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1.
Poultry Science ; : 102082, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1967014

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a prevalent RNA virus that causes respiratory distress, nephritis, salpingitis, and egg production decline in chickens, resulting in significant economic loss. IBV is composed of complex genotypes and serotypes, which poses a great challenge for disease control. The current study reports two IBV outbreaks which were characterized by respiratory symptoms in IBV vaccinated commercial broilers and layers in Guangdong, China, in 2021. Two IBV strains, ZH01 and HH09, were identified via a RT-PCR assay through targeting the N gene and further characterization through full-length spike (S) gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene revealed that both ZH01 and HH09 belonged to the GI-19 lineage but contained a certain genetic distance from the GI-19 strain. Of note, the ZH01 and HH09 strains share a low homology of 70% and 86%, respectively, with common vaccine strains (H120), resulting in low vaccine protection. Further recombination analysis based on the S1 sequence suggested the newly identified IBV strains emerged through an intragroup recombination events between CK/CH/SCDY2003-2 and I0305/19 from G1-19 lineage. In addition, a number of novel mutations such as T273I, T292A, and S331K were found in the emerging IBV strains. Taken together, this study reports the genetic characteristics of two recent IBV outbreaks in southern China and emphasizes the urgent need for enhanced surveillance and development of novel vaccines for the control of IBV.

2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4768-4780, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954698

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 is the biggest public health crisis in 21st Century. Besides the acute symptoms after infection, patients and society are also being challenged by the long-term health complications associated with COVID-19, commonly known as long COVID. While health professionals work hard to find proper treatments, large amount of knowledge has been accumulated in recent years. In order to deal with long COVID efficiently, it is important for people to keep up with current progresses and take proactive actions on long COVID. For this purpose, this review will first introduce the general background of long COVID, and then discuss its risk factors, diagnostic indicators and management strategies. This review will serve as a useful resource for people to understand and prepare for long COVID that will be with us in the foreseeable future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Med ; 11(14)2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938865

ABSTRACT

Immune escape of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and waning immunity over time following the primary series suggest the importance and necessity of booster shot of COVID-19 vaccines. With the aim to preliminarily evaluate the potential of heterologous boosting, we conducted two pilot studies to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the V-01 or a bivalent V-01D-351 (targeting Delta and Beta strain) booster after 5-7 months of the primary series of inactivated COVID-9 vaccine (ICV). A total of 77 participants were enrolled, with 20 participants in the V-01D-351 booster study, and 27, 30 participants in the age stratified participants of V-01 booster study. The safety results showed that V-01 or V-01D-351 was safe and well-tolerated as a heterologous booster shot, with overall adverse reactions predominantly being absent or mild in severity. The immunogenicity results showed that the heterologous prime-boost immunization with V-01 or bivalent V-01D-351 booster induced stronger humoral immune response as compared with the homologous booster with ICV. In particular, V-01D-351 booster showed the highest pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titers against prototype SARS-CoV-2, Delta and Omicron BA.1 strains at day 14 post boosting, with GMTs 22.7, 18.3, 14.3 times higher than ICV booster, 6.2, 6.1, 3.8 times higher than V-01 booster (10 µg), and 5.2, 3.8, 3.5 times higher than V-01 booster (25 µg), respectively. The heterologous V-01 booster also achieved a favorable safety and immunogenicity profile in older participants. Our study has provided evidence for a flexible roll-out of heterologous boosters and referential approaches for variant-specific vaccine boosters, with rationally conserved but diversified epitopes relative to primary series, to build herd immunity against the ongoing pandemic.

4.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 11(3): 237-246, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908987

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 has further increased the urgent need for digital transformation within the health care settings, with the use of artificial intelligence/deep learning, internet of things, telecommunication network/virtual platform, and blockchain. The recent advent of metaverse, an interconnected online universe, with the synergistic combination of augmented, virtual, and mixed reality described several years ago, presents a new era of immersive and real-time experiences to enhance human-to-human social interaction and connection. In health care and ophthalmology, the creation of virtual environment with three-dimensional (3D) space and avatar, could be particularly useful in patient-fronting platforms (eg, telemedicine platforms), operational uses (eg, meeting organization), digital education (eg, simulated medical and surgical education), diagnostics, and therapeutics. On the other hand, the implementation and adoption of these emerging virtual health care technologies will require multipronged approaches to ensure interoperability with real-world virtual clinical settings, user-friendliness of the technologies and clinical efficiencies while complying to the clinical, health economics, regulatory, and cybersecurity standards. To serve the urgent need, it is important for the eye community to continue to innovate, invent, adapt, and harness the unique abilities of virtual health care technology to provide better eye care worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ophthalmology , Telemedicine , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans
5.
Drug Saf ; 45(5): 511-519, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872802

