navigation from all 21 community cancer centers of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinician satisfaction, perceived benefits and challenges of telehealth, perceived quality of telehealth and secure messaging, preferred visit and communication types for different clinical activities, and preferences regarding postpandemic telehealth use. Results: A total of 202 clinicians (71%) responded (104 of 128 medical oncologists, 34 of 37 radiation oncologists, 16 of 62 breast surgeons, 18 of 28 navigators, and 30 of 30 survivorship experts; 57% (116 of 202) were women; 73% [147 of 202] between ages 36-55 years). Seventy-six percent (n = 154) were satisfied with telehealth without statistically significant variations based on clinician characteristics. In-person visits were thought to promote a strong patient-clinician connection by 99% (n = 137) of respondents compared with 77% (n = 106) for video visits, 43% (n = 59) for telephone, and 14% (n = 19) for secure messages. The most commonly cited benefits of telehealth to clinicians included reduced commute (79%; n = 160), working from home (74%; n = 149), and staying on time (65%; n = 132); the most commonly cited negative factors included internet connection (84%; n = 170) or equipment problems (72%; n = 146), or physical examination needed (64%; n = 131). Most respondents (59%; n = 120) thought that video is adequate to manage the greater part of patient care in general; and most deemed various telehealth modalities suitable for any of the queried types of patient-clinician activities. For some specific activities, less than half of respondents thought that only an in-person visit is acceptable (eg, 49%; n = 66 for end-of-life discussion, 35%; n = 58 for new diagnosis). Most clinicians (82%; n = 166) preferred to maintain or increase use of telehealth after the pandemic. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey of multidisciplinary cancer care clinicians in the COVID-19 era, telehealth was well received and often preferred by most cancer care clinicians, who deemed it appropriate to manage most aspects of cancer care. As telehealth use becomes routine in some cancer care settings, video and telephone visits and use of asynchronous secure messaging with patients in cancer care has clear potential to extend beyond the pandemic period.

3.
Pathogens ; 10(11)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526855

ABSTRACT

Tissue pathogens are commonly encountered in histopathology and cytology practice, where they can present as either benign mimickers of malignancy or true malignancies. The aim of this review is to provide a timely synthesis of our understanding of these tissue pathogens, with an emphasis on pertinent diagnostic conundrums associated with the benign mimickers of malignancy that can be seen with viral infections and those which manifest as granulomas. The oncogenic pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites, are then discussed with relationship to their associated malignancies. Although not exhaustive, the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and histological findings are included, along with a short review of emerging therapies.

4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511335

ABSTRACT

The administration of ACEI/ARB (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/Angiotension II receptor blockers) in COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) patients with hypertension exhibits a lower risk of mortality compared with ACEI/ARB non-users. In this context, an important question arises: is ACEI or ARB more suitable for the treatment of hypertensive COVID-19 patients? Taken into consideration the following four rationales, ARB may offer a more significant benefit than ACEI for the short-term treatment of hypertensive COVID-19 patients: 1. ACEI has no inhibition on non-ACE-mediated Ang II production under infection conditions, whereas ARB can function properly regardless of how Ang II is produced; 2. ACEI-induced bradykinin accumulation may instigate severe ARDS while ARB has no effects on kinin metabolism; 3. ARB alleviates viscous sputa production and inflammatory reaction significantly in contrast to ACEI; 4. ARB may attenuate the lung fibrosis induced by mechanical ventilation in severe patients and improve their prognosis significantly compared with ACEI. To examine the advantages of ARB over ACEI on hypertensive COVID-19 patients, retrospective case-control studies comparing the clinical outcomes for COVID-19 patients receiving ARB or ACEI treatment is strikingly needed in order to provide guidance for the clinical application.

