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1.
Hepatol Commun ; 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-763107

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Previous studies reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was likely to result in liver injury. However, few studies investigated liver injury in COVID-19 patients with chronic liver diseases. We described the clinical features in COVID-19 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Confirmed COVID-19 patients from hospitals in 10 cities of Jiangsu province, China were retrospectively included between January 18, 2020, and February 26, 2020. Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI) was used to defined NAFLD. Results: A total of 280 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Eighty-six (30.7%) of 280 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed as NAFLD by HSI. 100 (35.7%) patients presented abnormal liver function on admission. The median ALT levels (34.5 U/L vs. 23.0 U/L, P<0.001) and the proportion of elevated ALT (>40 U/L) (40.7% vs. 10.8%, P<0.001) were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD on admission. The proportion of elevated ALT in patients with NAFLD was also significantly higher than patients without NAFLD (65.1% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001) during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that age over 50 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.077, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.183-3.648, P=0.011), and concurrent NAFLD (OR 2.956, 95% CI 1.526-5.726, P=0.001) were independent risk factors of ALT elevation in COVID-19 patients, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b (OR 0.402, 95%CI 0.236-0.683, P=0.001) was associated with the reduced risk of ALT elevation during hospitalization. No patient developed liver failure or death during hospitalization. The complications and clinical outcomes were comparable between COVID-19 patients with and without NAFLD. Conclusions: NAFLD patients are more likely to develop liver injury when infected by COVID-19. However, no patient developed severe liver-related complications during hospitalization.

2.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008796, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760712

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for effective treatment and preventive vaccine to contain this devastating global pandemic, which requires a comprehensive understanding of humoral responses specific to SARS-CoV-2 during the disease progression and convalescent phase of COVID-19 patients. We continuously monitored the serum IgM and IgG responses specific to four SARS-CoV-2 related antigens, including the nucleoprotein (NP), receptor binding domain (RBD), S1 protein, and ectodomain (ECD) of the spike protein among non-severe and severe COVID-19 patients for seven weeks since disease onset. Most patients generated humoral responses against NP and spike protein-related antigens but with their distinct kinetics profiles. Combined detection of NP and ECD antigens as detecting antigen synergistically improved the sensitivity of the serological assay, compared to that of using NP or RBD as detection antigen. 80.7% of convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients revealed that the varying extents of neutralization activities against SARS-CoV-2. S1-specific and ECD-specific IgA responses were strongly correlated with the neutralization activities in non-severe patients, but not in severe patients. Moreover, the neutralizing activities of the convalescent sera were shown to significantly decline during the period between 21 days to 28 days after hospital discharge, accompanied by a substantial drop in RBD-specific IgA response. Our data provide evidence that are crucial for serological testing, antibody-based intervention, and vaccine design of COVID-19.

4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738931

ABSTRACT

Importance: Evidence of whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can be transmitted as an aerosol (ie, airborne) has substantial public health implications. Objective: To investigate potential transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 infection with epidemiologic evidence from a COVID-19 outbreak. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined a community COVID-19 outbreak in Zhejiang province. On January 19, 2020, 128 individuals took 2 buses (60 [46.9%] from bus 1 and 68 [53.1%] from bus 2) on a 100-minute round trip to attend a 150-minute worship event. The source patient was a passenger on bus 2. We compared risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among at-risk individuals taking bus 1 (n = 60) and bus 2 (n = 67 [source patient excluded]) and among all other individuals (n = 172) attending the worship event. We also divided seats on the exposed bus into high-risk and low-risk zones according to the distance from the source patient and compared COVID-19 risks in each zone. In both buses, central air conditioners were in indoor recirculation mode. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or by viral genome sequencing results. Attack rates for SARS-CoV-2 infection were calculated for different groups, and the spatial distribution of individuals who developed infection on bus 2 was obtained. Results: Of the 128 participants, 15 (11.7%) were men, 113 (88.3%) were women, and the mean age was 58.6 years. On bus 2, 24 of the 68 individuals (35.3% [including the index patient]) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 after the event. Meanwhile, none of the 60 individuals in bus 1 were infected. Among the other 172 individuals at the worship event, 7 (4.1%) subsequently received a COVID-19 diagnosis. Individuals in bus 2 had a 34.3% (95% CI, 24.1%-46.3%) higher risk of getting COVID-19 compared with those in bus 1 and were 11.4 (95% CI, 5.1-25.4) times more likely to have COVID-19 compared with all other individuals attending the worship event. Within bus 2, individuals in high-risk zones had moderately, but nonsignificantly, higher risk for COVID-19 compared with those in the low-risk zones. The absence of a significantly increased risk in the part of the bus closer to the index case suggested that airborne spread of the virus may at least partially explain the markedly high attack rate observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study and case investigation of a community outbreak of COVID-19 in Zhejiang province, individuals who rode a bus to a worship event with a patient with COVID-19 had a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than individuals who rode another bus to the same event. Airborne spread of SARS-CoV-2 seems likely to have contributed to the high attack rate in the exposed bus. Future efforts at prevention and control must consider the potential for airborne spread of the virus.