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, and the large amount of pharmacovigilance-related data stored in an electronic manner, data-driven automatic methods need to be urgently applied to all aspects of pharmacovigilance to assist healthcare professionals. However, the quantity and quality of data directly affect the performance of AI, and there are particular challenges to implementing AI in limited-resource settings. Analyzing challenges and solutions for AI-based pharmacovigilance in resource-limited settings can improve pharmacovigilance frameworks and capabilities in these settings. In this review, we summarize the challenges into four categories: establishing a database for an AI-based pharmacovigilance system, lack of human resources, weak AI technology and insufficient government support. This study also discusses possible solutions and future perspectives on AI-based pharmacovigilance in resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Pharmacovigilance , Databases, Factual , Health Personnel , Humans , Technology
6.
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1851648

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to determine the trends in the manifestations and severity over the epidemic course of imported COVID-19 cases, with comparison to native cases. The clinical characteristics of imported and native Chinese COVID-19 cases included in the study were assessed and compared. The association was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test for categorical variables, Kruskal-Wallis H test for continuous variables, and Spearman’s correlation test for disease severity. A total of 247 imported patients were enrolled, with an average age of 29 years, and 41.3% were female. The imported patients were younger than the native patients (29 vs 47 years) and included a lower proportion of fever (44.1%), chills (5.3%), fatigue (10.1%), leukopenia (14.6%), lymphopenia (39.3%), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (7.3%), elevated D-dimer (16.3%), and pneumonia (65.6%). Among patients with moderate severity, imported cases had a lower proportion of fever (44.2%), dyspnea (8.3%), and increased CRP (7.7%) than native cases. COVID-19 infection was less severe in imported cases than that in native cases, reflected by fewer clinical symptoms, fewer comorbidities, and lower overall severity.

7.
Conservation Science and Practice ; 4(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1848562

ABSTRACT

Hunting for the wild meat trade, medicines and other human uses has decimated Indo‐Burma's vertebrate biota and has led to widespread defaunation. Yet, there is surprisingly little data on how hunting impacts wild bird assemblages in different landscapes here. Based on concurrent snapshot surveys of bird hunting, food markets and hunting attitudes across six Indo‐Burma countries, we found that hunting threatens species not only in forested landscapes but also wetlands and farmlands such as orchards and paddy fields—ecosystems overlooked by past studies, with at least 47 species associated with wetlands and agricultural lands identified from market surveys across the region. High rates of mortality are suffered when hunting tools such as nets are used to exclude perceived bird pests in both aquaculture and agricultural landscapes, with over 300 individual carcasses of at least 29 identifiable species detected in one aquaculture landscape sampled in Thailand. We warn that the potentially unsustainable trapping of species for consumption and trade in Indo‐Burma, coupled with high incidental mortalities, could decimate the populations of erstwhile common and/or legally unprotected species. There is an urgent need for stronger regulatory oversight on the hunting take of wild birds and the use of hunting tools such as nets. Alongside this, conservation practitioners need to better engage with rural communities to address unsustainable hunting practices, especially outside of protected areas.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335297

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic. The virus has infected more than 505 million people and caused more than 6 million deaths. However, data on non-responders to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the general population are limited. The objective of the study is to comprehensively compare the immunological characteristics of non-responders to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the 18-59 years with that in the 60 years and older using internationally recognized cutoff values. Participants included 627 individuals who received physical examinations and volunteered to participate in COVID-19 vaccination from the general population. The main outcome was an effective seroconversion characterized by anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG level of at least 4-fold increase from baseline. Profiling of naive immune cells was analyzed prior to vaccination to demonstrate baseline immunity. Outcomes of effective seroconversion in the 18-59 years with that in the 60 years and older were compared. The quantitative level of the anti-spike IgG was significantly lower in the 60 years and older and in men among the 18-59 years. There were 7.5% of non-responders among the 18-59 years and 11.7% of non-responders in the 60 years and older using the 4-fold increase parameter. The effective seroconversion rate was significantly related to the level of certain immune cells before vaccination, such as CD4 cells, CD8 cells and B cells and the age. An individual with a titer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG that is below 50 BAU/mL might be considered a non-responder between 14-90 days after the last vaccine dose. Booster vaccination or additional protective measures should be recommended for non-responders as soon as possible to reduce disease severity and mortality.

