Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 150
Filter
1.
Cell Host & Microbe ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821186

ABSTRACT

Summary The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has evolved into four sub-lineages, BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3, with BA.2 becoming dominant worldwide. We and others have reported antibody evasion of BA.1 and BA.2, but side-by-side comparisons of Omicron sub-lineages to vaccine-elicited or monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated neutralization are necessary. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we report that sera from individuals vaccinated by two doses of an inactivated whole-virion vaccine shows weak to no neutralization activity, while homologous or heterologous boosters markedly improve neutralization titers against all Omicron sub-lineages. We also present neutralization profiles against a 20-mAb panel, including 10 authorized or approved, against the Omicron sub-lineages, along with mAb mapping against single or combinatorial spike mutations. Most mAbs lost neutralizing activity, while some demonstrate distinct neutralization patterns among Omicron sub-lineages, reflecting antigenic differences. Collectively, our results suggest the Omicron sub-lineages threaten the neutralization efficacy of current vaccines and antibody therapeutics, highlighting the importance of vaccine boosters.

2.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5464, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1820256

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess the psychological experience of COVID-19 basic vaccination, the willingness to receive booster vaccines, and to determine their relationships among Chinese people. Between 6 August 2021 and 9 August 2021, a research firm performed a national cross-sectional online survey among Chinese individuals (aged over 18), using the snowball sampling approach, with 26,755 participants. Factor analysis and binary logistic regression were used to evaluate the existing associations. The overall COVID-19 vaccination psychological experience score of the participants was 25.83 (25.78~25.89;scores ranged from 7–35). A total of 93.83% (95%CI = 93.54~94.12) of respondents indicated a willingness to receive booster vaccines. After classifying psychological experiences associated with COVID-19 vaccination into positive and negative experiences and adjusting for confounding factors, for the former, the willingness to receive booster vaccines for participants with the highest scores of 13–15 was 3.933 times higher (OR = 3.933, 95%CI = 3.176~4.871) than participants who obtained scores of 3–9, and for the latter, the willingness to receive booster vaccines for participants with the highest scores of 19–20 was 8.871 times higher (OR = 8.871, 95%CI = 6.240~12.612) than participants who obtained scores of 4–13. Our study suggests that a good psychological experience with vaccination is positively associated with an increased willingness to receive booster vaccines.

3.
The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific ; 23:100470, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819561

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Atrial fibrillation(AF) has become a significant public health concern in China, with population aging and urbanization. Methods Data screening was performed for 30,244,930 subjects with medical insurance in the Shanghai Municipal Health Commission database between 2015 and 2020. Patients diagnosed with AF were identified and further assessed for treatment information and clinical outcomes, as well as sex differences and impact of COVID-19 pandemic on AF managment. Findings

5.
Journal of Knowledge Management ; 26(5):1306-1318, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1806847

ABSTRACT

Purpose>Public crisis often generates new knowledge that should be incorporated into a government’s macro-control to ensure the relief supply. From the perspective of public crisis knowledge management, the Chinese system of Government relief supplies can be considered as a special case of the knowledge system. This paper aims to investigate the supply and production mechanism of relief goods and explore the advantages of the Chinese system when a sudden public crisis occurs.Design/methodology/approach>Under the Chinese system, the authors construct a relief supply chain model consisting of the Chinese Government, one manufacturer and one supplier, where the supplier has no capital constraints. Given the demand for relief goods, the government purchases from the manufacturer with a guide price. Then, the manufacturer decides on its order quantity and offers a wholesale price to the supplier. The supplier has a random capacity and decides on the level of knowledge acquisition to improve its capacity.Findings>The authors first obtain the analytical solution for the manufacturer to motivate a high level of knowledge acquisition from the supplier. Specifically, the manufacturer’s optimal order quantity is equal to the demand and the optimal wholesale price has a cost-plus form that reimburses the supplier for its production cost and knowledge-acquisition cost. Next, the authors derive the optimal guide price for the government, which should be set to subsidize the manufacturer with a proportion of the sourcing cost. Finally, the authors compare the Chinese system with the market mechanism where the supplier has capital constraints and confirm that the Chinese system is more beneficial to both the manufacturer and the government.Originality/value>Quantitative research on the Chinese system of Government relief supplies is difficult to be conducted. This paper provides feasible and practical methods to quantify the benefits of the Chinese system. The results reveal that the Chinese system is an effective mechanism of public crisis knowledge management, which can be helpful to the government’s policy-making in practice.