5.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(11): 931-937, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504374

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined associations of negative employment changes during the COVID-19 pandemic with mental health in a national sample of U.S. workers, and whether the associations differed by race. METHODS: Data were from the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic Study, a cross-sectional survey. The effects of negative employment changes on psychological distress in 1510 workers were examined via linear regression, and stratified analyses were conducted across racial subgroups. RESULTS: After adjustment for covariates, compared to workers with no change in employment, those who experienced permanent job loss had the highest psychological distress (ß and 95% CI = 3.27 [1.89, 4.65]). Permanent job loss had the greatest effect on psychological distress in Blacks and Asians. CONCLUSION: Negative employment changes related to the pandemic may have deleterious impacts on workers' mental health, with disproportionate effects on racial minorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27400, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501201

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To depict the clinical characters and prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 patients who developed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).A cohort consisted of 526 patients, which including 109 patients complicated MODS, was retrospectively analyzed to examine the clinical characteristics and risk factors of MODS.Among the 526 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia patients, 109 patients developed multiple organ failure, the incidence rate was 20.7%. Among all 109 patients with MODS, 81.7% were over 60 years old, and 63.3% were male. The most common symptoms were fever (79.8%), dyspnea (73.4%), and fatigue (55.0%). Compared with patients non-MODS patients, there were 70 cases of MODS patients with one or more underlying diseases (64.2% vs 41.0%, P < .001). Respiratory failure (92.7%), circulatory failure (52.0%), and liver function injury (30.9%) were the most common symptoms within the spectrum of MODS. Invasive ventilator, noninvasive ventilator, and high-flow respiratory support treatment for patients in MODS patients were higher than those in the non-MODS group (P < .001). The antiviral therapy and 2 or more antibacterial drug treatments in MODS patients were higher than those in the non-MODS group (P < .001). The median hospital stay of all patients was 16 days (interquartile range [IQR], 9-26), of which 20 days (IQR, 11.5-30.5) in the MODS patients, which was approximately 4 days longer than that of non-MODS patients. In addition, our data suggested that lymphocyte counts <1.0 ∗ 109/L, Troponin T > 0.014 ng/mL and lower oxygenation index were risk factors for MODS. In the early stage of hospital admission, higher inflammatory indexes and lactic acid concentration were associated with increased risk of death.MODS often leads to poor prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019. Our data suggested the importance of early identification of MODS. We recommend close monitoring and timely supportive therapy for patients with high risks, stopping the disease progression before it was too late.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Endocrine ; 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491380

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study investigates the association between glucose control of COVID-19 patients with T2D in first 7 days after hospital admission and prognosis. A total of 252 infected inpatients with T2D in China were included. Well-controlled blood glucose was defined as stable fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in the range of 3.9-7.8 mmol/L during first 7 days using indicators of average (FBGA), maximum (FBGM) or first-time (FBG1) FBG levels. The primary endpoint was admission to intensive care unit or death. Hazard ratio (HR) of poorly controlled glucose level group compared with well-controlled group were 4.96 (P = 0.021) for FBGM and 5.55 (P = 0.014) for FBGA. Well-controlled blood glucose levels in first 7 days could improve the prognosis of COVID-19 inpatients with diabetes.

8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488216

ABSTRACT

AIMS: COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a public health crisis worldwide. In this study, we aimed at demonstrating the neutralizing potential of the IgY produced after immunizing chicken with a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit. METHODS AND RESULTS: E. coli BL21 carrying plasmid pET28a-S1 was induced with IPTG for the expression of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein. The recombinant His-tagged S1 was purified and verified by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and biolayer interferometry (BLI) assay. Then S1 protein emulsified with Freund's adjuvant was used to immunize layer chickens. Specific IgY against S1 (S1-IgY) produced from egg yolks of these chickens exhibited a high titer (1:25,600) and a strong binding affinity to S1 (KD  = 318 nmol L-1 ). The neutralizing ability of S1-IgY was quantified by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus-based neutralization assay with an IC50  value of 0.99 mg ml-1 . In addition, S1-IgY exhibited a strong ability in blocking the binding of SARS-CoV-2 S1 to hACE2, and it could partially compete with hACE2 for the binding sites on S1 by BLI assays. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated here that after immunization of chickens with our recombinant S1 protein, IgY neutralizing antibodies were generated against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit; therefore, showing the potential use of IgY to block the entry of this virus. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: IgY targeting S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 could be a promising candidate for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19. Administration of IgY-based oral preparation, oral or nasal spray may have profound implications for blocking SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291644

ABSTRACT

Background: The Post Stroke Checklist has been proved to be feasible and useful in standardizing the process for long-term post-stroke care and we developed a Mandarin version of it (M-PSC). However, it is not capable of enforcing follow-up care after stroke and further optimization is needed. Methods: : Participants were consecutively recruited from 13 departments in a specialized hospital on the discharge date. The trained clinicians contacted them by telephone calls at six months since the most recent diagnosis. A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to the participant whilst clinicians completed a satisfaction questionnaire and the Pragmatic Face and Content Validity Test (PRAC-Test). Then, a debriefing meeting was held to discuss potential problems of the M-PSC. Quantitative and qualitative data were both collected from April 2021 to May 2021. Results: : A total of 167 individuals consented to take part in the study.113 participants completed the assessment at six months and three were excluded due to missing data. The M-PSC identified a wide range of unmet needs related to stroke and at least one need was reported in 76.4% of participants. The average time taken to administer the M-PSC was 8 mins. Satisfaction ratings were high for participants (8.5/10) and clinicians (9.6/10). Totally 31 further screenings were conducted and 33 appropriate referrals were accomplished. Several areas for improvement were identified and revised. Conclusions: : The M-PSC is a feasible and useful measure in enforcing follow-up care and promising to be an approach in standardizing post-stroke follow-up practice in telehealth during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

10.
J Integr Med ; 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide life-threatening pandemic. Lianhua Qingwen is believed to possess the ability to treat or significantly improve the symptoms of COVID-19. These claims make it important to systematically evaluate the effects of using Lianhua Qingwen with Western medicine to treat COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination therapy, employing Lianhua Qingwen with Western medicine, to treat COVID-19, using a meta-analysis approach. SEARCH STRATEGY: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, VIP Database, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies evaluating the effect of Lianhua Qingwen-Western medicine combination therapy in the treatment of COVID-19. INCLUSION CRITERIA: (1) Research object: hospitalized patients meeting the diagnostic criteria of COVID-19 were included. (2) Intervention measures: patients in the treatment group received Lianhua Qingwen treatment combined with Western medicine, while the control group received either Western medicine or Chinese medicine treatment. (3) Research type: randomized controlled trials and retrospective study were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Two researchers extracted the first author, the proportion of males and females, age, body temperature, course of treatment, rate of disappearance of main symptoms, duration of fever, adverse reactions, and total effectiveness from the literature. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as the effect value for count data, and mean difference (MD) and 95% CI were used as the effect value for measurement data. RESULTS: Six articles met the inclusion criteria, including a total of 856 COVID-19 patients. The meta-analysis showed that Lianhua Qingwen combination therapy achieved higher rates of fever reduction (OR = 3.43, 95% CI [1.78, 6.59], P = 0.0002), cough reduction (OR = 3.39, 95% CI [1.85, 6.23], P < 0.0001), recovery from shortness of breath (OR = 10.62, 95% CI [3.71, 30.40], P < 0.0001) and recovery from fatigue (OR = 2.82, 95% CI [1.44, 5.53], P = 0.003), higher total effectiveness rate (OR = 2.51, 95% CI [1.73, 3.64], P < 0.00001), and shorter time to recovery from fever (MD = -1.00, 95% CI [-1.04, 0.96], P < 0.00001), and did not increase the adverse reaction rate (OR = 0.65, 95% CI [0.42, 1.01], P = 0.06), compared to the single medication control. CONCLUSION: The Lianhua Qingwen and Western medicine combination therapy is highly effective for COVID-19 patients and has good clinical safety. As only a small number of studies and patients were included in this review, more high-quality, multicenter, large-sample-size, randomized, double-blind, controlled trials are still needed for verification.