5.
J Chem Inf Model ; 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733547

ABSTRACT

The surface of proteins is vital in determining protein functions. Herein, a program, Protein Surface Printer(PSP), is built that performs multiple functions in quantifying protein surface domains. Two proteins, PETase and cytochrome P450, are used to validate that the program supports atomistic simulations with different combinations of programs and force fields. A case study is conducted on the structural analysis of the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, and the human cell receptor ACE2. Although the surface domains of both spike proteins are highly similar, their receptor-binding domains(RBDs) and the O-linked glycan domains are structurally different. The O-linked glycan domain of SARS-CoV-2 is highly positively charged, which may promote binding to negatively charged human cells.

6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1869-1877, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730432

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) are of grave concern. Those patients usually underwent a stage of excessive inflammation before developing acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this study, we test the hypothesis that short-term, low-to-moderate-dose corticosteroids would benefit patients when used in the early phase of excessive inflammation, namely, the therapeutic window. Among a Shanghai cohort and a validation cohort, we enrolled COVID-19 patients showing marked radiographic progression. Short-term, low-to-moderate-dose corticosteroids were considered for them. After identifying the possible markers for the therapeutic window, we then divided the patients, based on whether they were treated with corticosteroids within the therapeutic window, into the early-start group and control group. We identified that the therapeutic window for corticosteroids was characterized by a marked radiographic progression and lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) less than two times the upper limit of normal (ULN). The Shanghai cohort comprised of 68 patients, including 47 in the early-start group and 21 in the control group. The proportion of patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly lower in the early-start group than in the control group (10.6% vs. 33.3%, difference, 22.7%, 95% confidence interval 2.6-44.8%). Among the validation cohort of 51 patients, similar difference of the primary outcome was observed (45.0% vs. 74.2%, P = 0.035). Among COVID-19 patients with marked radiologic progression, short-term, low-to-moderate-dose corticosteroids benefits patients with LDH levels of less than two times the ULN, who may be in the early phase of excessive inflammation.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Biomarkers , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Radiography , Reproducibility of Results , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/etiology , Treatment Outcome
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1958-1964, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725886

ABSTRACT

Objectives Severe or critical COVID-19 is associated with intensive care unit admission, increased secondary infection rate, and would lead to significant worsened prognosis. Risks and characteristics relating to secondary infections in severe COVID-19 have not been described. Methods Severe and critical COVID-19 patients from Shanghai were included. We collected lower respiratory, urine, catheters, and blood samples according to clinical necessity and culture and mNGS were performed. Clinical and laboratory data were archived. Results We found 57.89% (22/38) patients developed secondary infections. The patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation or in critical state has a higher chance of secondary infections (P<0.0001). The most common infections were respiratory, blood-stream and urinary infections, and in respiratory infections, the most detected pathogens were gram-negative bacteria (26, 50.00%), following by gram-positive bacteria (14, 26.92%), virus (6, 11.54%), fungi (4, 7.69%), and others (2, 3.85%). Respiratory Infection rate post high flow, tracheal intubation, and tracheotomy were 12.90% (4/31), 30.43% (7/23), and 92.31% (12/13) respectively. Secondary infections would lead to lower discharge rate and higher mortality rate. Conclusion Our study originally illustrated secondary infection proportion in severe and critical COVID-19 patients. Culture accompanied with metagenomics sequencing increased pathogen diagnostic rate. Secondary infections risks increased after receiving invasive respiratory ventilations and intravascular devices, and would lead to a lower discharge rate and a higher mortality rate.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1869-1877, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713723