6.
Mathematics ; 10(7):1037, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1785801

ABSTRACT

Due to the existence and variation of various viruses, an epidemic in which different strains spread at the same time will occur. here, an avian–human epidemic model with two strain viruses are established and analyzed. Both theoretical and simulation results reveal that the mixed infections intensify the epidemic and the dynamics become more complex and sensitive. There are six equilibria. The trivial equilibrium point is a high-order singular point and will undergo the transcritical bifurcations to bifurcate three equilibria. The existence and stability of equilibria mainly depend on five thresholds. A bifurcation portrait for the existence and stability of equilibria is presented. Simulations suggest that the key control measure is to develop the identification technology to eliminate the poultry infected with a high pathogenic virus preferentially, then the infected poultry with a low pathogenic virus in the recruitment and on farms. Controlling contact between human and poultry can effectively restrain the epidemic and controlling contagions in poultry can avoid great infection in humans.

7.
Archivos de Bronconeumología ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1783181

ABSTRACT

As with the rapid increase of the number of patients who have recovered from COVID-19 globally, there needs to be a major shift of the focus from rapid pathogen detection, treatment and prevention to the promotion of better recovery. Notwithstanding the scarcity of our understandings, recent studies have unraveled a plethora of pulmonary and systemic consequences which require medical attention. These consequences remained as of the end of follow-up which ranged from 1 month to 1 year. Here, we review the consequences of COVID-19 in terms of the residual symptoms, radiological and functional manifestations, and identify the potential risk factors that contribute to a prolonged recovery. We also summarize the benefits of clinical interventions (particularly the pulmonary rehabilitation program), and address several undetermined concerns and key future research directions. RESUMEN Como consecuencia del rápido aumento del número de pacientes que se han recuperado de la COVID-19 en todo el mundo, es necesario cambiar el enfoque de la detección rápida del patógeno, el tratamiento y la prevención para promover una mejor recuperación. A pesar de la escasez de nuestros conocimientos, estudios recientes han desvelado una plétora de consecuencias pulmonares y sistémicas que requieren atención médica. Estas consecuencias se mantienen al final del seguimiento, que oscila entre 1 mes y 1 año. Aquí se hace una revisión de las consecuencias de la COVID-19 en términos de síntomas residuales y manifestaciones radiológicas y funcionales y se identifican los posibles factores de riesgo que contribuyen a una recuperación demorada. También se resumen los beneficios de las intervenciones clínicas (en particular el programa de rehabilitación pulmonar) y se abordan varias preocupaciones no resueltas y direcciones clave de investigación futura.

9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332033

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has been partitioned into four sub-lineages designated BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3, with BA.2 becoming dominant worldwide recently by outcompeting BA.1 and BA.1.1. We and others have reported the striking antibody evasion of BA.1 and BA.2, but side-by-side comparison of susceptibility of all the major Omicron sub-lineages to vaccine-elicited or monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated neutralization are urgently needed. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we found that sera from individuals vaccinated by two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines (BBIBP-CorV) showed very weak to no neutralization activity, while a homologous inactivated vaccine booster or a heterologous booster with protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) markedly improved the neutralization titers against all Omicron variants. The comparison between sub-lineages indicated that BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3 had comparable or even greater antibody resistance than BA.1. We further evaluated the neutralization profile of a panel of 20 mAbs, including 10 already authorized or approved, against these Omicron sub-lineages as well as viruses with different Omicron spike single or combined mutations. Most mAbs lost their neutralizing activity completely or substantially, while some demonstrated distinct neutralization patterns among Omicron sub-lineages, reflecting their antigenic difference. Taken together, our results suggest all four Omicron sub-lineages threaten the efficacies of current vaccines and antibody therapeutics, highlighting the importance of vaccine boosters to combat the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

10.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 490-502, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758472

