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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335414

ABSTRACT

Environmental parameters have a significant impact on the spread of respiratory viral diseases. Temperature and relative humidity are correlated with viral inactivation in the air, whereas supersaturated air can promote viral deposition in the respiratory tract. This study introduces a new concept, the dynamic virus deposition ratio (α), that reflects the dynamic changes in particle size and viral deposition under varying ambient environments. Moreover, a non-steady-state modified Wells-Riley model is established to predict the infection risk of shared air space under varying environmental parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, and air saturation state. The quanta emission rate of an asymptomatic infector during different respiratory activities (breath, voice, and cough) are explored, and the differences in the infection risk under saturated and unsaturated air conditions are also compared. Finally, six typical exposure scenarios from daily life are also explored, highlighting scenarios of higher risk. The results show that the highest infection risk (R max =5.2%) and the longest risk duration (T terminal =6.8h) are both reached in cold and damp conditions. This study quantitatively reflects how environmental parameters are linked to viral inactivation and particle deposition, affecting transmission risk.

2.
BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making ; 22(1):1-11, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1808363

ABSTRACT

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment in surgical patients is important for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of patients. The commonly used Caprini model is limited by its inadequate ability to discriminate between risk stratums on the surgical population in southwest China and lengthy risk factors. The purpose of this study was to establish an improved VTE risk assessment model that is accurate and simple. Methods: This study is based on the clinical data from 81,505 surgical patients hospitalized in the Southwest Hospital of China between January 1, 2019 and June 18, 2021. Among the population, 559 patients developed VTE. An improved VTE risk assessment model, SW-model, was established through Logistic Regression, with comparisons to both Caprini and Random Forest. Results: The SW-model incorporated eight risk factors. The area under the curve (AUC) of SW-model (0.807 [0.758, 0.853], 0.804 [0.765, 0.840]), are significantly superior (p = 0.001 and p = 0.044) to those of the Caprini (0.705 [0.652, 0.757], 0.758 [0.719, 0795]) on two test sets, but inferior (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002) to Random Forest (0.854 [0.814, 0.890], 0.839 [0.806, 0.868]). In decision curve analysis, within threshold range from 0.015 to 0.04, the DCA curves of the SW-model are superior to Caprini and two default strategies. Conclusions: The SW-model demonstrated a higher discriminative capability to distinguish VTE positive in surgical patients compared with the Caprini model. Compared to Random Forest, Logistic Regression based SW-model provided interpretability which is essential in guarantee the procedure of risk assessment transparent to clinicians. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making is the property of BioMed Central and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience ; 2022:1-17, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1799204

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the rapid construction and operation of Wuhan Vulcan Mountain Hospital and Raytheon Hospital have attracted positive responses from local and international observers. At the same time, it has also highlighted the urgency for the construction of emergency medical facilities for public health emergencies. Before construction, the practical location of medical facilities is the basis for improving the city’s emergency management ability. Based on the classic susceptible, exposed, infected, and recovered (SEIR) epidemic model and epidemic data in Guangzhou, we established a multi-stage time-delay SEIR epidemic model that is suitable for epidemic research in Guangzhou. According to the results of the model, the five areas with the highest number of infected patients were identified, which included Baiyun District, Panyu District, Haizhu District, Tianhe District, and Zengcheng District. We then centralized infected individuals at five demand points. Based on the distribution of these points and by combining the characteristics of the emergency medical facilities, we built and solved the set covering location decision model, and considered the economy, society, and environment as the starting points to optimize the site location. Finally, based on simulations, we concluded that appropriate site selection can increase the time required to reach the maximum number of patients and reduce the proportion of infected and exposed people by 11.3% and 1.11%, respectively. This is indicative of the effectiveness of the site selection model and the rational selection of facility points in this study. It solves the optimization problem of the location decision of emergency medical facilities for public health emergencies in China, and also provides some valuable references for site selection decisions of emergency medical facilities in other areas.

