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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(2): 265-267, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744874

ABSTRACT

Previous studies on asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers indicated that asymptomatic infections always occurred in people in community or patients in general wards, prone to be young and middle aged people. Limited data are available for asymptomatic infections in critically ill patients in intensive care unit or elderly people. Here we reported three elderly asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in intensive care unit. These three elderly patients had negative CT images and 14 consecutive negative RT-PCR test results, with dynamic changes in IgG-IgM antibody levels without any clinical symptoms, which might be related to their weakened immune responses due to elder age (over 85 years old) and the history of hypertension. Therefore, combining nucleic acid RT-PCR and the IgM-IgG antibody test can provide more accurate SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, especially for elderly asymptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0068121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691411

ABSTRACT

The N501Y amino acid mutation caused by a single point substitution A23063T in the spike gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is possessed by three variants of concern (VOCs), B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1. A rapid screening tool using this mutation is important for surveillance during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We developed and validated a single nucleotide polymorphism real-time reverse transcription PCR assay using allelic discrimination of the spike gene N501Y mutation to screen for potential variants of concern and differentiate them from SARS-CoV-2 lineages without the N501Y mutation. A total of 160 clinical specimens positive for SARS-CoV-2 were characterized as mutant (N501Y) or N501 wild type by Sanger sequencing and were subsequently tested with the N501Y single nucleotide polymorphism real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay. Our assay, compared to Sanger sequencing for single nucleotide polymorphism detection, demonstrated positive percent agreement of 100% for all 57 specimens displaying the N501Y mutation, which were confirmed by Sanger sequencing to be typed as A23063T, including one specimen with mixed signal for wild type and mutant. Negative percent agreement was 100% in all 103 specimens typed as N501 wild type, with A23063 identified as wild type by Sanger sequencing. The identification of circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages carrying an N501Y mutation is critical for surveillance purposes. Current identification methods rely primarily on Sanger sequencing or whole-genome sequencing, which are time consuming, labor intensive, and costly. The assay described herein is an efficient tool for high-volume specimen screening for SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and for selecting specimens for confirmatory Sanger or whole-genome sequencing. IMPORTANCE During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several variants of concern (VOCs) have been detected, for example, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.617.2. The VOCs pose a threat to public health efforts to control the spread of the virus. As such, surveillance and monitoring of these VOCs is of the utmost importance. Our real-time RT-PCR assay helps with surveillance by providing an easy method to quickly survey SARS-CoV-2 specimens for VOCs carrying the N501Y single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Samples that test positive for the N501Y mutation in the spike gene with our assay can be sequenced to identify the lineage. Thus, our assay helps to focus surveillance efforts and decrease turnaround times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mutation, Missense , Point Mutation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Alleles , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genes, Viral , Humans , Mass Screening , Ontario/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325387

ABSTRACT

Background: In order to explore the psychological status and vulnerability characteristics of medical staff with the progress of the epidemic. Methods: : This study investigated the prevalence of mental problems of 2748 medical staff in four stages. PHQ-9, GAD-7, SSS, Pittsburgh sleep quality index and PCL-C were used for the psychological evaluation, and univariate logistic standardized analysis and multivariate logistic regression for data analysis. Results: : The prevalence of mental problems were observed statistically significant difference. In stage 1, mild anxiety and mild depression reached the highest value of 41.4% and 40.72% respectively. Between March 4 and March 17 that of mild depression rose from 16.07% to 26.7%, and between March 17 and March 26 the prevalence of mild anxiety increased from 17.28% to 20.02%. Female, unmarried, working in Wuhan are the risk factors of mental health of medical staff (P<0.05). Conclusion: The psychological status of the medical staff has changed dynamically. Stage 1, the latter period of Stage 2 and Stage 3 are the high-risk stages. Female,unmarried is the dangerous characteristics of psychological vulnerability.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324519

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) at the hardest-hit city of Wuhan, the fast-moving spread has killed over three hundred people and infected more than ten thousands in China1. There are more than one hundred cases outside of China, affecting a dozen of countries globally2. The genome sequence of 2019-nCoV has been reported and fast diagnostic kits, effective treatment as well as preventive vaccines are rapidly being developed3. Initial fast-growing confirmed cases triggered lock-down of Wuhan as well as nearby cities in Hubei Province. Mathematical models have been proposed by scientists around the world to project the numbers of infected cases in the coming days 4,5. However, major factors such as transportation and cultural customs have not been weighed enough. Our model is not set out for precise prediction of the number of infected cases, rather, it is meant for a glance of the dynamics under a public epidemic emergency situation and of different contributing factors. We hope that our model and simulation would provide more insights and perspective information to public health authorities around the globe for better informed prevention and containment solution.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324516

