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1.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e24534, 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has now become a global pandemic owing to its high transmissibility. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein tests are playing an important role in screening and diagnosing patients with COVID-19, and studies about the utility of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein tests are increasing now. METHODS: In this review, all the relevant original studies were assessed by searching in electronic databases including Scopus, Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science. "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "nucleocapsid protein", and "antigen detection" were used as keywords. RESULTS: In this review, we summarized the utility of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in laboratory diagnosis. Among the representative researches, this review analyzed, the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein detection varies from 13% to 87.9%, while the specificity could almost reach 100% in most studies. As a matter of fact, the sensitivity is around 50% and could be higher or lower due to the influential factors. CONCLUSION: It is well suggested that SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein is a convenient method with a short turnaround time of about half an hour, and the presence of N antigen is positively related to viral transmissibility, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 N protein immunoassays contribute to finding out those infected people rapidly and segregating them from the uninfected people.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313420

ABSTRACT

Aim: Exosomes are frequently used for characterization of diseases, e.g., viral infections, but have not been reported for COVID-19. The aims of our study were to determine exosomes’ novel applications for SARS-CoV-2 RNA infection and prognosis of COVID-19 disease.Methods: From 15 COVID-19 patients and five healthy controls, 32 serum samples were collected by clinicians in Wuhan, China. Exosomes were purified, their RNAs (exoRNAs) were isolated and analyzed using RT-PCR for the presence of the N and/or ORF1ab viral genes, and the human RNaseP gene as reference.Results: Exosomes showed their typical lipid bilayer structure between 30 to 150 nm in size. No viral RNAs were detected from the 5 healthy controls. From 4 patients (26.67% of the patients), only the viral N but not the ORF1ab genes was detected. However, intact viral particles were not observed in exosome samples from the four positive patients. Importantly, expression of the N gene was detected during the active or early-stages of the disease, and the expression levels gradually decreased from the critical to the mild patients (in reverse to their CT values): Patient 1 /critical/ progress/ (CT-value: 34.74), Patient 9/severe/progress (CT-value: 37.65), Patient 11/severe /progress (CT-value: 37.16), and Patient 15/mild/early stage (CT-value: 38.44). Among them, only patient 1 had received stem cell transfusion. Patients 9 and 11 demonstrated recurrence of SARS-CoV-2. Patient 15 was the earliest phase patient with the N gene.Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 RNAs were detected in exosomes which came only from the 15 COVID-19 patients but not from the 5 healthy controls. In addition, the presence of the viral N gene showed association with severity in the disease. Our novel discovery indicates that SARS-CoV-2 RNAs in serum exosomes can be used to complement existing assays for characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and for prognosis of the COVID-19 disease.Funding Statement: This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81702273), the Key Project for Anti-2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia from the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2020YFC0845500), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFE0204500), Science and technology key project of Guangdong Province: Study on the source and epidemiology of COVID-19 (No.2020B111107001), the Scientific research project of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control in Guangdong universities (No.2020KZDZX1087), and the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University Science, Technology and Innovation Seed Fund, Project znpy2018117 and znpy2019064.Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was reviewed and approved by Medical Ethics Committee Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in the Scientific Research project No 2020066.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324966

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic leads to severe illness, life-threatening complications, and death, especially in high-risk groups such as elderly people and individuals with hypertension or diabetes. It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity is important for the patient recovery from COVID-19. However, there are no reports about SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in hypertensive patients with COVID-19. Results: : In this work, through the study of a cohort of 76 mild cases of hypertensive patients with COVID-19 and 572 hypertensive patients without COVID-19, we discovered that SARS-CoV-2 infection in hypertensive patients is characterized by T lymphopenia during the acute phase and the high frequency of CD4 + CD25 + , CD4 + CD45RO + , and CD8 + CD28 + T cells in the recovery phase. We also showed that strong SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 + IFNg + T cell responses are associated with high SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody titers in hypertensive patients with COVID-19. Conclusions: : The subsets of T cells including CD4 + CD25 + , CD4 + CD45RO + , and CD8 + CD28 + could be valuable biomarkers for the estimation of the progression of hypertensive patients with COVID-19. The hypertensive patients with COVID-19 exhibits T lymphopenia during the acute phase and have proper immune function during the recovery phase. This study may provide valuable insights for the monitoring and treatment of hypertensive patients with COVID-19.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323560