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Virtual home visits may improve chronic disease management. However, whether they are suitable for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients has not yet been fully investigated. This study aimed to compare the agreement and acceptance of virtual home visits and in-person home visits in PD patients. METHODS: This was a paired, single center, noninferiority trial. Participants received a virtual home visit and an in-person home visit simultaneously. A home visit checklist was built for standardization visits. The content was divided into three parts: domestic habits (57 items), bag exchange procedures (56 items), and exit site care (53 items). Satisfaction questionnaires for both patients and nurses were designed to assess attitudes toward home visits and socioeconomic effects. RESULTS: A total of 30 PD patients were enrolled in a single center. The information collected from virtual home visits and in-person home visits was found to be highly consistent. The perfect agreement was found in 52/57, 49/56, and 44/53 items (Cohen's kappa 0.81-1.00), substantial agreement in 4/57, 7/56, and 8/53 items (Cohen's kappa 0.61-0.80). Patients reported almost identical satisfaction for virtual home visits and in-person home visits (Z = 0.39, p = 0.70). PD nurses reported similar feasibility and patient cooperation for the two visit types (Z = 0.99, p = 0.33; Z = 1.65, p = 0.10, respectively). In addition, virtual home visits were found to be more cost-effective than in-person home visits. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual home visits information collection was similar to in-person home visits in PD. There were no differences in participant satisfaction and feasibility between the two visit types.


Subject(s)
House Calls , Peritoneal Dialysis , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Patient Compliance , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(3): 565-582, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell injury is a common nidus of renal injury in patients and consistent with the high prevalence of AKI reported during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This cell type expresses integrin α5 (ITGA5), which is essential to the Tie2 signaling pathway. The microRNA miR-218-5p is upregulated in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) after hypoxia, but microRNA regulation of Tie2 in the EPC lineage is unclear. METHODS: We isolated human kidney-derived EPCs (hkEPCs) and surveyed microRNA target transcripts. A preclinical model of ischemic kidney injury was used to evaluate the effect of hkEPCs on capillary repair. We used a genetic knockout model to evaluate the effect of deleting endogenous expression of miR-218 specifically in angioblasts. RESULTS: After ischemic in vitro preconditioning, miR-218-5p was elevated in hkEPCs. We found miR-218-5p bound to ITGA5 mRNA transcript and decreased ITGA5 protein expression. Phosphorylation of 42/44 MAPK decreased by 73.6% in hkEPCs treated with miR-218-5p. Cells supplemented with miR-218-5p downregulated ITGA5 synthesis and decreased 42/44 MAPK phosphorylation. In a CD309-Cre/miR-218-2-LoxP mammalian model (a conditional knockout mouse model designed to delete pre-miR-218-2 exclusively in CD309+ cells), homozygotes at e18.5 contained avascular glomeruli, whereas heterozygote adults showed susceptibility to kidney injury. Isolated EPCs from the mouse kidney contained high amounts of ITGA5 and showed decreased migratory capacity in three-dimensional cell culture. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the critical regulatory role of miR-218-5p in kidney EPC migration, a finding that may inform efforts to treat microvascular kidney injury via therapeutic cell delivery.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/pathology , Integrin alpha5/metabolism , MicroRNAs/physiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Receptor, TIE-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology
12.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 28, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713167

ABSTRACT

Humoral responses to COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV (PLWH) remain incompletely characterized. We measured circulating antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD), ACE2 displacement and viral neutralization activities one month following the first and second COVID-19 vaccine doses, and again 3 months following the second dose, in 100 adult PLWH and 152 controls. All PLWH were receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy, with median CD4+ T-cell counts of 710 (IQR 525-935) cells/mm3, though nadir CD4+ T-cell counts ranged as low as <10 cells/mm3. After adjustment for sociodemographic, health and vaccine-related variables, HIV infection was associated with lower anti-RBD antibody concentrations and ACE2 displacement activity after one vaccine dose. Following two doses however, HIV was not significantly associated with the magnitude of any humoral response after multivariable adjustment. Rather, older age, a higher burden of chronic health conditions, and dual ChAdOx1 vaccination were associated with lower responses after two vaccine doses. No significant correlation was observed between recent or nadir CD4+ T-cell counts and responses to two vaccine doses in PLWH. These results indicate that PLWH with well-controlled viral loads and CD4+ T-cell counts in a healthy range generally mount strong initial humoral responses to dual COVID-19 vaccination. Factors including age, co-morbidities, vaccine brand, response durability and the rise of new SARS-CoV-2 variants will influence when PLWH will benefit from additional doses. Further studies of PLWH who are not receiving antiretroviral treatment or who have low CD4+ T-cell counts are needed, as are longer-term assessments of response durability.