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) are of grave concern. Those patients usually underwent a stage of excessive inflammation before developing acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this study, we test the hypothesis that short-term, low-to-moderate-dose corticosteroids would benefit patients when used in the early phase of excessive inflammation, namely, the therapeutic window. Among a Shanghai cohort and a validation cohort, we enrolled COVID-19 patients showing marked radiographic progression. Short-term, low-to-moderate-dose corticosteroids were considered for them. After identifying the possible markers for the therapeutic window, we then divided the patients, based on whether they were treated with corticosteroids within the therapeutic window, into the early-start group and control group. We identified that the therapeutic window for corticosteroids was characterized by a marked radiographic progression and lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) less than two times the upper limit of normal (ULN). The Shanghai cohort comprised of 68 patients, including 47 in the early-start group and 21 in the control group. The proportion of patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly lower in the early-start group than in the control group (10.6% vs. 33.3%, difference, 22.7%, 95% confidence interval 2.6-44.8%). Among the validation cohort of 51 patients, similar difference of the primary outcome was observed (45.0% vs. 74.2%, P = 0.035). Among COVID-19 patients with marked radiologic progression, short-term, low-to-moderate-dose corticosteroids benefits patients with LDH levels of less than two times the ULN, who may be in the early phase of excessive inflammation.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Biomarkers , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Radiography , Reproducibility of Results , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/etiology , Treatment Outcome
9.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20173807

ABSTRACT

Background Active cases of COVID-19 has primarily been diagnosed via RT-PCR of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. Saliva and self-administered nasal (SN) swabs can be collected safely without trained staff. We aimed to test the sensitivity of naso-oropharyngeal saliva and SN swabs compared to NP swabs in a large cohort of migrant workers in Singapore. Methods We recruited 200 male adult subjects: 45 with acute respiratory infection, 104 asymptomatic close contacts, and 51 confirmed COVID-19 cases. Each subject underwent NP swab, SN swab and saliva collection for RT-PCR testing at 1 to 3 timepoints. We additionally used a direct-from-sample amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) workflow to establish phylogeny. Results Of 200 subjects, 91 and 46 completed second and third rounds of testing, respectively. Of 337 sets of tests, there were 150 (44.5%) positive NP swabs, 127 (37.7%) positive SN swabs, and 209 (62.0%) positive saliva. Test concordance between different sample sites was good, with a kappa statistic of 0.616 for NP and SN swabs, and 0.537 for NP and saliva. In confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 subjects, the likelihood of a positive test from any sample fell beyond 14 days of symptom onset. NGS was conducted on 18 SN and saliva samples, with phylogenetic analyses demonstrating lineages for all samples tested were Clade O (GISAID nomenclature) and lineage B.6 (PANGOLIN nomenclature). Conclusion This study supports saliva as a sensitive and less intrusive sample for COVID-19 diagnosis and further delineates the role of oropharyngeal secretions in increasing the sensitivity of testing. However, SN swabs were inferior as an alternate sample type. Our study also provides evidence that a straightforward next-generation sequencing workflow can provide direct-from-sample phylogenetic analysis for public health decision-making.

10.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20170282

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study will attempt to explore the demographic profile and outcome in the patients receiving multidisciplinary, personalised approach including use of Broad Spectrum Antivirals - Ivermectin, anti-inflammatory and antioxidants roles of Statins and N-acetyl-cysteine along with Standard of Care (SOC) in hospitalised COVID19 patients in a tertiary care centre. Setting: Inpatient department Participants: 191 COVID-19 patients with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in the year 2020 between June 14- 28, 2020 Main outcome measures: The outcome of Interests are : Studying the demographic profile of COVID 19 cases Study the treatment outcomes in terms of death or discharge in patients receiving Ivermectin+N-acetyl-cysteine+Statin along with Standard of care. Results: 148 patients were included in the study. All of them had confirmed COVID19 infection by the rtPCR method. Average age of the patients was 57.57 years ( Range = 17 - 88), 49% were male, 51% female. 81% of the patients had at least one or more comorbidities. Most common comorbidities included diabetes( 32%), Hypertension (27%),Ischaemic Heart Disease (8%). More comorbidities. The in hospital, Case Fatality Rate was therefore, 1.35 %. The remaining 144 were discharged from the facility after an average 12 days duration of stay. Conclusions: Triple therapy with ivermectin + atorvastatin + N-acetylcysteine can be an useful adjunct to standard of care. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, outpatients, treatment, zinc, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin

11.
Hepatol Commun ; 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697142

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Previous studies reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was likely to result in liver injury. However, few studies investigated liver injury in COVID-19 patients with chronic liver diseases. We described the clinical features in COVID-19 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Confirmed COVID-19 patients from hospitals in 10 cities of Jiangsu province, China were retrospectively included between January 18, 2020, and February 26, 2020. Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI) was used to defined NAFLD. Results: A total of 280 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Eighty-six (30.7%) of 280 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed as NAFLD by HSI. 100 (35.7%) patients presented abnormal liver function on admission. The median ALT levels (34.5 U/L vs. 23.0 U/L, P<0.001) and the proportion of elevated ALT (>40 U/L) (40.7% vs. 10.8%, P<0.001) were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD on admission. The proportion of elevated ALT in patients with NAFLD was also significantly higher than patients without NAFLD (65.1% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001) during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that age over 50 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.077, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.183-3.648, P=0.011), and concurrent NAFLD (OR 2.956, 95% CI 1.526-5.726, P=0.001) were independent risk factors of ALT elevation in COVID-19 patients, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b (OR 0.402, 95%CI 0.236-0.683, P=0.001) was associated with the reduced risk of ALT elevation during hospitalization. No patient developed liver failure or death during hospitalization. The complications and clinical outcomes were comparable between COVID-19 patients with and without NAFLD. Conclusions: NAFLD patients are more likely to develop liver injury when infected by COVID-19. However, no patient developed severe liver-related complications during hospitalization.

12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to observe the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with overweight and obesity. METHODS: Consecutive COVID-19 patients from 10 hospitals of Jiangsu province, China were enrolled. RESULTS: 297 COVID-19 patients were included. 39.39% and 13.47% of patients were overweight and obese, respectively. The proportions of bilateral pneumonia (92.50% vs. 73.57%, P=0.033) and type 2 diabetes (17.50% vs. 3.57%, P=0.006) were higher in patients with obesity than lean patients. The proportions of severe illness in patients with overweight (12.82% vs. 2.86%, P=0.006) and obesity (25.00% vs. 2.86%, P<0.001) were significantly higher than lean patients. More patients with obesity developed respiratory failure (20.00% vs. 2.86%, P<0.001) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (5.00% vs. 0%, P=0.024) than lean patients. The median days of hospitalization were longer in patients with obesity than lean patients (17.00 days vs. 14.00 days, P=0.029). Overweight (OR 4.222, 95%CI 1.322-13.476, P=0.015) and obesity (OR 9.216, 95% CI 2.581-32.903, P=0.001) were independent risk factors of severe illness. Obesity (HR 6.607, 95% CI 1.955-22.329, P=0.002) was an independent risk factor of respiratory failure. CONCLUSION: Overweight and obesity were independent risk factors of severe illness in COVID-19 patients. More attention should be paid to these patients.

14.
Signa Vitae ; 1(16): 193-198, 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-679191

ABSTRACT

Although an acute, usually self-resolving disease, COVID-19 can also be deadly. Thus far, no approved specific treatments for this novel highly contagious disease are available, which posed great challenges on clinicians worldwide. Here we present the case of a relatively young COVID-19 patient who recovered well, despite delayed diagnosis and initiation of aggressive treatment. From the case, we speculated that: (a) Delayed diagnosis may miss the optimal antiviral treatment period for severe cases. (b) Monitoring of inflammatory markers and blood gas analysis in early stage may assist in identifying high-risk patients. (c) Glucocorticoids therapy in early stage may be harmful to the patient. (d) Once progressed to ARDS, mechanical ventilatory support should be considered as soon as possible in case of refractory hypoxemia. (e) ECMO, a scarce medical resource, should not be abused to treat COVID-19 patients with very low expected survival rates, especially during the period when medical resources are run out. (f) convalescent plasma therapy should be initiated in earlier stage of disease.

15.
Chaos Solitons Fractals ; (140)20201101.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-671961

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pneumonia is a global threat since it emerged in early December 2019. Driven by the desire to develop a computer-aided system for the rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 to assist radiologists and clinicians to combat with this pandemic, we retrospectively collected 206 patients with positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for COVID-19 and their 416 chest computed tomography (CT) scans with abnormal findings from two hospitals, 412 non-COVID-19 pneumonia and their 412 chest CT scans with clear sign of pneumonia are also retrospectively selected from participating hospitals. Based on these CT scans, we design an artificial intelligence (AI) system that uses a multi-scale convolutional neural network (MSCNN) and evaluate its performance at both slice level and scan level. Experimental results show that the proposed AI has promising diagnostic performance in the detection of COVID-19 and differentiating it from other common pneumonia under limited number of training data, which has great potential to assist radiologists and physicians in performing a quick diagnosis and mitigate the heavy workload of them especially when the health system is overloaded. The data is publicly available for further research at https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/3y55vgckg6/1https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/3y55vgckg6/1.