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has become a pandemic and researchers have built phylogenetic trees to trace the spread of the virus. However, the accumulation rate of variations and mutational hotspots remain largely unclear. Results: We collected more than 3,100 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from GISAID and profiled the landscape of whole genome variations. We detected 2,096 single nucleic variants (SNVs) and seven short deletions. 1,224 of them (58.4%) are missenses variation, altering the corresponding residues. We found the accumulation rate of SNVs in the current spreading situation is 6.36e-2/day. We found 15 missenses SNVs are extremely high frequent (existing in more than 100 genome sequences, p < 1e-5), effecting ORF1ab , S , ORF3a , M , ORF8 , and N . Moreover, one frequent substitution at locus 23,403 changes the 614 th amino acid of spike glycoprotein from D to G, potentially effecting the functions of this key protein. Conclusion: Our study provided the genome-wide mutation landscape of SARS-CoV-2. We found the continent specific mutational patterns and 15 missenses high frequent SNVs effecting 6 genes of the virus, may promoting the adaption of the virus during evolving.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318863

ABSTRACT

Background: Co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 with respiratory viruses, bacteria and fungi have been reported to cause a wide range of illness. Objectives: We assess the prevalence of co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with seasonal respiratory viruses, document the respiratory viruses detected among individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, and describe characteristics of individuals with respiratory virus co-infection detected. Methods: Specimens included in this study were submitted as part of routine clinical testing to Public Health Ontario Laboratory from individuals requiring testing for SARS-CoV-2 and/or seasonal respiratory viruses. Results: Co-infection was detected in a smaller proportion (2.5%) of individuals with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 than those with seasonal respiratory viruses (4.3%);this difference was not significant. Individuals with any respiratory virus co-infection were more likely to be younger than 65 years of age and male than those with single respiratory virus infection. Those with SARS-CoV-2 co-infection manifested mostly mild respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: Findings of this study may not support routine testing for seasonal respiratory viruses among all individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, as they were rare during the study period nor associated with severe disease. However, testing for seasonal respiratory viruses should be performed in severely ill individuals, in which detection of other respiratory viruses may assist with patient management.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315343

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has dealt an unprecedented blow to the aviation industry since 2020. This paper applies the Interval Epsilon-Based Measure (IEBM) model to evaluate the optimal quarterly environmental efficiency of 14 global airlines of passenger and cargo subsystems during 2018-2020. Then, the Time Series Prediction method is applied to forecast the interval data of inputs and outputs from 2021 to 2022 and calculate the quarterly efficiency. Thus, the future development trends of airlines can be predicted. Furthermore, the results accord with reality can verify the credibility and accuracy of the model. Furthermore, the results show that: 1. COVID-19 has hit the passenger subsystem harder, while the freight subsystem has become more efficient;2. The efficiency of the freight subsystem has inevitably declined in the post-epidemic era;3. Therefore, the airlines will have a “√” shaped recovery curve in the next few years.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315316

ABSTRACT

Central banks and fiscal authorities around the world lent directly to nonfinancial firms on an unprecedented scale during the Covid-19 crisis. Credit support is subject to mispricing due to the potential lack of information on individual borrowers' credit worthiness or the political constraints on discriminatory credit pricing. In a dynamic model, we demonstrate that the mispricing of credit support generates a downward bias in the firm quality distribution that is self-perpetuating. As a result, intervention in the current crisis necessitates future interventions of greater scales, which in turn cause more distortions in firm quality dynamics. Such effects are amplified by firms' forward-looking investment decisions in normal times. Low-quality firms over-invest as they expect underpriced credit support in crises, while, on a relative basis, high-quality firms under-invest. The slippery slope of intervention is a necessary evil, as we show that when carefully designed, credit support still improves welfare.