13.
China CDC Weekly ; 4:1-3, 2022.
Article in English | China CDC Weekly | ID: covidwho-1707523

ABSTRACT

On January 15, 2022, a 26 years old female (Case A) went to a sampling site for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing due to excessive fatigue and fever for two days. This patient preliminarily tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. Beijing CDC subsequently verified the result. Furthermore, a rapid site mutation test based on qRT-PCR showed that the virus carried the Q498R mutations but lacked the L452R, T478K, and P681R mutations (ABT, Beijing, China and Bojie), indicating the case was infected by the Omicron variant.;;In the following seven days, five close contacts tested positive in screening, including her mother (Case B), a colleague of the index case (Case C), and three family members of Case C (Case D, E, and F).

14.
Med Oncol ; 39(5): 79, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704103

ABSTRACT

This letter is some reflections on the articles by Lee et al. that have been published in MEDICAL ONCOLOGY. In this article, the experience of transferring, screening, and uninterrupted treatment of cancer patients in our radiotherapy center during Delta Variants of SARS-CoV-2 virus epidemic in Xi'an, China is presented in the form of a flowchart. By taking effective control measures, the radiotherapy center has not only effectively prevented the spread of the virus, but also ensured uninterrupted treatment for all patients. Therefore, we quickly share our center's experience so that more radiotherapy patients can benefit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Workflow
15.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1696189

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly increased the number of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), necessitating respiratory support. This strain on intensive care unit (ICU) resources forces clinicians to limit the use of mechanical ventilation by seeking novel therapeutic strategies. Awake-prone positioning appears to be a safe and tolerable intervention for non-intubated patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Meanwhile, several observational studies and meta-analyses have reported the early use of prone positioning in awake patients with COVID-19-related ARDS (C-ARDS) for improving oxygenation levels and preventing ICU transfers. Indeed, some international guidelines have recommended the early application of awake-prone positioning in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure attributable to C-ARDS. However, its effectiveness in reducing intubation rate, mortality, applied timing, and optimal duration is unclear. High-quality evidence of awake-prone positioning for hypoxemic patients with COVID-19 is still lacking. Therefore, this article provides an update on the current state of published literature about the physiological rationale, effect, timing, duration, and populations that might benefit from awake proning. Moreover, the risks and adverse effects of awake-prone positioning were also investigated. This work will guide future studies and aid clinicians in deciding on better treatment plans.

16.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325875

ABSTRACT

Social distancing, an essential public health measure to limit the spread of contagious diseases, has gained significant attention since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this work, the problem of visual social distancing compliance assessment in busy public areas, with wide field-of-view cameras, is considered. A dataset of crowd scenes with people annotations under a bird's eye view (BEV) and ground truth for metric distances is introduced, and several measures for the evaluation of social distance detection systems are proposed. A multi-branch network, BEV-Net, is proposed to localize individuals in world coordinates and identify high-risk regions where social distancing is violated. BEV-Net combines detection of head and feet locations, camera pose estimation, a differentiable homography module to map image into BEV coordinates, and geometric reasoning to produce a BEV map of the people locations in the scene. Experiments on complex crowded scenes demonstrate the power of the approach and show superior performance over baselines derived from methods in the literature. Applications of interest for public health decision makers are finally discussed. Datasets, code and pretrained models are publicly available at GitHub.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325070

ABSTRACT

Cluster of viral pneumonia occurrences during a short period of time may be a harbinger of an outbreak or pandemic, like SARS, MERS, and recent COVID-19. Rapid and accurate detection of viral pneumonia using chest X-ray can be significantly useful in large-scale screening and epidemic prevention, particularly when other chest imaging modalities are less available. Viral pneumonia often have diverse causes and exhibit notably different visual appearances on X-ray images. The evolution of viruses and the emergence of novel mutated viruses further result in substantial dataset shift, which greatly limits the performance of classification approaches. In this paper, we formulate the task of differentiating viral pneumonia from non-viral pneumonia and healthy controls into an one-class classification-based anomaly detection problem, and thus propose the confidence-aware anomaly detection (CAAD) model, which consists of a shared feature extractor, an anomaly detection module, and a confidence prediction module. If the anomaly score produced by the anomaly detection module is large enough or the confidence score estimated by the confidence prediction module is small enough, we accept the input as an anomaly case (i.e., viral pneumonia). The major advantage of our approach over binary classification is that we avoid modeling individual viral pneumonia classes explicitly and treat all known viral pneumonia cases as anomalies to reinforce the one-class model. The proposed model outperforms binary classification models on the clinical X-VIRAL dataset that contains 5,977 viral pneumonia (no COVID-19) cases, 18,619 non-viral pneumonia cases, and 18,774 healthy controls.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324963