9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8920117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822116

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, is widely controlled now in China. However, the global epidemic is still severe. To study and comment on Hubei's approaches for responding to the disease, the paper considered some factors such as suspected cases (part of them are influenza patients or common pneumonia patients, etc.), quarantine, patient classification (three types), clinically diagnosed cases, and lockdown of Wuhan and Hubei. After that, the paper established an SELIHR model based on the surveillance data of Hubei published by the Hubei Health Commission from 10 January 2020 to 30 April 2020 and used the fminsearch optimization method to estimate the optimal parameters of the model. We obtained the basic reproduction number ℛ 0 = 3.1571 from 10 to 22 January. ℛ 0 was calculated as 2.0471 from 23 to 27 January. From 28 January to 30 April, ℛ 0 = 1.5014. Through analysis, it is not hard to find that the patients without classification during the period of confirmed cases will result in the cumulative number of cases in Hubei to increase. In addition, regarding the lockdown measures implemented by Hubei during the epidemic, our simulations also show that if the lockdown time of either Hubei or Wuhan is advanced, it will effectively curb the spread of the epidemic. If the lockdown measures are not taken, the total cumulative number of cases will increase substantially. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the lockdown, patient classification, and the large-scale case screening are essential to slow the spread of COVID-19, which can provide references for other countries or regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Recent Adv Antiinfect Drug Discov ; 2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is still soaring around the world, and the new delta COVID-19 variant is on the rise and spreading around the world. OBJECTIVE: to show development of therapeutic strategy of antiviruses in drugs for antivirals in disorders of the respiratory system, we conduct patent analysis surrounding drugs for antivirals in disorders of the respiratory system. MATERIALS AND METHOD: European granted patents filed from January 2002 to June 2021 were analyzed. We use a combination of International patent classification (IPC) "A61p31/12" (antivirals) and "A61p11/00" (drugs for disorders of the respiratory system) to identify relevant European patent documents. RESULTS: Our study showed that R&D of drugs for antivirals in disorders of the respiratory systems was decreasing over past 20 years. Chemical drugs show more variety in structures and no a common feature for this drug development. The chemical drugs or herbal medicines were much earlier appeared than biological products in research and development. In addition, large global companies play a leading role in developing kinase inhibitors as chemical drugs. CONCLUSION: There are three strategies for developing drugs for antivirals in disorders of the respiratory system, including chemical drugs, herbal medicines or natural products, and biological products. Herbal medicines may provide a new insight and approach for developing drugs for antivirals in disorders of the respiratory system. A combination of chemical drugs and natural products may be a therapeutic method for treating patients with COVID-19.

12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332753

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic with more than 485 millions infected. Questions about non-responders to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remain unaddressed. Here, we report data from people after administering the complete dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines using the World Health Organization International Standard for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin. Our study showed that immune cells such as CD4 cells, CD8 cells, and B cells and anti-spike immunoglobulin G levels were significantly reduced in the elderly. There were 7.5% non-responders among the 18–59 yr group and 11.7% in the ≥60 yr group. A titer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike immunoglobulin G is blew 50 BAU/mL to be considered as non-responders at intervals of 30 to 90 days after the last vaccine dose. Booster vaccination may be recommended for non-responders to reduce the disease severity and mortality.

13.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(4): 557-562, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775467

ABSTRACT

Among older adults enrolled in Medicare Advantage, health-related social needs are highly prevalent, with financial strain, food insecurity, and poor housing quality the most commonly reported. The distribution of health-related social needs is uneven, with significant disparities according to race, socioeconomic status, and sex.


Subject(s)
Medicare Part C , Aged , Humans , United States
14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
16.
Public Performance & Management Review ; : 1-24, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1711281
17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325234

ABSTRACT

Background: As the COVID-19 outbreak influenced teaching in China, Chinese medical colleges and universities carried out massive online education with the participants of more than one million students on the for-profit or non-profit big–data teaching platforms, based on existing online teaching resources and other ways such as MOOC, Micro-course, Live-course and interactive discussion. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted via two rounds of 56-in-total questions on overall situations, platforms, teaching methods, training, teachers and students’ experiences, and encountered problems for 1747 teachers and 7223 students, which involved 741 courses. Comparative analysis was done on the survey results. Results A majority of teachers and students were satisfied with teaching platforms and effects;large commercial teaching platforms could provide better services;67.21% of teachers and 64.67% of students preferred live teaching;only 76.84% of teachers and 58.69% of students were systematically trained;weak network, lack of training, overcrowded access to teaching platforms, lack of interaction, lack of efficient real-time evaluation and fatigue were current difficulties. Conclusions Good results of massive distance online education and teachers and students’ satisfaction with teaching platform performance show that online education can be used as a main means to replace traditional classroom education in emergency situations.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324966

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic leads to severe illness, life-threatening complications, and death, especially in high-risk groups such as elderly people and individuals with hypertension or diabetes. It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity is important for the patient recovery from COVID-19. However, there are no reports about SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in hypertensive patients with COVID-19. Results: : In this work, through the study of a cohort of 76 mild cases of hypertensive patients with COVID-19 and 572 hypertensive patients without COVID-19, we discovered that SARS-CoV-2 infection in hypertensive patients is characterized by T lymphopenia during the acute phase and the high frequency of CD4 + CD25 + , CD4 + CD45RO + , and CD8 + CD28 + T cells in the recovery phase. We also showed that strong SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 + IFNg + T cell responses are associated with high SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody titers in hypertensive patients with COVID-19. Conclusions: : The subsets of T cells including CD4 + CD25 + , CD4 + CD45RO + , and CD8 + CD28 + could be valuable biomarkers for the estimation of the progression of hypertensive patients with COVID-19. The hypertensive patients with COVID-19 exhibits T lymphopenia during the acute phase and have proper immune function during the recovery phase. This study may provide valuable insights for the monitoring and treatment of hypertensive patients with COVID-19.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324819

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has infected millions of citizens worldwide and claimed many lives. This paper examines its impact on the Chinese e-commerce market by analyzing behavioral changes seen from a large online shopping platform. We first conduct a time series analysis to identify product categories that faced the most extensive disruptions. The time-lagged analysis shows that behavioral patterns seen in shopping actions are highly responsive to epidemic development. Based on these findings, we present a consumer demand prediction method by encompassing the epidemic statistics and behavioral features for COVID-19 related products. Experiment results demonstrate that our predictions outperform existing baselines and further extend to the long-term and province-level forecasts. We discuss how our market analysis and prediction can help better prepare for future pandemics by gaining an extra time to launch preventive steps.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316850

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection is a global public health issue and has now affected more than 70 countries worldwide. Severe adult respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia is associated with high risk of mortality. However, prognostic factors assessing poor clinical outcomes of individual patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia remain unclear. Methods: : We conducted a retrospective, multicenter study of patients with SARS-CoV-2 who were admitted to four hospitals in Wuhan, China from December 2019 to February 2020. Mortality at the of end of follow up period was the primary outcome. Prognostic factors for mortality were also assessed and a prognostic model was developed, calibrated and validated. Results: : The study included 492 patients with SARS-CoV-2, which were divided into three cohorts, the training cohort (n=237), the validation cohort 1 (n=120), and the validation cohort 2 (n=135). Multivariate analysis showed that five clinical parameters were predictive of mortality at the end of follow up period, including age, odds ratio (OR), 1.1 / years increase (p<0.001);neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio OR, 1.14 (p<0.001), body temperature on admission OR, 1.53 / °C increase (p=0.005), increase of aspartate transaminase OR, 2.47 (p=0.019), and decrease of total protein OR, 1.69 (p=0.018).Furthermore, the prognostic model drawn from the training cohort was validated with the validation cohort 1 and 2 with comparable area under curve (AUC) at 0.912, 0.928, and 0.883, respectively. While individual survival probabilities were assessed, the model yielded a Harrell’s C index of 0.758 for the training cohort, 0.762 for the validation cohort 1, and 0.711 for the validation cohort 2, which were comparable among each other. Conclusions: : A validated prognostic model was developed to assist in determining the clinical prognosis for SARS- CoV-2 pneumonia. Using this established model, individual patients categorized in the high risk group were associated with an increased risk of mortality, whereas patients predicted in the low risk group had a high probability of survival.

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