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak was reported from Wuhan, China. Information on the clinical course and prognosis of COVID-19 was not thoroughly described. We described the clinical courses and prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Methods Retrospective case series of COVID-19 patients from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, and Xi-shui Hospital, Hubei Province, China, up to February 10, 2020. Epidemiological, demographic and clinical data were collected. Clinical course of survivors and non-survivors were compared. Risk factors for death were analyzed. Results A total of 107 discharged patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. The clinical course of COVID-19 presented as a tri-phasic pattern. Week 1 after illness onset was characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, lymphopenia and radiological multilobar pulmonary infiltrates. In severe cases, thrombocytopenia, acute kidney injury, acute myocardial injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome were observed. During week 2, in mild cases, fever, cough and systemic symptoms began to resolve and platelet count rose to normal range, but lymphopenia persisted. In severe cases, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and deteriorating multi-organ dysfunction were dominant. By week 3, mild cases had clinically resolved except for lymphopenia. However, severe cases showed persistent lymphopenia, severe acute respiratory dyspnea syndrome , refractory shock, anuric acute kidney injury, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia and death. Older age and male sex were independent risk factors for poor outcome of the illness. Conclusions A period of 7–13 days after illness onset is the critical stage in COVID-19 course. Age and male gender were independent risk factors for death of COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322525

ABSTRACT

Background: Serosurvalence is crucial in estimating the range of SARS-CoV-2 infections, predicting the possibility of another wave, and decide on a vaccination strategy. To understand the herd immunity after the COVID-19 pandemic, the seroprevalence was measured in 3062 individuals with or without COVID-19. Methods: : The levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibody IgM and IgG were measured by the immuno-colloidal gold method. Results: : The mean seroprevalence for IgM and IgG in all participants was 2.81% and 7.51%, respectively. The positive rate of IgG was significantly higher in women than in men (P<0.05). The highest positive rate of IgM was observed in 41-60 years of age (3.49%), while the highest seroprevalence for IgG was observed in persons >60 years of age (8.61%). The positive rates of IgM and IgG in the convalescent patients were 31.82% and 77.27%, respectively, which was significantly higher than individuals with suspected syndromes or individuals without any clinical signs (P<0.01). Seroprevalence for IgG in medical staff was markedly higher than those in residents. The seroprevalence in patients with various comorbidity was no significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusions: : The low positive rate of the SARS-CoV-2 IgM and NA test indicated that the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak is subsiding after three months, and the possibility of reintroduction of the virus from an unidentified natural reservoir is low. Seroprevalence provides the information for humoral immunity and vaccine in the future.