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been demonstrated as the cause of pneumonia. Nevertheless, it has not been reported as the cause of acute myocarditis or fulminant myocarditis. Case Presentation: A 63-year-old male was admitted with pneumonia and cardiac symptoms. He was genetically confirmed as COVID-19 by testing sputum on the first day of admission. He also had an elevated troponin-I (Trop I) level and diffuse myocardial dyskinesia along with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on echocardiography. The highest level of Interleukin 6 was 272.40pg/ml. Bedside chest radiograph had typical ground-glass changes of viral pneumonia. The laboratory test results of virus that can cause myocarditis are all negative. The patient conformed to the diagnostic criteria of Chinese expert consensus statement for fulminant myocarditis. After receiving antiviral therapy and mechanical life support, the Trop I reduced to 0.10 g/L, and Interleukin 6 was 7.63 pg/ml. Meanwhile the LVEF of the patient gradually recovered to 68%. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients may develop severe cardiac complications such as myocarditis and heart failure, and this is the first case of COVID-19 infection complicated with fulminant myocarditis. The mechanism of cardiac pathology caused by COVID-19 needs further study.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323673

ABSTRACT

Background: To explore the kinetic changes in virology, specific antibody response and imaging during the clinical course of COVID-19. Methods: : This observational study enrolled 20 patients with COVID-19, who were hospitalized between January 20-April 6, 2020, in the two COVID-19 designated hospitals of Zhoushan, Zhejiang and Rushan, Shandong, China, The laboratory findings, imaging, serum response to viral infection, and viral RNA level in the throat and stool samples were assessed from onset to recovery phase in patients with COVID-19. Results: : SARS-COV-2 RNA was positive as early as day four. It remained positive until day 55 post-onset in the sputum-throat swabs and became negative in most cases (55%) within 14 days after onset. Lymphocytopenia occurred in 40% (8/20) of patients during the peak infection period and returned to normal at week five. The most severe inflammation in the lungs appeared in week 2 or 3 after onset, and this was completely absorbed between week 6 and 8 in 85.7% of patients. All patients had detectable antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD), and 95% of these patients had IgG to viral N proteins. The antibody titer peaked at week four. Anti-S IgM was positive in 7 of 20 patients after week three. Conclusions: : All COVID-19 patients in this study were self-limiting and recovered well though it may take as long as 6-8 weeks. Our findings on the kinetic changes in imaging, serum response to viral infection and viral RNA level may help understand pathogenesis and define clinical course of COVID-19.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323602

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic caused a great threat to people’s lives worldwide. As a special category of the population, pregnant women are vulnerable during emergencies. This study was designed to explore whether or not the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced maternal and infant outcomes. We collected maternal characteristics, laboratory results, condition in the third trimester, maternal outcome, fetal or neonatal outcomes, and characteristics of amniotic fluid, umbilical cord and placenta from pregnant women and fetals or newborns in the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university from 24 January to 31 March 2020 (peak period), chose the same types of data at the hospital during the same period in 2019 and 1 January − 23 January 2020 (prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020) as a control. Our study focused on uncomplicated singleton pregnancies among women not infected by COVID-19. The results demonstrated that there was not an increase in adverse outcomes of pregnant women and newborns during the COVID-19 pandemic;This might be associated with the updated design of major epidemic prevention and control systems in Guangzhou, and the extension of pregnant women’s rest time during the third trimester of pregnancy. Nevertheless, the survey showed an increased incidence rate of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and zinc deficiency in newborns during the epidemic, implying that pregnant women should participate in appropriate physical exercise, increase their exposure to outdoor sunlight and improve nutrition intake to ensure healthy newborns during the quarantine period. Our study has provided some guidance for maternal management during the COVID-19 pandemic.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL