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1.
Journal of Educational Computing Research ; 61(2):466-493, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20245247

ABSTRACT

Affective computing (AC) has been regarded as a relevant approach to identifying online learners' mental states and predicting their learning performance. Previous research mainly used one single-source data set, typically learners' facial expression, to compute learners' affection. However, a single facial expression may represent different affections in various head poses. This study proposed a dual-source data approach to solve the problem. Facial expression and head pose are two typical data sources that can be captured from online learning videos. The current study collected a dual-source data set of facial expressions and head poses from an online learning class in a middle school. A deep learning neural network using AlexNet with an attention mechanism was developed to verify the syncretic effect on affective computing of the proposed dual-source fusion strategy. The results show that the dual-source fusion approach significantly outperforms the single-source approach based on the AC recognition accuracy between the two approaches (dual-source approach using Attention-AlexNet model 80.96%;single-source approach, facial expression 76.65% and head pose 64.34%). This study contributes to the theoretical construction of the dual-source data fusion approach, and the empirical validation of the effect of the Attention-AlexNet neural network approach on affective computing in online learning contexts.

2.
Journal of Southwest Minzu University Natural Science Edition ; 49(2):142-148, 2023.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20242702

ABSTRACT

Canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine rotavirus (CRV) are the three main causative viruses of diarrhea in dogs with similar clinical symptoms;thereby it is necessary to establish a high effective molecular detection method for differentiating the above pathogens. By optimizing the primer concentration and annealing temperature, a triple PCR method was established for simultaneous detection of CPV, CCoV and CRV, and then the specificity, sensitivity and repeatability of the method were tested. The results showed that the target fragments of CPV VP2 gene (253 bp), CCoV ORF-1b gene (379 bp) and CRV VP6 gene (852 bp) could be accurately amplified by the triple PCR method with high specificity, the detection limits of CPV, CCOV and CRV were 6.44x10-1 pg/L, 8.72x10-1 pg/L and 8.35x10-1 pg/L respectively with high sensitivity, and the method had good stability. Using this triple PCR method, 135 canine diarrhea fecal samples collected in Chengdu region from 2019 to 2020 were detected, and compared with those of single PCR method. The detection rates of CPV, CCoV and CRV were 16.30%, 20.74% and 4.44%, respectively, and the total infection rate was 51.11% (65/135) with 20.00% (13/65) co-infection rate. The detection results were consistent with three single PCR methods. In conclusion, CPV/CCoV/CRV triple PCR method successfully established in this paper can be applied as an effective molecular method to detection of related pathogens and to the epidemiological investigation.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1089, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 continue to have an impact on socioeconomic and population behaviour patterns. However, the effect of NPIs on notifiable infectious diseases remains inconclusive due to the variability of the disease spectrum, high-incidence endemic diseases and environmental factors across different geographical regions. Thus, it is of public health interest to explore the influence of NPIs on notifiable infectious diseases in Yinchuan, Northwest China. METHODS: Based on data on notifiable infectious diseases (NIDs), air pollutants, meteorological data, and the number of health institutional personnel in Yinchuan, we first fitted dynamic regression time series models to the incidence of NIDs from 2013 to 2019 and then estimated the incidence for 2020. Then, we compared the projected time series data with the observed incidence of NIDs in 2020. We calculated the relative reduction in NIDs at different emergency response levels in 2020 to identify the impacts of NIPs on NIDs in Yinchuan. RESULTS: A total of 15,711 cases of NIDs were reported in Yinchuan in 2020, which was 42.59% lower than the average annual number of cases from 2013 to 2019. Natural focal diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases showed an increasing trend, as the observed incidence in 2020 was 46.86% higher than the estimated cases. The observed number of cases changed in respiratory infectious diseases, intestinal infectious diseases and sexually transmitted or bloodborne diseases were 65.27%, 58.45% and 35.01% higher than the expected number, respectively. The NIDs with the highest reductions in each subgroup were hand, foot, and mouth disease (5854 cases), infectious diarrhoea (2157 cases) and scarlet fever (832 cases), respectively. In addition, it was also found that the expected relative reduction in NIDs in 2020 showed a decline across different emergency response levels, as the relative reduction dropped from 65.65% (95% CI: -65.86%, 80.84%) during the level 1 response to 52.72% (95% CI: 20.84%, 66.30%) during the level 3 response. CONCLUSIONS: The widespread implementation of NPIs in 2020 may have had significant inhibitory effects on the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases, intestinal infectious diseases and sexually transmitted or bloodborne diseases. The relative reduction in NIDs during different emergency response levels in 2020 showed a declining trend as the response level changed from level 1 to level 3. These results can serve as essential guidance for policy-makers and stakeholders to take specific actions to control infectious diseases and protect vulnerable populations in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Intestinal Diseases , Humans , Time Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Incidence
4.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 716, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236491