11.
iScience ; 24(11): 103272, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466424

ABSTRACT

The densely glycosylated spike (S) protein highly exposed on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) surface mediates host cell entry by binding to the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). However, the role of glycosylation has not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of different N-glycosylation of S1 protein on its binding to ACE2. Using real-time surface plasmon resonance assay the negative effects were demonstrated by the considerable increase of binding affinities of de-N-glycosylated S1 proteins produced from three different expression systems including baculovirus-insect, Chinese hamster ovarian and two variants of human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Molecular dynamic simulations of the S1 protein-ACE2 receptor complex revealed the steric hindrance and Coulombic repulsion effects of different types of N-glycans on the S1 protein interaction with ACE2. The results should contribute to future pathological studies of SARS-CoV-2 and therapeutic development of Covid-19, particularly using recombinant S1 proteins as models.

12.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 277, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. n) is an important opportunistic pathogen causing oral and gastrointestinal disease. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. p) is a next-generation probiotic and could serve as a biomarker of gut eubiosis/dysbiosis to some extent. Alterations in the human oral and gut microbiomes are associated with viral respiratory infection. The aim of this study was to characterise the oral and fecal bacterial biomarker (i.e., F. n and F. p) in COVID-19 patients by qPCR and investigate the pharyngeal microbiome of COVID-19 patients through metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS). RESULTS: Pharyngeal F. n was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients, and it was higher in male than female patients. Increased abundance of pharyngeal F. n was associated with a higher risk of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (adjusted OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06 ~ 1.65, P < 0.05). A classifier to distinguish COVID-19 patients from the healthy controls based on the pharyngeal F. n was constructed and achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.843 (95% CI = 0.688 ~ 0.940, P < 0.001). However, the level of fecal F. n and fecal F. p remained unaltered between groups. Besides, mNGS showed that the pharyngeal swabs of COVID-19 patients were dominated by opportunistic pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Pharyngeal but not fecal F. n was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients, clinicians should pay careful attention to potential coinfection. Pharyngeal F. n may serve as a promising candidate indicator for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Fusobacterium Infections/microbiology , Fusobacterium nucleatum/genetics , Pharynx/microbiology , Adult , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/virology , Carrier State/microbiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Dysbiosis , Female , Fusobacterium Infections/virology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Metagenomics , Microbiota , Middle Aged , Pharynx/virology , Sex Factors
13.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X211051677, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463096

ABSTRACT

Telehealth is an important source of health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence is scarce regarding disparities in telehealth utilization in the United States. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with telehealth utilization among US adults. Our data came from the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic Study, a nationally representative survey conducted in October 2020, with 2554 adults ≥ 18 and an oversample of racial/ethnic minorities. Telehealth utilization was measured as self-reported teleconsultation with providers via email, text message, phone, video, and remote patient monitoring during the pandemic. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the association between telehealth use and factors at the individual, household, and community levels. Overall, 43% of the sample reported having used telehealth, representing 114.5 million adults in the nation. East and Southeast Asians used telehealth less than non-Hispanic Whites (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8). Being uninsured (compared with private insurance: OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8), and those with limited broadband coverage in the community (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8) were less likely to use telehealth. There is a need to develop and implement more equitable policies and interventions at both the individual and community levels to improve access to telehealth services and reduce related disparities.

14.
Dev Cell ; 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458566

ABSTRACT

Viral entry and egress are important determinants of virus infectivity and pathogenicity. ß-coronaviruses, including the COVID-19 virus SARS-CoV-2 and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), exploit the lysosomal exocytosis pathway for egress. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a, but not SARS-CoV ORF3a, promotes lysosomal exocytosis. SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a facilitates lysosomal targeting of the BORC-ARL8b complex, which mediates trafficking of lysosomes to the vicinity of the plasma membrane, and exocytosis-related SNARE proteins. The Ca2+ channel TRPML3 is required for SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a-mediated lysosomal exocytosis. Expression of SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a greatly elevates extracellular viral release in cells infected with the coronavirus MHV-A59, which itself lacks ORF3a. In SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a, Ser171 and Trp193 are critical for promoting lysosomal exocytosis and blocking autophagy. When these residues are introduced into SARS-CoV ORF3a, it acquires the ability to promote lysosomal exocytosis and inhibit autophagy. Our results reveal a mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 interacts with host factors to promote its extracellular egress.

15.
Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems ; : 1-18, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1453202

ABSTRACT

The video conferencing software is regarded as a significant tool for social distancing and getting incorporations up and going. Due to the indeterminacy of epidemic evolution and the multiple criteria, this paper proposes a video conferencing software selection method based on hybrid multi-criteria decision making (HMCDM) under risk and cumulative prospect theory (CPT), in which the criteria values are expressed in various mathematical forms (e.g., real numbers, interval numbers, and linguistic terms) and can be changed with natural states of the epidemic. Initially, the detailed description of video conferencing software selection problem under an epidemic are given. Subsequently, a whole procedure for video conferencing software selection is conducted, the approaches for processing and normalizing the multi-format evaluation values are presented. Furthermore, the expectations provided by DMs under different natural states of the epidemic are considered as the corresponding reference points (RP). Based on this, the matrix of gains and losses is constructed. Then, the prospect values of all criteria and the perceived probabilities of natural states are calculated according to the value function and the weighting function in CPT respectively. Finally, the proposed method is illustrated by an empirical case study, and the comparison analysis and the sensitivity analysis for the loss aversion parameter are conducted to prove the effectiveness and robustness. The results show that considering the psychological characteristics of DMs in selection decision is beneficial to avoid the unacceptable and potential loss risks. This study could provide a useful guideline for managers who intend to select appropriate video conferencing software. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems is the property of IOS Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

16.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 17: 100282, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446928

ABSTRACT

Background: Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are public health measures that aim to suppress the transmission of infectious diseases, including border restrictions, quarantine and isolation, community management, social distancing, face mask usage, and personal hygiene. This research aimed to assess the co-benefits of NPIs against COVID-19 on notifiable infectious diseases (NIDs) in Guangdong Province, China. Methods: Based on NID data from the Notifiable Infectious Diseases Surveillance System in Guangdong, we first compared the incidence of NIDs during the emergency response period (weeks 4-53 of 2020) with those in the same period of 2015-2019 and then compared that with the expected incidence during the synchronous period of 2020 for each city by using a Bayesian structural time series model. Findings: A total of 514,341 cases of 39 types of NIDs were reported in Guangdong during the emergency response period in 2020, which decreased by 50·7% compared with the synchronous period during 2015-2019. It was estimated that the number of 39 NIDs during the emergency response in 2020 was 65·6% (95% credible interval [CI]: 64·0% - 68·2%) lower than expected, which means that 982,356 (95% CI: 913,443 - 1,105,170) cases were averted. The largest reduction (82·1%) was found for children aged 0-14 years. For different categories of NIDs, natural focal diseases and insect-borne infectious diseases had the greatest reduction (89·4%), followed by respiratory infectious diseases (87·4%), intestinal infectious diseases (59·4%), and blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections (18·2%). Dengue, influenza, and hand-foot-and-mouth disease were reduced by 99·3%, 95·1%, and 76·2%, respectively. Larger reductions were found in the regions with developed economies and a higher number of COVID-19 cases. Interpretation: NPIs against COVID-19 may have a large co-benefit on the prevention of other infectious diseases in Guangdong, China, and the effects have heterogeneity in populations, diseases, time and space. Funding: Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province.

17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 727419, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444039

ABSTRACT

Background: Blood parameters, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, have been identified as reliable inflammatory markers with diagnostic and predictive value for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, novel hematological parameters derived from high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) have rarely been studied as indicators for the risk of poor outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of these novel biomarkers in COVID-19 patients and the diabetes subgroup. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study involving all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from January to March 2020 in five hospitals in Wuhan, China. Demographics, clinical and laboratory findings, and outcomes were recorded. Neutrophil to HDL-C ratio (NHR), monocyte to HDL-C ratio (MHR), lymphocyte to HDL-C ratio (LHR), and platelet to HDL-C ratio (PHR) were investigated and compared in both the overall population and the subgroup with diabetes. The associations between blood parameters at admission with primary composite end-point events (including mechanical ventilation, admission to the intensive care unit, or death) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the utility of different blood parameters. Results: Of 440 patients with COVID-19, 67 (15.2%) were critically ill. On admission, HDL-C concentration was decreased while NHR was high in patients with critical compared with non-critical COVID-19, and were independently associated with poor outcome as continuous variables in the overall population (HR: 0.213, 95% CI 0.090-0.507; HR: 1.066, 95% CI 1.030-1.103, respectively) after adjusting for confounding factors. Additionally, when HDL-C and NHR were examined as categorical variables, the HRs and 95% CIs for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 were 0.280 (0.128-0.612) and 4.458 (1.817-10.938), respectively. Similar results were observed in the diabetes subgroup. ROC curves showed that the NHR had good performance in predicting worse outcomes. The cutoff point of the NHR was 5.50. However, the data in our present study could not confirm the possible predictive effect of LHR, MHR, and PHR on COVID-19 severity. Conclusion: Lower HDL-C concentrations and higher NHR at admission were observed in patients with critical COVID-19 than in those with noncritical COVID-19, and were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients as well as in the diabetes subgroup.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , China , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Leukocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on multiple lifestyle changes among adults in the United States (USA). METHODS: We conducted a survey, the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic (HEAP) Study, in October 2020 among USA adults. Participants were selected from the United States using 48 sampling strata, including age, race, ethnicity, education, and gender, and were asked to report five lifestyle behaviors (i.e., exercise time, screen time, fast-food meal consumption, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations of sociodemographic factors with each lifestyle change were estimated using weighted multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: All 2709 HEAP participants were included in this study. Compared to pre-pandemic, the time spent on exercise decreased (32.06 vs. 38.65 min/day; p < 0.001) and screen time increased (6.79 vs. 5.06 h/day; p < 0.001) during the pandemic. The percentage of individuals who reported consuming fast-food meals ≥3 times/week decreased from 37.7% before the pandemic to 33.3% during the pandemic. The percentage of heavy drinkers (≥5 times/week) increased from 20.9% before the pandemic to 25.7% during the pandemic. Among smokers, heavy smoking (≥11 cigarettes/day) increased from 5.8% before the pandemic to 7.9% during the pandemic. We also identified subgroups who were more vulnerable to adverse influences from the pandemic, including racial/ethnic minority groups and young adults. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had negative impacts on multiple lifestyle behaviors among Americans. Mitigating such negative impacts of COVID-19 requires effective interventions, particularly for some vulnerable subgroups.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Screen Time , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Continental Population Groups/psychology , Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnic Groups/psychology , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Placenta ; 115: 78-86, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415712

ABSTRACT

The risk of potential vertical transmission in SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women is currently a topic of debate. To explore the correlation between the two, we searched PubMed, Embase®, and Web of Science for studies on vertical transmission of COVID-19. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Detailed information of each included case including methods of delivery, protection measures for mothers and neonates at birth, types of specimens, inspection time, results of testing and feeding patterns was collected to assess the possibility of vertical transmission. The results showed that of the 390 neonates reported in 36 studies, 23 were infected with SARS-CoV-2 by potential vertical transmission. From the perspective of virology and pathology, vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was possible via uterus or breastmilk. Some reported potential vertically transmitted neonates could be attributed to horizontal transmission. It is extremely vital to fully elucidate the potential routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, implicating clinical practice and nursing to reduce the risk of not only horizontal transmission but also vertical transmission, thus protecting neonates from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
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