7.
Br J Anaesth ; 128(3): 491-500, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need to assess the long-term outcomes of survivors of critical illness from COVID-19. METHODS: Ninety-two survivors of critical illness from COVID-19 from four hospitals in Hubei Province, China participated in this prospective cohort study. Multiple characteristics, including lung function (lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, chest computed tomography scores, and walking capacity); immune status (SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibody and all subtypes of immunoglobulin (Ig) G against SARS-CoV-2, immune cells in response to ex vivo antigen peptide stimuli, and lymphocyte count and its subtypes); liver, coagulation, and kidney functions; quality of life; cognitive function; and mental status, were assessed after 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Amongst the 92 enrolled survivors, 72 (78%) patients required mechanical ventilation. At 12 months, the predicted percentage diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide was 82% (inter-quartile range [IQR]: 76-97%) with a residual volume of 77 (64-88)%. Other lung function parameters and the 6-min walk test improved gradually over time and were almost back to normal by 12 months. The titres of IgG and neutralising antibody to COVID-19 remained high at 12 months compared with those of controls who were not infected with COVID-19, although IgG titres decreased significantly from 34.0 (IQR: 23.8-74.3) to 15.0 (5.8-24.3) AU ml-1 (P<0.001), whereas neutralising antibodies decreased from 29.99 (IQR: 19.43-53.93) AU ml-1 at 6 months to 19.75 (13.1-29.8) AU ml-1 (P<0.001) at 12 months. In general, liver, kidney, physical, and mental functions also improved over time. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of critical illness from COVID-19 show some persistent long-term impairments in lung function. However, a majority of these tests were normal by 12 months. These patients still had detectable levels of neutralising antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and all types of IgG at 12 months, but the levels had declined over this time period. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: None.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Survivors , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , China , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Walk Test
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 10, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serosurveillance is crucial in estimating the range of SARS-CoV-2 infections, predicting the possibility of another wave, and deciding on a vaccination strategy. To understand the herd immunity after the COVID-19 pandemic, the seroprevalence was measured in 3062 individuals with or without COVID-19 from the clinic. METHODS: The levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibody IgM and IgG were measured by the immuno-colloidal gold method. A fusion fragment of nucleocapsid and spike protein was detected by a qualitative test kit with sensitivity (89%) and specificity (98%). RESULTS: The seroprevalence rate for IgM and IgG in all outpatients was 2.81% and 7.51%, respectively. The sex-related prevalence rate of IgG was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in women than men. The highest positive rate of IgM was observed in individuals < 20 years of age (3.57%), while the highest seroprevalence for IgG was observed in persons > 60 years of age (8.61%). Positive rates of IgM and IgG in the convalescent patients were 31.82% and 77.27%, respectively, which was significantly higher than individuals with suspected syndromes or individuals without any clinical signs (P < 0.01). Seroprevalence for IgG in medical staff was markedly higher than those in residents. No significant difference of seroprevalence was found among patients with different comorbidities (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The low positive rate of the SARS-CoV-2 IgM and nucleic acid (NA) test indicated that the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak is subsiding after 3 months, and the possibility of reintroduction of the virus from an unidentified natural reservoir is low. Seroprevalence provides information for humoral immunity and vaccine in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 8669098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the consistency and differences in the immune cells and cytokines between patients with COVID-19 or cancer. We further analyzed the correlations between the acute inflammation and cancer-related immune disorder. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 167 COVID-19 patients and 218 cancer patients. COVID-19 and cancer were each further divided into two subgroups. Quantitative and qualitative variables were measured by one-way ANOVA and chi-square test, respectively. Herein, we carried out a correlation analysis between immune cells and cytokines and used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to discover the optimal diagnostic index. RESULTS: COVID-19 and cancers were associated with lymphopenia and high levels of monocytes, neutrophils, IL-6, and IL-10. IL-2 was the optimal indicator to differentiate the two diseases. Compared with respiratory cancer patients, COVID-19 patients had lower levels of IL-2 and higher levels of CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells. In the subgroup analysis, IL-6 was the optimal differential diagnostic parameter that had the ability to identify if COVID-19 patients would be severely affected, and severe COVID-19 patients had lower levels of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3+CD8+T cells, and CD19+ B cells) and CD16+CD56+ NK cells and higher level of neutrophils. There were significant differences in the levels of CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells between T1-2 and T3-4 stages as well as IL-2 and CD19+ B cells between N0-1 and N2-3 stages while no significant differences between the metastatic and nonmetastatic cancer patients. Additionally, there were higher correlations between IL-2 and IL-4, TNF-α and IL-2, TNF-α and IL-4, TNF-α and IFN-γ, and CD16+CD56+NK cells and various subsets of T cells in COVID-19 patients. There was a higher correlation between CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells in cancer patients. CONCLUSION: Inflammation associated with COVID-19 or cancer had effects on patients' outcomes. Accompanied by changes in immune cells and cytokines, there were consistencies, differences, and satisfactory correlations between patients with COVID-19 and those with cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Lymphopenia/blood , Monocytes/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 347, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437669

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mutations contribute to increased viral transmissibility and immune escape, compromising the effectiveness of existing vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. An in-depth investigation on COVID-19 pathogenesis is urgently needed to develop a strategy against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we identified CD147 as a universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Meanwhile, Meplazeumab, a humanized anti-CD147 antibody, could block cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants-alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, with inhibition rates of 68.7, 75.7, 52.1, 52.1, and 62.3% at 60 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, humanized CD147 transgenic mice were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and its two variants, alpha and beta. When infected, these mice developed exudative alveolar pneumonia, featured by immune responses involving alveoli-infiltrated macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and activation of IL-17 signaling pathway. Mechanistically, we proposed that severe COVID-19-related cytokine storm is induced by a "spike protein-CD147-CyPA signaling axis": Infection of SARS-CoV-2 through CD147 initiated the JAK-STAT pathway, which further induced expression of cyclophilin A (CyPA); CyPA reciprocally bound to CD147 and triggered MAPK pathway. Consequently, the MAPK pathway regulated the expression of cytokines and chemokines, which promoted the development of cytokine storm. Importantly, Meplazumab could effectively inhibit viral entry and inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Therefore, our findings provided a new perspective for severe COVID-19-related pathogenesis. Furthermore, the validated universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants can be targeted for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Basigin/antagonists & inhibitors , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/genetics , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 256, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351932

ABSTRACT

We collected blood from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals and investigated SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immunity in these discharged patients. Follow-up analysis in a cohort of 171 patients at 4-11 months after the onset revealed high levels of IgG antibodies. A total of 78.1% (164/210) of the specimens tested positive for neutralizing antibody (NAb). SARS-CoV-2 antigen peptide pools-stimulated-IL-2 and -IFN-γ response can distinguish COVID-19 convalescent individuals from healthy donors. Interestingly, NAb survival was significantly affected by the antigen peptide pools-stimulated-IL-2 response, -IL-8 response, and -IFN-γ response. The antigen peptide pools-activated CD8+ T cell counts were correlated with NAb. The antigen peptide pools-activated natural killer (NK) cell counts in convalescent individuals were correlated with NAb and disease severity. Our data suggested that the development of NAb is associated with the activation of T cells and NK cells. Our work provides a basis for further analysis of the protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and for understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19. It also has implications for the development of an effective vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Convalescence , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 676560, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337649

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 emerged and rapidly spread throughout the world. Testing strategies focussing on patients with COVID-19 require assays that are high-throughput, low-risk of infection, and with small sample volumes. Antigen surveillance can be used to identify exposure to pathogens and measure acute infections. Methods: A total of 914 serum samples, collected from 309 currently infected COVID-19 patients, 48 recovered ones, and 410 non-COVID-19 patients, were used to measure N protein antigen levels by a chemilumineseent immunoassay. Diagnostic performances were analyzed in different periods after onset. Results: There was a high level of N protein antigen in COVID-19 patients (0.56 COI), comparing to the recovered patients (0.12 COI) and controls (0.19 COI). In receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve of serum N protein antigen was 0.911 in the first week after onset. In this period, Sensitivity and specificity of serologic N protein antigen testing was 76.27 and 98.78%. Diagnosis performance of specific antibodies became better from the third week after onset. Subgroup analysis suggested that severe patients had higher levels of antigens than mild patients. Conclusions: High level of serum antigen suggested early infection and serious illness. Serum N protein antigen testing by chemiluminescence immunoassay is considered as a viable assay used to improve diagnostic sensitivity for current patients.

16.
Nano Lett ; 21(11): 4643-4653, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303734

ABSTRACT

DNA quantification is important for biomedical research, but the routinely used techniques rely on nucleic acid amplification which have inherent issues like cross-contamination risk and quantification bias. Here, we report a CRISPR-Cas12a-based molecular diagnostic technique for amplification-free and absolute quantification of DNA at the single-molecule level. To achieve this, we first screened out the optimal reaction parameters for high-efficient Cas12a assay, yielding over 50-fold improvement in sensitivity compared with the reported Cas12a assays. We further leveraged the microdroplet-enabled confinement effect to perform an ultralocalized droplet Cas12a assay, obtaining excellent specificity and single-molecule sensitivity. Moreover, we demonstrated its versatility and quantification capability by direct counting of diverse virus's DNAs (African swine fever virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Hepatitis B virus) from clinical serum samples with a wide range of viral titers. Given the flexible programmability of crRNA, we envision this amplification-free technique as a versatile and quantitative platform for molecular diagnosis.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , African Swine Fever Virus/genetics , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , DNA/genetics , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Swine
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): 68-75, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide and has the ability to damage multiple organs. However, information on serum SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid (RNAemia) in patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. METHODS: Patients who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were tested for SARS-COV-2 RNA in serum from 28 January 2020 to 9 February 2020. Demographic data, laboratory and radiological findings, comorbidities, and outcomes data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients were included in the analysis. The viral load of throat swabs was significantly higher than of serum samples. The highest detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum samples was between 11 and 15 days after symptom onset. Analysis to compare patients with and without RNAemia provided evidence that computed tomography and some laboratory biomarkers (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, hypersensitive troponin I, and D-dimer) were abnormal and that the extent of these abnormalities was generally higher in patients with RNAemia than in patients without RNAemia. Organ damage (respiratory failure, cardiac damage, renal damage, and coagulopathy) was more common in patients with RNAemia than in patients without RNAemia. Patients with vs without RNAemia had shorter durations from serum testing SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The mortality rate was higher among patients with vs without RNAemia. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we provide evidence to support that SARS-CoV-2 may have an important role in multiple organ damage. Our evidence suggests that RNAemia has a significant association with higher risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Cohort Studies , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 183: 113206, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171767