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral medication coverage remains sub-optimal in much of the United States, particularly the Sothern region, and Non-Hispanic Black or African American persons (NHB) continue to be disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. The "Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S." (EHE) initiative seeks to reduce HIV incidence nationally by focusing resources towards the most highly impacted localities and populations. This study evaluates the impact of hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage to estimate the levels of coverage needed to achieve EHE goals in the South. METHODS: We developed a stochastic, agent-based network model of 500,000 individuals to simulate the HIV epidemic and hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage. RESULTS: New infections declined by 78.6% at 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 94.3% at 100%/50% ART/PrEP. Declines in annual incidence rates surpassed 75% by 2025 with 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 90% by 2030 with 100%/50% ART/PrEP coverage. Increased ART coverage among NHB MSM was associated with a linear decline in incidence among all MSM. Declines in incidence among Hispanic/Latino and White/Other MSM were similar regardless of which MSM race group increased their ART coverage, while the benefit to NHB MSM was greatest when their own ART coverage increased. The incidence rate among NHB women declined by over a third when either NHB heterosexual men or NHB MSM increased their ART use respectively. Increased use of PrEP was associated with a decline in incidence for the groups using PrEP. MSM experienced the largest absolute declines in incidence with increasing PrEP coverage, followed by NHB women. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that it is possible to reach EHE goals. The largest reductions in HIV incidence can be achieved by increasing ART coverage among MSM and all race groups benefit regardless of differences in ART initiation by race. Improving ART coverage to > 90% should be prioritized with a particular emphasis on reaching NHB MSM. Such a focus will reduce the largest number of incident cases, reduce racial HIV incidence disparities among both MSM and women, and reduce racial health disparities among persons with HIV. NHB women should also be prioritized for PrEP outreach.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Disease Eradication , HIV Infections , Health Status Disparities , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Goals , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data
5.
J Sex Res ; : 1-9, 2023 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232206

ABSTRACT

The recent escalation of racism in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic points to the importance of examining the association between experienced racism and sexual health. Based on data from a nationally representative survey conducted in the U.S. in October 2020 (n = 1,915), Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regressions were estimated to examine the association between experience of racism and changes in sex life during the pandemic. We further performed a causal mediation analysis using the bootstrap technique to assess the mediating role of psychological distress in the observed association between the experience of racism and changes in sex life. Among the respondents, the proportions reporting better, worse, or no change in sex life were, respectively, 15%, 21%, and 64%. Experiencing racial discrimination during COVID-19 was significantly associated with worsening sex life (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04, 2.25). Respondents with experienced racism were also more likely to report psychological distress (AOR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.09, 2.59). About one-third (32.66%) of the observed association between experienced racism and worsening sex life was mediated through psychological distress. Addressing racism and its association with psychological distress has the potential to improve sexual health and reduce related racial and ethnic disparities.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 957, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research on mental health disparities by race-ethnicity in the United States (US) during COVID-19 is limited and has generated mixed results. Few studies have included Asian Americans as a whole or by subgroups in the analysis. METHODS: Data came from the 2020 Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic Study, based on a nationally representative sample of 2,709 community-dwelling adults in the US with minorities oversampled. The outcome was psychological distress. The exposure variable was race-ethnicity, including four major racial-ethnic groups and several Asian ethnic subgroups in the US. The mediators included experienced discrimination and perceived racial bias toward one's racial-ethnic group. Weighted linear regressions and mediation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Among the four major racial-ethnic groups, Hispanics (22%) had the highest prevalence of severe distress, followed by Asians (18%) and Blacks (16%), with Whites (14%) having the lowest prevalence. Hispanics' poorer mental health was largely due to their socioeconomic disadvantages. Within Asians, Southeast Asians (29%), Koreans (27%), and South Asians (22%) exhibited the highest prevalence of severe distress. Their worse mental health was mainly mediated by experienced discrimination and perceived racial bias. CONCLUSIONS: Purposefully tackling racial prejudice and discrimination is necessary to alleviate the disproportionate psychological distress burden in racial-ethnic minority groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Ethnicity/psychology , Pandemics , Minority Groups , COVID-19/epidemiology
7.
Advanced Sensor and Energy Materials ; : 100067, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2328369

ABSTRACT

Highly contagious COVID-19 disease is caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which poses a serious threat to global public health. Therefore, the development of a fast and reliable method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 is an urgent research need. The Fe3O4@SiO2-Au is enriched with a variety of functional groups, which can be used to fabricate a sensitive electrochemical biosensor by biofunctionalization with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Accordingly, we developed a novel electrochemical sensor by chemically modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with Fe3O4@SiO2-Au nanocomposites (hereafter Fe3O4@SiO2-Au/GCE) for the rapid detection of S-protein spiked SARS-CoV-2 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The new electrochemical sensor has a low limit detection (viz., 4.78 pg/mL) and a wide linear dynamic range (viz., 0.1 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL) for detecting the EIS response signal of S-protein. The robust Fe3O4@SiO2-Au/GCE biosensor has high selectivity, stability, and reproducibility for the detection of S-protein with good recovery of saliva samples.

8.
Service Business ; : 1-28, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2324509

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the determinants of service satisfaction with online healthcare platforms using machine learning (ML) algorithms. By training and testing eleven ML models based on data mined from a leading online healthcare platform in China, we obtained the best-performing ML algorithm for service satisfaction prediction, namely, Light Gradient Boosting Machine. Furthermore, our empirical results indicate that gifts, patient votes, popularity, fee-based consultation volume, gender, and thank-you letters positively impact service satisfaction, while the impacts of consultation volume, free consultation volume, views, waiting time, articles, physician title, and hospital level are negative. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications.

10.
China CDC Wkly ; 5(18): 391-396, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313733

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic?: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection by variants is being reported commonly and has caused waves of epidemic in many countries. Because of dynamic zero policy, the SARS-CoV-2 reinfection was less reported in China. What is added by this report?: SARS-CoV-2 reinfections were observed in Guangdong Province between December 2022 and January 2023. This study estimated that the reinfection incidence was 50.0% for the original strain primary infections, 35.2% for the Alpha or Delta variants, and 18.4% for the Omicron variant; The reinfection incidence within 3-6 months after primary infection by Omicron variant was 4.0%. Besides, 96.2% reinfection cases were symptomatic while only 7.7% sought medical attention. What are the implications for public health practice?: These findings suggest a reduced likelihood of an Omicron-driven epidemic resurgence in the short term but emphasize the importance of maintaining vigilant surveillance of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and conducting population-based antibody level surveys to inform response preparedness.

11.
Aging Dis ; 2022 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308965

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of myasthenia gravis (MG), an autoimmune disorder, is increasing among all subsets of the population leading to an elevated economic and social burden. The pathogenesis of MG is characterized by the synthesis of autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), or muscle-specific kinase at the neuromuscular junction, thereby leading to muscular weakness and fatigue. Based on clinical and laboratory examinations, the research is focused on distinguishing MG from other autoimmune, genetic diseases of neuromuscular transmission. Technological advancements in machine learning, a subset of artificial intelligence (AI) have been assistive in accurate diagnosis and management. Besides, addressing the clinical needs of MG patients is critical to improving quality of life (QoL) and satisfaction. Lifestyle changes including physical exercise and traditional Chinese medicine/herbs have also been shown to exert an ameliorative impact on MG progression. To achieve enhanced therapeutic efficacy, cholinesterase inhibitors, immunosuppressive drugs, and steroids in addition to plasma exchange therapy are widely recommended. Under surgical intervention, thymectomy is the only feasible alternative to removing thymoma to overcome thymoma-associated MG. Although these conventional and current therapeutic approaches are effective, the associated adverse events and surgical complexity limit their wide application. Moreover, Restivo et al. also, to increase survival and QoL, further recent developments revealed that antibody, gene, and regenerative therapies (such as stem cells and exosomes) are currently being investigated as a safer and more efficacious alternative. Considering these above-mentioned points, we have comprehensively reviewed the recent advances in pathological etiologies of MG including COVID-19, and its therapeutic management.

12.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2379, 2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304648

ABSTRACT

The self-assembly of the Nucleocapsid protein (NCAP) of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for its function. Computational analysis of the amino acid sequence of NCAP reveals low-complexity domains (LCDs) akin to LCDs in other proteins known to self-assemble as phase separation droplets and amyloid fibrils. Previous reports have described NCAP's propensity to phase-separate. Here we show that the central LCD of NCAP is capable of both, phase separation and amyloid formation. Within this central LCD we identified three adhesive segments and determined the atomic structure of the fibrils formed by each. Those structures guided the design of G12, a peptide that interferes with the self-assembly of NCAP and demonstrates antiviral activity in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. Our work, therefore, demonstrates the amyloid form of the central LCD of NCAP and suggests that amyloidogenic segments of NCAP could be targeted for drug development.


Subject(s)
Amyloid , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Amyloid/metabolism , Amyloidogenic Proteins , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2208679, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302132

ABSTRACT

As a hallmark of COVID-19 progression, lymphopenia alongside its subtle immune disturbance has been widely reported, but yet to be thoroughly elucidated. Aiming at exploring clinical immune biomarkers with accessibility in the current and acute omicron epidemic abrupted in China post-control era, we design a real-world prospective observation cohort in Peking Union Medical College Hospital to describe immunological, haematological profiles inducing lymphocyte subsets related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this COVID-19 cohort, we enrolled 17 mild/moderate (M/M), 24 severe (S) and 25 critical (C) patients. The dynamics of lymphocytes of COVID-19 demonstrated that the sharp decline of NK, CD8+, and CD4+ T cell counts was the main contributor to lymphopenia in the S/C group, compared to the M/M group. Expressions of activation marker CD38 and proliferation marker Ki-67 both in CD8+ T and NK cells were significantly higher in all COVID-19 patients than that in healthy donors, independent of disease severity. The subsequent analysis showed in contrast to the M/M group, NK and CD8+ T cell counts remained low-level after therapy in the S/C group. CD38 and Ki-67 expressions in NK and CD8+ T cells still stay at a high level, despite active treatment. Targeting relatively elderly patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 features the unreversible reduction of NK and CD8+ T cells with persistent activation and proliferation, which assist clinicians in early recognizing and saving severe or critical COVID-19 patients. Given that immunophenotype, the new immunotherapy improving NK and CD8+ T lymphocyte antiviral efficiency should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Humans , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Ki-67 Antigen , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Intern Med ; 294(2): 178-190, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: US progress toward ending the HIV epidemic was disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of the pandemic on HIV-related mortality and potential disparities. METHODS: Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the United States (US) Census Bureau, HIV-related mortality data of decedents aged ≥25 years between 2012 and 2021 were analyzed. Excess HIV-related mortality rates were estimated by determining the difference between observed and projected mortality rates during the pandemic. The trends of mortality were quantified with joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 79,725 deaths documented in adults aged 25 years and older between 2012 and 2021, a significant downward trend was noted in HIV-related mortality rates before the pandemic, followed by a surge during the pandemic. The observed mortality rates were 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.1%-25.5%) and 25.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-30.4%) higher than the projected values in 2020 and 2021, respectively. Both of these percentages were higher than that in the general population in 2020 (16.4%, 95%CI: 14.9%-17.9%) and 2021 (19.8%, 95%CI: 18.0%-21.6%), respectively. Increased HIV-related mortality was observed across all age subgroups, but those aged 25-44 years demonstrated the greatest relative increase and the lowest COVID-19-related deaths when compared to middle- and old-aged decedents. Disparities were observed across racial/ethnic subgroups and geographic regions. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic led to a reversal in the attainments made to reduce the prevalence of HIV. Individuals living with HIV were disproportionately affected during the pandemic. Thoughtful policies are needed to address the disparity in excess HIV-related mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , Racial Groups , Forecasting , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Mortality
15.
Lancet Microbe ; 4(5): e369-e378, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306406

ABSTRACT

Extensive immune evasion of SARS-CoV-2 rendered therapeutic antibodies ineffective in the COVID-19 pandemic. Propagating SARS-CoV-2 variants are characterised by immune evasion capacity through key amino acid mutations, but can still bind human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through the spike protein and are, thus, sensitive to ACE2-mimicking decoys as inhibitors. In this Review, we examine advances in the development of ACE2 derivatives from the past 3 years, including the recombinant ACE2 proteins, ACE2-loaded extracellular vesicles, ACE2-mimicking antibodies, and peptide or mini-protein mimetics of ACE2. Several ACE2 derivatives are granted potent neutralisation efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 variants that rival or surpass endogenous antibodies by various auxiliary techniques such as chemical modification and practical recombinant design. The derivatives also represent enhanced production efficiency and improved bioavailability. In addition to these derivatives of ACE2, new effective therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 variants are expected to be developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Recombinant Proteins/genetics
16.
Plasma Processes & Polymers ; : 1, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2306079

ABSTRACT

Recently, the cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has demonstrated a satisfactory ability to inactivate severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), but the microscopic inactivation mechanism is still unclear. This paper takes the interaction process between O atoms generated by plasma and the spike protein of coronavirus as the research object. It uses the reaction molecular dynamics simulation method to study the reaction mechanism of different numbers of O atoms and the spike protein molecules. The results show that the O atom triggers a chain reaction by taking away hydrogen atoms in the spike protein molecule, destroying the molecular structure of the spike protein and making it inactive. The severity of the reaction and the destruction of the spike protein molecule also increases with increasing O atom numbers. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Plasma Processes & Polymers is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

17.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305868

ABSTRACT

Traditional sequential pattern mining methods were designed for symbolic sequence. As a collection of measurements in chronological order, a time series needs to be discretized into symbolic sequences, and then users can apply sequential pattern mining methods to discover interesting patterns in time series. The discretization will not only cause the loss of some important information, which partially destroys the continuity of time series, but also ignore the order relations between time-series values. Inspired by order-preserving matching, this article explores a new method called order-preserving sequential pattern (OPP) mining, which does not need to discretize time series into symbolic sequences and represents patterns based on the order relations of time series. An inherent advantage of such representation is that the trend of a time series can be represented by the relative order of the values underneath time series. We propose an OPP-Miner algorithm to mine frequent patterns in time series with the same relative order. OPP-Miner employs the filtration and verification strategies to calculate the support and uses the pattern fusion strategy to generate candidate patterns. To compress the result set, we also study to find the maximal OPPs. Experimental results validate that OPP-Miner is not only efficient but can also discover similar subsequences in time series. In addition, case studies show that our algorithms have high utility in analyzing the COVID-19 epidemic by identifying critical trends and improve the clustering performance. The algorithms and data can be downloaded from https://github.com/wuc567/Pattern-Mining/tree/master/OPP-Miner.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 977433, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299971

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Sacral neuromodulation is an effective, minimally invasive treatment for refractory lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, regular postoperative programming is crucial for the maintenance of the curative effects of electronic sacral stimulator devices. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) limited the ability of practitioners to perform traditional face-to-face programming of these stimulators. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the application of remote programming technology for sacral neuromodulation during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Materials and methods: We retrospectively collected data including baseline and programming information of all patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction who underwent sacral neuromodulation remote programming in China after the outbreak of COVID-19 (i.e., December 2019). The patients also completed a self-designed telephone questionnaire on the subject. Results: A total of 51 patients from 16 centers were included. They underwent 180 total remote programming visits, and 118, 2, 25, and 54 voltage, current, pulse width, and frequency adjustments, respectively, were performed. Additionally, remote switching on and off was performed 8 times; impedance test, 54 times; and stimulation contact replacement, 25 times. The demand for remote programming was the highest during the first 6 months of sacral neuromodulation (average, 2.39 times per person). In total, 36 out of the 51 patients completed the questionnaire survey. Of these, all indicated that they chose remote programming to minimize unnecessary travel because they had been affected by COVID-19. The questionnaire also showed that remote programming could reduce the number of patient visits to the hospital, save time, reduce financial costs, and would be easy for patients to master. All surveyed patients indicated that they were satisfied with remote programming and were willing to recommend it to other patients. Conclusion: Remote programming for sacral neuromodulation is feasible, effective, safe, and highly recommended by patients with refractory lower urinary tract dysfunction. Remote programming technology has great development and application potential in the post-pandemic era.

19.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 7(1)2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Near viewing distance (VD) and longer viewing times are associated with myopia. This study aimed to identify the font size and viewing time that guarantee the appropriate VD and pixels per degree (PPD) for children's online learning. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study comprised two experiments. In experiment A, participants read text in five font sizes on three backlit displays (a personal computer, a smartphone and a tablet), an E-ink display and paper for 5 min per font size. In experiment B, participants watched videos for 30 min on three backlit displays. SETTING: The Peking University People's Hospital in Beijing (China) and the School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University (Zhejiang Province, China). PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five participants completed experiment A. Ten of them participated in experiment B. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: VDs were measured by Clouclip. The corresponding PPD was calculated. RESULTS: In experiment A, font size and display type significantly affected VD (F(4840)=149.44, p<0.001, ES (Effect size)=0.77; F(4840), p<0.001, ES=0.37). VDs were >33 cm for all five font sizes on the PC, the tablet and paper and for 18-pt on the smartphone and 16-pt on E-ink. PPD for 16-pt on the PC, 14-pt on the tablet and all five font sizes on the phone were >60. In experiment B, VD increased over the four previous 5 min periods but decreased slightly on tablets and PCs in the fifth 5 min period. PPD was >60. CONCLUSION: Children demonstrated different VDs and PPDs based on font size and display type. To ensure a 33 cm VD and 60 PPD, the minimum font size for online reading should be 18-pt on smartphones, 16-pt on PCs and E-ink, 10.5-pt on tablets and 9-pt on paper. More attention should be given to children's VD with continuous video viewing of more than 25 min. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2100049584.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance , Myopia , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reading , Smartphone
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