9.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e050867, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A COVID-19 outbreak has been contained in China through effective prevention measures with the collaboration of the citizens. However, there is resistance to self-reported symptoms as required in the international student community. This study explored knowledge level and symptoms reporting behaviours toward COVID-19 among international students. METHODS: An online cross-sectional investigation was conducted among 119 international students across Heilongjiang province and questionnaires implemented through WeChat between 1 and 25 March 2020. The results were explained using descriptive Χ2 test and binary logistic regression analysis using SPSS V.20. RESULTS: In total, 119 international students participated, with a response rate of 90.16%. Of the 119 respondents, 96 (80.7%) knew COVID-19 symptoms, 109 (91.6%) took cognisance of questions on the importance of the maintenance of wearing masks and 113 (95%) on questions regarding hand hygiene in the prevention of disease transmission. However, results show that there were still large gaps in knowledge about questions regarding the virus and the treatment methods (many participants incorrectly believed that the virus could be kill by drinking alcohol or smoking). In addition, more than half of the participants declared compliance with positive health behaviours, however 27.7% did not agree with vaccination (if any), and 31.1% did not agree to be quarantined after being diagnosed with COVID-19. Furthermore, 20 participants (16, 80%) expressed an inclination to deliberately withhold symptoms. Variables in the Health Belief Model showed a significant association with behavioural change. CONCLUSION: From our study, we found that there is evident knowledge about COVID-19 among international students, although orientation and sensitisation are still required. Those who were aware of the benefits of reporting, the severity of COVID-19 and the legal consequences of deliberately concealing information showed a greater willingness to report; conversely, those who believed reporting is very inconvenient and feared being quarantined after reporting showed less willingness to report. A study focusing on international students' knowledge and behaviour amid the pandemic will provide information for countries to cut off the chain of disease transmission of all variants of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Belief Model , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
World J Psychiatry ; 11(11): 1106-1115, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that childhood exposure to domestic violence is a common factor in posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is unclear whether PTG and PTSD share a common/different underlying mechanism. AIM: To explore the common/different underlying mechanism of PTG and PTSD. METHODS: Between February 12 and 17, 2020, a nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China among 2038 university students, and a self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. The data included demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, and subjective social economic status, and childhood exposure to domestic violence scale that was selected from the Chinese version of revised Adverse Childhood Experiences Question, Self-compassion Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Abbreviated PTSD Checklist-Civilian version. A structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses. RESULTS: Exposure to domestic violence was significantly associated with PTG and PTSD via a 1-step indirect path of self-compassion (PTG: ß = -0.023, 95%CI: -0.44 to -0.007; PTSD: ß = 0.008, 95%CI: 0.002, 0.014) and via a 2-step indirect path from self-compassion to resilience (PTG: ß = -0.008, 95%CI: -0.018 to -0.002; PTSD: ß = 0.013, 95%CI: 0.004-0.024). However, resilience did not mediate the relationship between exposure to domestic violence and PTG and PTSD. CONCLUSION: PTG and PTSD are common results of childhood exposure to domestic violence, which may be influenced by self-compassion and resilience.

11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(17): 25623-25638, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540255

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has dealt an unprecedented blow to the aviation industry since 2020. This paper applies the interval epsilon-based measure (IEBM) model to evaluate the optimal quarterly environmental efficiency of 14 global airlines of passenger and cargo subsystems during 2018-2020. Then, the time series prediction method is applied to forecast the interval data of inputs and outputs from 2021 to 2022. Finally, we can calculate the quarterly efficiency. Thus, the future development trends of airlines can be predicted. The results show that (1) COVID-19 has hit the passenger subsystem harder, while the freight subsystem has become more efficient; (2) the efficiency of the freight subsystem has inevitably declined in the post-epidemic era; and (3) therefore, the airlines will have a "√" shaped recovery curve in the next few years.


Subject(s)
Aviation , COVID-19 , Efficiency , Humans , Industry
12.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst ; 33(1): 12-24, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528340

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is spreading worldwide. Considering the limited clinicians and resources and the evidence that computed tomography (CT) analysis can achieve comparable sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, the automatic segmentation of lung infection from CT scans supplies a rapid and effective strategy for COVID-19 diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. It is challenging because the infection appearance has high intraclass variation and interclass indistinction in CT slices. Therefore, a new context-aware neural network is proposed for lung infection segmentation. Specifically, the autofocus and panorama modules are designed for extracting fine details and semantic knowledge and capturing the long-range dependencies of the context from both peer level and cross level. Also, a novel structure consistency rectification is proposed for calibration by depicting the structural relationship between foreground and background. Experimental results on multiclass and single-class COVID-19 CT images demonstrate the effectiveness of our work. In particular, our method obtains the mean intersection over union (mIoU) score of 64.8%, 65.2%, and 73.8% on three benchmark datasets for COVID-19 infection segmentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Algorithms , Benchmarking , Calibration , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Neural Networks, Computer , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging
13.
Epidemiology and Infection ; 149, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1521670

ABSTRACT

As acute infectious pneumonia, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has created unique challenges for each nation and region. Both India and the United States (US) have experienced a second outbreak, resulting in a severe disease burden. The study aimed to develop optimal models to predict the daily new cases, in order to help to develop public health strategies. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, generalised regression neural network (GRNN) models, ARIMA–GRNN hybrid model and exponential smoothing (ES) model were used to fit the daily new cases. The performances were evaluated by minimum mean absolute per cent error (MAPE). The predictive value with ARIMA (3, 1, 3) (1, 1, 1)14 model was closest to the actual value in India, while the ARIMA–GRNN presented a better performance in the US. According to the models, the number of daily new COVID-19 cases in India continued to decrease after 27 May 2021. In conclusion, the ARIMA model presented to be the best-fit model in forecasting daily COVID-19 new cases in India, and the ARIMA–GRNN hybrid model had the best prediction performance in the US. The appropriate model should be selected for different regions in predicting daily new cases. The results can shed light on understanding the trends of the outbreak and giving ideas of the epidemiological stage of these regions.

14.
IEEE Internet of Things Journal ; 8(21):15807-15817, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1494314

ABSTRACT

We developed a ballistocardiography (BCG)-based Internet-of-Medical-Things (IoMT) system for remote monitoring of cardiopulmonary health. The system composes of BCG sensor, edge node, and cloud platform. To improve computational efficiency and system stability, the system adopted collaborative computing between edge nodes and cloud platforms. Edge nodes undertake signal processing tasks, namely approximate entropy for signal quality assessment, a lifting wavelet scheme for separating the BCG and respiration signal, and the lightweight BCG and respiration signal peaks detection. Heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory rate variability (RRV) analysis and other intelligent computing are performed on cloud platform. In experiments with 25 participants, the proposed method achieved a mean absolute error (MAE)±standard deviation of absolute error (SDAE) of 9.6±8.2 ms for heartbeat intervals detection, and a MAE±SDAE of 22.4±31.1 ms for respiration intervals detection. To study the recovery of cardiopulmonary function in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), this study recruited 186 discharged patients with COVID-19 and 186 control volunteers. The results indicate that the recovery performance of the respiratory rhythm is better than the heart rhythm among discharged patients with COVID-19. This reminds the patients to be aware of the risk of cardiovascular disease after recovering from COVID-19. Therefore, our remote monitoring system has the ability to play a major role in the follow up and management of discharged patients with COVID-19.

15.
Virol J ; 18(1): 142, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496196

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of antiviral drugs in reducing the risk of developing severe illness in patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 403 adult patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, China. The antiviral drugs arbidol, interferon alpha-1b, lopinavir-ritonavir and ribavirin were distributed to the patients for treatment. The primary endpoint of this study was the time to develop severe illness. RESULTS: Of the 462 patients admitted, 403 had moderate COVID-19 symptoms at hospital admission and were included in this study. 90 of the 403 (22.3%) patients progressed to severe illness. The use of arbidol was associated with a lower severity rate 3.5% compared to control group 30.5%, p-value < 0.0001; the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.084-0.90, p = 0.033). The use of interferon alpha-1b was associated with a lower severity rate 15.5% compared to control group 29.3%, with p-value < 0.0001; the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.15-0.58, p =  0.0005). The use of lopinavir-itonavir and ribavirin did not show significant differences in adjusted regression models. Early use of arbidol within 7 days of symptom onset was significantly associated with a reduced recovery time of - 5.2 days (IQR - 3.0 to - 7.5, p = 4e-06) compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Treatment with arbidol and interferon alpha-1b contributes to reducing the severity of illness in patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. Early use of arbidol may reduce patients' recovery time.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Indoles/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Adult , China , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
16.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 626-632, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414833

ABSTRACT

Viruses can be transmitted from animals to humans (and vice versa) and across animal species. As such, host-virus interactions and transmission have attracted considerable attention. Non-human primates (NHPs), our closest evolutionary relatives, are susceptible to human viruses and certain pathogens are known to circulate between humans and NHPs. Here, we generated global statistics on VI-NHPs based on a literature search and public data mining. In total, 140 NHP species from 12 families are reported to be infected by 186 DNA and RNA virus species, 68.8% of which are also found in humans, indicating high potential for crossing species boundaries. The top 10 NHP species with high centrality in the NHP-virus network include two great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and eight Old World monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. leonina, Papio cynocephalus, Cercopithecus ascanius, C. erythrotis, Chlorocebus aethiops, and Allochrocebus lhoesti). Given the wide distribution of Old World monkeys and their frequent contact with humans, there is a high risk of virus circulation between humans and such species. Thus, we suggest recurring epidemiological surveillance of NHPs, specifically Old World monkeys that are in frequent contact with humans, and other effective measures to prevent potential circulation and transmission of viruses. Avoidance of false positives and sampling bias should also be a focus in future work.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Primates/virology , Public Health , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Viruses/classification , Animals , Animals, Wild , Global Health , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology
17.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(181): 20210112, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371777

ABSTRACT

Before herd immunity against Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is achieved by mass vaccination, science-based guidelines for non-pharmaceutical interventions are urgently needed to reopen megacities. This study integrated massive mobile phone tracking records, census data and building characteristics into a spatially explicit agent-based model to simulate COVID-19 spread among 11.2 million individuals living in Shenzhen City, China. After validation by local epidemiological observations, the model was used to assess the probability of COVID-19 resurgence if sporadic cases occurred in a fully reopened city. Combined scenarios of three critical non-pharmaceutical interventions (contact tracing, mask wearing and prompt testing) were assessed at various levels of public compliance. Our results show a greater than 50% chance of disease resurgence if the city reopened without contact tracing. However, tracing household contacts, in combination with mandatory mask use and prompt testing, could suppress the probability of resurgence under 5% within four weeks. If household contact tracing could be expanded to work/class group members, the COVID resurgence could be avoided if 80% of the population wear facemasks and 40% comply with prompt testing. Our assessment, including modelling for different scenarios, helps public health practitioners tailor interventions within Shenzhen City and other world megacities under a variety of suppression timelines, risk tolerance, healthcare capacity and public compliance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Models, Theoretical , COVID-19 Testing , China , Cities , Contact Tracing , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Masks
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1500, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the psychological status and vulnerability characteristics of medical staff with the progress of the epidemic. METHODS: This study investigated the prevalence of mental problems of 2748 medical staff in four stages. The PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire), GAD-7 (Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire), SSS (Somatization Symptom Checklist), Pittsburgh sleep quality index, and PCL-C (Self-rating scale for post-traumatic stress disorder) were used for the psychological evaluation, and univariate logistic standardised analysis, and multivariate logistic regression for data analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of mental problems showed a statistically significant difference. In Stage 1, mild anxiety and mild depression reached the highest value of 41.4 and 40.72% respectively. Between 4 and 17 March that of mild depression rose from 16.07 to 26.7%, and between 17 and 26 March the prevalence of mild anxiety increased from 17.28 to 20.02%. Female, unmarried, and working in Wuhan are the risk factors of mental health of medical staff (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The psychological status of the medical staff has changed dynamically. Stage 1 and the latter period of Stages 2 and 3 are the high-risk stages. Female and unmarried are the dangerous characteristics of psychological vulnerability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Front Psychol ; 12: 636062, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332135

ABSTRACT

The present research studied Chinese and Euro-Canadian students during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on their affect, optimism, well-being, and meaning in life. The results revealed both differences and similarities across cultures. As predicted, Chinese participants reported more positive affect and less negative affect, higher optimism, higher state psychological well-being, and higher meaning presence, compared to Euro-Canadian participants. The findings were replicated after a week's delay. Analyses on longitudinal data showed that state optimism, state well-being, and meaning presence influenced one another over time. These variables also mediated the cultural differences in one another. These results are consistent with cultural work on naïve dialecticism and non-linear lay theory of change. Results also demonstrate underlying relationships among the constructs that are common to both cultural groups. Broadly, the present research highlights the impact of culture on people's response to challenging life situations and the mechanisms underlying these cultural differences.

20.
Cell Rep ; 36(3): 109432, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300648

ABSTRACT

Adoptive cell therapy with virus-specific T cells has been used successfully to treat life-threatening viral infections, supporting application of this approach to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We expand severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) T cells from the peripheral blood of COVID-19-recovered donors and non-exposed controls using different culture conditions. We observe that the choice of cytokines modulates the expansion, phenotype, and hierarchy of antigenic recognition by SARS-CoV-2 T cells. Culture with interleukin (IL)-2/4/7, but not under other cytokine-driven conditions, results in more than 1,000-fold expansion in SARS-CoV-2 T cells with a retained phenotype, function, and hierarchy of antigenic recognition compared with baseline (pre-expansion) samples. Expanded cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are directed against structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including the receptor-binding domain of Spike. SARS-CoV-2 T cells cannot be expanded efficiently from the peripheral blood of non-exposed controls. Because corticosteroids are used for management of severe COVID-19, we propose an efficient strategy to inactivate the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in SARS-CoV-2 CTLs using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.

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