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 RNA is identified as a pivotal player to bolster energizing zones of COVID-19 detection. Herein, we develop a rapid and unamplified nanosensing platform for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in human throat swab specimens. A gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-decorated graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET) sensor was fabricated, after which complementary phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligos (PMO) probe was immobilized on the AuNP surface. This sensor allowed for highly sensitive testing of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp as PMO does not have charges, leading to low background signal. Not only did the method present a low limit of detection in PBS (0.37 fM), throat swab (2.29 fM), and serum (3.99 fM), but also it achieved a rapid response to COVID-19 patients' samples within 2 min. The developed nanosensor was capable of analyzing RNA extracts from 30 real clinical samples. The results show that the sensor could differentiate the healthy people from infected people, which are in high agreement with RT-PCR results (Kappa index = 0.92). Furthermore, a well-defined distinction between SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and SARS-CoV RdRp was also made. Therefore, we believe that this work provides a satisfactory, attractive option for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19 Testing , Gold , Humans , Limit of Detection , Morpholinos , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Cytokine ; 143: 155523, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163610

ABSTRACT

Cytokines play pleiotropic, antagonistic, and collaborative in viral disease. The high morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) make it a significant threat to global public health. Elucidating its pathogenesis is essential to finding effective therapy. A retrospective study was conducted on 71 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Data on cytokines, T lymphocytes, and other clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected from patients with variable disease severity. The effects of cytokines on the overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of patients were analyzed. The critically severe and severe patients had higher infection indexes and significant multiple organ function abnormalities than the mild patients (P < 0.05). IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the critically severe patients than in the severe and mild patients (P < 0.05). IL-6 and IL-10 were closely associated with white blood cells, neutrophils, T lymphocyte subsets, D-D dimer, blood urea nitrogen, complement C1q, procalcitonin C-reactive protein. Moreover, the IL-6 and IL-10 levels were closely correlated to dyspnea and dizziness (P < 0.05). The patients with higher IL-10 levels had shorter OS than the group with lower levels (P < 0.05). The older patients with higher levels of single IL-6 or IL-10 tended to have shorter EFS (P < 0.05), while the patients who had more elevated IL-6 and IL-10 had shorter OS (P < 0.05). The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that IL-6 was the independent factor affecting EFS. IL-6 and IL-10 play crucial roles in COVID-19 prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aging , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , Thromboembolism/pathology , Treatment Outcome
20.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(2): e200126, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155978

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare radiologic characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia at thin-section CT on admission between patients with mild and severe disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between January 20, 2020 and January 27, 2020 were enrolled. On the basis of the World Health Organization guidelines, 50 patients were categorized with the mild form and 20 with the severe form based on clinical conditions. Imaging features, clinical, and laboratory data were reviewed and compared. RESULTS: Patients with the severe form (median age, 65 years; interquartile range [IQR]: 54.75-75.00 years) were older than those with the mild form of disease (median age, 42.5 years; IQR: 32.75-58.50 years) (P < .001). Patients with the severe form of disease had more lung segments involved (median number of segments: 17.5 vs 7.5, P ≤ .001) and also larger opacities (median number of segments with opacities measuring 3 cm to less than 50% of the lung segment: 5.5 vs 2.0, P = .006; ≥ 50% of lung segment: 7.5 vs 0.0, P < .001). They also had more interlobular septal thickening (75% vs 28%, P < .001), higher prevalence of air bronchograms (70% vs 32%, P = .004), and pleural effusions (40% vs 14%, P = .017). CONCLUSION: Ground-glass opacities with or without consolidation in a peripheral and basilar predominant distribution were the most common findings in COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients with the severe form of the disease had more extensive opacification of the lung parenchyma than did patients with mild disease. Interlobular septal thickening, air bronchograms, and pleural effusions were also more prevalent in severe COVID-19.© RSNA, 2020.

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