5.
Nutrients ; 14(8):1678, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1792588

ABSTRACT

For older adults, self-care begins with daily health behaviors (DHB), which refers to a series of basic behaviors beneficial to health in daily life;it is the foundation for promoting health, preventing disease, and maintaining health with or without the support of a healthcare provider. Thus, this study aimed to observe the changes in DHB among older adults when the COVID-19 pan-demic first erupted in China (at the beginning of 2020) and explore the impact factors on self-care routines in daily life. We applied a cross-sectional study among 1256 (83.7%) valid older Chinese from 19 February 2020 to 19 March 2020, the score of DHB changes (mean ±SD, 14.70 ±2.140;range, 8–18) presented a significant growth (t1256 = 44.636, p < 0.001) during COVID-19. From 3 hierarchical linear regression models, the older Chinese who received a higher education include high school (β= 0.403, 95% CI [0.009, 0.797], p = 0.045) and college degree and above (β= 0.488, 95% CI [0.034, 0.943], p = 0.035), and lived in the eastern China (β= 0.771, 95% CI [0.392, 1.151], p < 0.001) took DHB more frequently. However, the high-risk infection (β= −0.740, 95% CI [−1.248, −0.231], p = 0.004), overweight/obese character (β= −0.265, 95% CI [−0.526, −0.004], p = 0.047), and alcohol consumption (β= −0.350, 95% CI [−0.634, −0.065], p = 0.016) are significant factors in decreasing a senior's DHB performance. For China, self-care offers a straightforward strategy among the range of measures required to combat COVID-19 and future health threats. In summary, findings in this study can build a foundation for developing healthcare policy and services for the relevant government and departments on prompting DHB and the importance of self-care among the older population.

6.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(1):17-21, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1789478

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the infection status of major respiratory pathogens in pneumonia patients in the early phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic (January-March, 2020) in Tongzhou district of Beijing.

7.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(1):67-71, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1789474

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiologic characteristics of common respiratory virus infection in hospitalized children in Wuhan Children's Hospital from January to December 2019, and provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 201, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China is one of 30 countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, and poor adherence to TB treatment is one of the biggest challenges for TB control. We aimed to explore the barriers and facilitators of treatment adherence among drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) patients under the "Integrated model" in Western China, to provide evidence-based treatment and control regimens for DS-TB patients to improve adherence behaviours. METHODS: Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to explore the factors associated with self-reported adherence (SRA) behaviours. Questionnaire surveys with DS-TB patients and in-depth interviews with leaders from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and community health sectors (CHCs), healthcare workers (HCWs) from CHCs, and DS-TB patients were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 459 eligible patients were included in the quantitative survey, and two patients and 13 healthcare providers were included in the in-depth interviews. The percentage of patients who experienced a missed dose, lack of follow-up sputum examination, and interrupted treatment were 19.0%, 11.3%, and 9.2%, respectively. Patients aged 20-39 had a higher risk of missed dose [OR (95% CI): 2.302 (1.001-5.305)] and a lower risk of interrupted treatment [OR (95% CI): 0.278 (0.077-0.982)] than patients more than 60 years. Patients who were of Han ethnicity (OR [95% CI]: 0.524 [0.301-0.912]) received psychological support (OR [95% CI]: 0.379 [0.144-0.998]) from their family and had a lower risk of missed doses. Patients who had drug side effects had a higher risk of interrupted treatment (OR [95% CI]: 2.587 [1.237-5.412]). Patients who possessed higher knowledge had a lower risk of lack of follow-up sputum examination [OR (95% CI): 0.817 (0.673-0.991)]. The results of the qualitative study also reported that patients' poor TB knowledge was the main reason for their non-SRA behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-centred strategies should be implemented to improve health literacy and strengthen psychological support. More effective case management should be designed and implemented based on different patient characteristics to improve adherence behaviours in further studies.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents , Tuberculosis , Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , China , Humans , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Young Adult
9.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e14844, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776709

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that often correlate with the severity of COVID-19. Here, we explored the pathogenesis underlying the intestinal inflammation in COVID-19. Serum VEGF level was particularly elevated in patients with GI symptoms and significantly correlated with intestinal edema and disease progression. Through an animal model mimicking intestinal inflammation upon stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we further revealed that VEGF was over-produced in the duodenum prior to its ascent in the circulation. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 spike promoted VEGF production through activating the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling in enterocytes, but not in endothelium, and inducing permeability and inflammation. Blockage of the ERK/VEGF axis was able to rescue vascular permeability and alleviate intestinal inflammation in vivo. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation and therapeutic targets for the GI symptoms of COVID-19.

10.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; 21(9), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1771460

ABSTRACT

Quantifying and comparing the effectiveness of different emission control strategies can provide insights for policy design and air quality management. In our previous work, we developed a wind-pollution decomposition (WPD) method that provides a robust tool to quantify meteorology-driven and emission-driven impacts on changes in air quality. In this study, we applied this method to quantify emission-driven impacts on the observed air quality changes during the three largest international socioeconomic mega-events in China, namely, Shanghai World Expo in 2010, Beijing Olympic Games in 2008, and Guangzhou Asian Games in 2010. We also applied the method to the air quality variation during the lockdown period in Wuhan due to COVID-19 and compared the emission-driven impacts on air quality among these events. The results quantitatively show that the emission-driven factor generally played a much stronger role (> 86%);the meteorology-driven factor promoted pollution mitigation during Wuhan, Beijing and Guangzhou events but worsened the air quality during Shanghai event. The emission-driven pollution reduction was largest in the Wuhan COVID-19 lockdown (64% NO2, 54% PM2.5 reductions), followed by Beijing Olympics (42% PM2.5, 31% NO2 reductions), The Wuhan COVID-19 impact on air quality improvement is not as effective as expected especially for O3, which implies the difficulty of air quality attainment under normal, non-lockdown daysComparison of these events show that shutdown or emission control measures applied to industries and power plants were generally benefit for PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 reduction, while those applied to on-road traffic control are less-effective for reducing NO2 and not works for the mean O3 reduction. The results imply that advanced control measures for vehicle exhaust and control strategies considering the interaction between O3 and NOx/VOC/PM are necessary. In addition, the ongoing supervision of control strategies implementation is one of the key issues for future air quality management in China.

11.
Journal of Organizational and End User Computing ; 34(6):1-22, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1766023

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on the restorative effects of immersive virtual reality (VR) forest experiences on elderly people during the COVID-19 lockdown. A field experiment with 63 elderly participants was conducted in an elderly care institution in China. The results showed that a five-minute VR forest experience with three minutes of subsequent reliving can bring immediate psychological improvements (i.e., increased positive affect, decreased negative affect, and enhanced stress recovery) to elderly individuals. The negative affect decrease and stress recovery enhancement were more obvious among introverted individuals. Furthermore, participating in three VR forest experiences over 3 consecutive days can bring continuous psychological improvements. Moreover, short VR forest experiences were unable to significantly decrease the blood pressure of participants. The effects of three VR experiences over 3 days on blood pressure improvement were also nonsignificant. Additionally, VR forest experiences can increase elderly participants’ intentions to undertake real forest therapy.

14.
Sustainability ; 14(6):3417, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1742702

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic affected how people interact with the built environment and ways of human habitation are facing significant challenges. However, the existing literature has not adequately addressed how the built environment affected the early prevalence of the pandemic. This research aims to extend the existing literature by relating the initial stage pandemic conditions with more comprehensive measures of the built environment including density, diversity, road network, and accessibility at the county level across the United States and conducting bi-weekly comparisons. We collected infection, death, and mortality data in 3141 counties between 1 March to 8 June 2020 and collected seventeen built environment attributes. Our results show that: (1) Road density and street intersection density were significantly associated with the infection rate;(2) Population density only maintained a positive correlation to the prevalence of COVID-19 during the first two weeks, after which the relationship became negative;and (3) Transit accessibility also contributed significantly to the pandemic and the accessibility of transit-oriented jobs was highly correlated to the infection rate in the first two weeks. The study provides valuable insights for policymakers and stakeholders to adopt resource allocation strategies for context-specific conditions.

15.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742321

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 rapidly developed into a global pandemic, which caused tens of millions of infections and millions of deaths. Although SARS-CoV-2 is known to cause COVID-19, effective approaches to detect SARS-CoV-2 using a convenient, rapid, accurate, and low-cost method are lacking. To date, most of the diagnostic methods for patients with early infections are limited to the detection of viral nucleic acids via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or antigens, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or a chemiluminescence immunoassay. This study developed a novel method that uses localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors, optical imaging, and artificial intelligence methods to directly detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus particles without any sample preparation. The virus concentration can be qualitatively and quantitatively detected in the range of 125.28 to 106 vp/mL through a few steps within 12 min with a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 vp/mL. The accuracy of the SARS-CoV-2 positive or negative assessment was found to be greater than 97%, and this was demonstrated by establishing a regression machine learning model for the virus concentration prediction (R2 > 0.95).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Machine Learning , Surface Plasmon Resonance
16.
JAMA Neurol ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729079

ABSTRACT

Importance: Determining the long-term impact of COVID-19 on cognition is important to inform immediate steps in COVID-19 research and health policy. Objective: To investigate the 1-year trajectory of cognitive changes in older COVID-19 survivors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study recruited 3233 COVID-19 survivors 60 years and older who were discharged from 3 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. Their uninfected spouses (N = 466) were recruited as a control population. Participants with preinfection cognitive impairment, a concomitant neurological disorder, or a family history of dementia were excluded, as well as those with severe cardiac, hepatic, or kidney disease or any kind of tumor. Follow-up monitoring cognitive functioning and decline took place at 6 and 12 months. A total of 1438 COVID-19 survivors and 438 control individuals were included in the final follow-up. COVID-19 was categorized as severe or nonsevere following the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was change in cognition 1 year after patient discharge. Cognitive changes during the first and second 6-month follow-up periods were assessed using the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40, respectively. Based on the cognitive changes observed during the 2 periods, cognitive trajectories were classified into 4 categories: stable cognition, early-onset cognitive decline, late-onset cognitive decline, and progressive cognitive decline. Multinomial and conditional logistical regression models were used to identify factors associated with risk of cognitive decline. Results: Among the 3233 COVID-19 survivors and 1317 uninfected spouses screened, 1438 participants who were treated for COVID-19 (691 male [48.05%] and 747 female [51.95%]; median [IQR] age, 69 [66-74] years) and 438 uninfected control individuals (222 male [50.68%] and 216 female [49.32%]; median [IQR] age, 67 [66-74] years) completed the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of cognitive impairment in survivors 12 months after discharge was 12.45%. Individuals with severe cases had lower Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 scores than those with nonsevere cases and control individuals at 12 months (median [IQR]: severe, 22.50 [16.00-28.00]; nonsevere, 30.00 [26.00-33.00]; control, 31.00 [26.00-33.00]). Severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (odds ratio [OR], 4.87; 95% CI, 3.30-7.20), late-onset cognitive decline (OR, 7.58; 95% CI, 3.58-16.03), and progressive cognitive decline (OR, 19.00; 95% CI, 9.14-39.51), while nonsevere COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.30-2.27) when adjusting for age, sex, education level, body mass index, and comorbidities. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 survival was associated with an increase in risk of longitudinal cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of immediate measures to deal with this challenge.

17.
Int J Oncol ; 60(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726131

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) is highly infectious and pathogenic. Among patients with severe SARS­CoV­2­caused by corona virus disease 2019 (COVID­19), those complicated with malignant tumor are vulnerable to COVID­19 due to compromised immune function caused by tumor depletion, malnutrition and anti­tumor treatment. Cancer is closely related to the risk of severe illness and mortality in patients with COVID­19. SARS­CoV­2 could promote tumor progression and stimulate metabolism switching in tumor cells to initiate tumor metabolic modes with higher productivity efficiency, such as glycolysis, for facilitating the massive replication of SARS­CoV­2. However, it has been shown that infection with SARS­CoV­2 leads to a delay in tumor progression of patients with natural killer cell (NK cell) lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma, while SARS­CoV­2 elicited anti­tumor immune response may exert a potential oncolytic role in lymphoma patients. The present review briefly summarized potential carcinogenicity and oncolytic characteristics of SARS­CoV­2 as well as strategies to protect patients with cancer during the COVID­19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Androgen Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Tumor Virus Infections/complications
19.
J Affect Disord ; 303: 323-330, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great impact on the mental health of the medical staff in China, especially those on the first-line (frontline) of the pandemic. But the profile of the mental problem of nationwide Chinese medical staff is still unclear, especially about the sleep problems. METHODS: There are five databases (PubMed, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang Database and Web of Science) searched to identify the published studies on the mental health of the medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The pooled prevalence of mental problems of Chinese medical staff during the pandemic were calculated, especially for the first-line medical staff. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis were performed to identify the potential impact factors. RESULTS: A total of 71 articles including 98,533 participants are included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that the pooled prevalence of the mental problems was as follows: anxiety problem 27%, depression problem 29%, sleep problem 40%. Subgroup analysis showed that there were significant differences in the prevalence of anxiety and depression problems between first-line and non-first-line medical staff (p < 0.01). Sex had a significant impact on the sleep of first-line medical staff (p < 0.01). LIMITATIONS: There may be heterogeneity among the included studies. The analysis of potential influencing factors remains limited. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of adverse mental problems among medical staff is high during the COVID-19 outbreak. We need to pay special attention to the mental health of first-line medical staff, especially the sleep problems of female first-line workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Medical Staff , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315710

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cognitive function is essential for the prevention of cognitive decline in elderly population. This study aims to assess cognitive status and longitudinal decline at 6 months post-infection in elderly patients recovered from COVID-19.Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 1013 COVID-19 inpatients aged over 60 years who were discharged from three COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to March 13, 2020. In total, 262 uninfected living spouses of COVID-19 patients were selected as controls. Subjects were examined for their current cognitive status using a Chinese version of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 (TICS-40) and longitudinal cognitive decline using an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Cognitive assessments were performed 6 months after patient discharge.Findings: COVID-19 patients had significantly lower TICS-40 scores (patients: 29.73±6.13;controls: 30.74±5.95, p=0.016) and higher IQCODE scores (patients: 3.40±0.81;controls: 3.15±0.39, p<0.001) than the controls. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores than non-severe COVID-19 patients (TICS-40: 22.98±7.12 vs. 30.46±5.53, p<0.001;IQCODE: 4.06±1.39 vs. 3.33±0.68, p<0.001) and controls (TICS-40: 22.98±7.12 vs. 30.74±5.95, p<0.001;IQCODE: 4.06±1.39 vs. 3.15±0.39, p<0.001). Severe COVID-19 patients had a higher proportion of cases with a current cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline than non-severe COVID-19 patients and controls. COVID-19 severity (OR: 8.142, 95% CI: 5.007-13.239) was associated with worse current cognitive function. Older age (OR: 1.024, 95% CI: 1.003 to 1.046), COVID-19 severity (OR: 2.277, 95% CI: 1.308 to 3.964), mechanical ventilation (OR: 5.388, 95% CI: 3.007 to 9.656), and hypertension (OR: 1.866, 95% CI: 1.376 to 2.531) were associated with an increased risk of longitudinal cognitive decline.Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with delayed cognitive decline in elderly population. COVID-19 patients with risk factors, including severe disease, older age, mechanical ventilation, and hypertension, should be intensively monitored for delayed cognitive decline. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.Conflict of Interest: We declared no conflict of interests.Ethical Approval: The study protocols were approved by the institutional review boards of the hospitals. Verbal informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to the survey.

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