16.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a fully automated AI system to quantitatively assess the disease severity and disease progression of COVID-19 using thick-section chest CT images. METHODS: In this retrospective study, an AI system was developed to automatically segment and quantify the COVID-19-infected lung regions on thick-section chest CT images. Five hundred thirty-one CT scans from 204 COVID-19 patients were collected from one appointed COVID-19 hospital. The automatically segmented lung abnormalities were compared with manual segmentation of two experienced radiologists using the Dice coefficient on a randomly selected subset (30 CT scans). Two imaging biomarkers were automatically computed, i.e., the portion of infection (POI) and the average infection HU (iHU), to assess disease severity and disease progression. The assessments were compared with patient status of diagnosis reports and key phrases extracted from radiology reports using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and Cohen's kappa, respectively. RESULTS: The dice coefficient between the segmentation of the AI system and two experienced radiologists for the COVID-19-infected lung abnormalities was 0.74 ± 0.28 and 0.76 ± 0.29, respectively, which were close to the inter-observer agreement (0.79 ± 0.25). The computed two imaging biomarkers can distinguish between the severe and non-severe stages with an AUC of 0.97 (p value < 0.001). Very good agreement (κ = 0.8220) between the AI system and the radiologists was achieved on evaluating the changes in infection volumes. CONCLUSIONS: A deep learning-based AI system built on the thick-section CT imaging can accurately quantify the COVID-19-associated lung abnormalities and assess the disease severity and its progressions. KEY POINTS: • A deep learning-based AI system was able to accurately segment the infected lung regions by COVID-19 using the thick-section CT scans (Dice coefficient ≥ 0.74). • The computed imaging biomarkers were able to distinguish between the non-severe and severe COVID-19 stages (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.97). • The infection volume changes computed by the AI system were able to assess the COVID-19 progression (Cohen's kappa 0.8220).

17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(13): 12493-12503, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642633

ABSTRACT

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted in an attempt to systematically collect and evaluate the associations of epidemiological, comorbidity factors with the severity and prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted according to the guidelines proposed by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Sixty nine publications met our study criteria, and 61 studies with more than 10,000 COVID-19 cases were eligible for the quantitative synthesis. We found that the males had significantly higher disease severity (RR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.13-1.27, P <0.001) and more prognostic endpoints. Older age was found to be significantly associated with the disease severity and six prognostic endpoints. Chronic kidney disease contributed mostly for death (RR: 7.10, 95% CI: 3.14-16.02), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for disease severity (RR: 4.20, 95% CI: 2.82-6.25), admission to intensive care unit (ICU) (RR: 5.61, 95% CI: 2.68-11.76), the composite endpoint (RR: 8.52, 95% CI: 4.36-16.65,), invasive ventilation (RR: 6.53, 95% CI: 2.70-15.84), and disease progression (RR: 7.48, 95% CI: 1.60-35.05), cerebrovascular disease for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (RR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.23-8.04), coronary heart disease for cardiac abnormality (RR: 5.37, 95% CI: 1.74-16.54). Our study highlighted that the male gender, older age and comorbidities owned strong epidemiological evidence of associations with the severity and prognosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140929, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641249

ABSTRACT

This paper uses the exploratory spatial data analysis and the geodetector method to analyze the spatial and temporal differentiation characteristics and the influencing factors of the COVID-19 (corona virus disease 2019) epidemic spread in mainland China based on the cumulative confirmed cases, average temperature, and socio-economic data. The results show that: (1) the epidemic spread rapidly from January 24 to February 20, 2020, and the distribution of the epidemic areas tended to be stable over time. The epidemic spread rate in Hubei province, in its surrounding, and in some economically developed cities was higher, while that in western part of China and in remote areas of central and eastern China was lower. (2) The global and local spatial correlation characteristics of the epidemic distribution present a positive correlation. Specifically, the global spatial correlation characteristics experienced a change process from agglomeration to decentralization. The local spatial correlation characteristics were mainly composed of the'high-high' and 'low-low' clustering types, and the situation of the contiguous layout was very significant. (3) The population inflow from Wuhan and the strength of economic connection were the main factors affecting the epidemic spread, together with the population distribution, transport accessibility, average temperature, and medical facilities, which affected the epidemic spread to varying degrees. (4) The detection factors interacted mainly through the mutual enhancement and nonlinear enhancement, and their influence on the epidemic spread rate exceeded that of single factors. Besides, each detection factor has an interval range that is conducive to the epidemic spread.

20.
J Infect ; 81(3): e31-e32, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625901

ABSTRACT

We followed-up a mild COVID-19 patient for 91 days and serially monitored his serum antibodies to four SARS-CoV-2 related antigens (NP, RBD, S1 and ECD) and neutralization activities. Our data revealed a profile of serial antibody responses during the progress and a quick decline of neutralization activities after discharge.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies
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