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1.
Pattern Recognit ; : 107613, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731882

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak continues to threaten the health and life of people worldwide. It is an immediate priority to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning (DL) to automatically localize and differentiate COVID-19 from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) on chest X-rays. Therefore, this study aims to develop and test an efficient and accurate deep learning scheme that assists radiologists in automatically recognizing and localizing COVID-19. A retrospective chest X-ray image dataset was collected from open image data and the Xiangya Hospital, which was divided into a training group and a testing group. The proposed CAD framework is composed of two steps with DLs: the Discrimination-DL and the Localization-DL. The first DL was developed to extract lung features from chest X-ray radiographs for COVID-19 discrimination and trained using 3548 chest X-ray radiographs. The second DL was trained with 406-pixel patches and applied to the recognized X-ray radiographs to localize and assign them into the left lung, right lung or bipulmonary. X-ray radiographs of CAP and healthy controls were enrolled to evaluate the robustness of the model. Compared to the radiologists' discrimination and localization results, the accuracy of COVID-19 discrimination using the Discrimination-DL yielded 98.71%, while the accuracy of localization using the Localization-DL was 93.03%. This work represents the feasibility of using a novel deep learning-based CAD scheme to efficiently and accurately distinguish COVID-19 from CAP and detect localization with high accuracy and agreement with radiologists.

2.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 2020 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713514

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious infection and threating the human lives in the world. The elevation of cytokines in blood is crucial to induce cytokine storm and immunosuppression in the transition of severity in COVID-19 patients. However, the comprehensive changes of serum proteins in COVID-19 patients throughout the SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown. In this work, we developed a high-density antibody microarray and performed an in-depth proteomics analysis of serum samples collected from early COVID-19 (n=15) and influenza (n=13) patients. We identified a large set of differentially expressed proteins (n=132) that participate in a landscape of inflammation and immune signaling related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, the significant correlations of neutrophil and lymphocyte with the CCL2 and CXCL10 mediated cytokine signaling pathways was identified. These information are valuable for the understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis, identification of biomarkers and development of the optimal anti-inflammation therapy.

3.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 677, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-698303

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has resulted in tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide. A major underlying cause of COVID-19 mortality is a hyperinflammatory cytokine storm in severe/critically ill patients. Although many clinical trials are testing the efficacy of targeting inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in COVID-19 patients, the critical inflammatory mediator initiating COVID-19 patient death is undefined. Here we suggest that the immunopathological pathway leading to COVID-19 mortality can be divided into three stages with distinct clinical features that can be used to guide therapeutic strategies. Our interpretation of the recently published clinical trials from COVID-19 patients suggests that the clinical efficacy in preventing COVID-19 mortality using IL-1 blockade is subjected to notable caveats, while that for IL-6 blockade is suboptimal. We discuss critical factors in determining appropriate inflammatory cytokine/chemokine targets, timing, and combination of treatments to prevent COVID-19 mortality.

5.
J Cell Biochem ; 2020 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-658801

ABSTRACT

In this perspective, the potential application of stem cells for the treatment of COVID-19 related pneumonia and their potential mechanism of action have been overviewed.

6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 94, 2020 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a serious epidemic around the world, but it has been effectively controlled in the mainland of China. The Chinese government limited the migration of people almost from all walks of life. Medical workers have rushed into Hubei province to fight against the epidemic. Any activity that can increase infection is prohibited. The aim of this study was to confirm that timely lockdown, large-scale case-screening and other control measures proposed by the Chinese government were effective to contain the spread of the virus in the mainland of China. METHODS: Based on disease transmission-related parameters, this study was designed to predict the trend of COVID-19 epidemic in the mainland of China and provide theoretical basis for current prevention and control. An SEIQR epidemiological model incorporating asymptomatic transmission, short term immunity and imperfect isolation was constructed to evaluate the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 inside and outside of Hubei province. With COVID-19 cases confirmed by the National Health Commission (NHC), the optimal parameters of the model were set by calculating the minimum Chi-square value. RESULTS: Before the migration to and from Wuhan was cut off, the basic reproduction number in China was 5.6015. From 23 January to 26 January 2020, the basic reproduction number in China was 6.6037. From 27 January to 11 February 2020, the basic reproduction number outside Hubei province dropped below 1, but that in Hubei province remained 3.7732. Because of stricter controlling measures, especially after the initiation of the large-scale case-screening, the epidemic rampancy in Hubei has also been contained. The average basic reproduction number in Hubei province was 3.4094 as of 25 February 2020. We estimated the cumulative number of confirmed cases nationwide was 82 186, and 69 230 in Hubei province on 9 April 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The lockdown of Hubei province significantly reduced the basic reproduction number. The large-scale case-screening also showed the effectiveness in the epidemic control. This study provided experiences that could be replicated in other countries suffering from the epidemic. Although the epidemic is subsiding in China, the controlling efforts should not be terminated before May.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Forecasting , Humans , Mass Screening , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(11): 1380-1388, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436947

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is now a global health concern.Objectives: We compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, computed tomography images, and treatments of patients with COVID-19 from three different cities in China.Methods: A total of 476 patients were recruited from January 1, 2020, to February 15, 2020, at three hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Anhui. The patients were divided into four groups according to age and into three groups (moderate, severe, and critical) according to the fifth edition of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of China.Measurements and Main Results: The incidence of comorbidities was higher in the severe (46.3%) and critical (67.1%) groups than in the moderate group (37.8%). More patients were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the moderate group than in the severe and critical groups. More patients had multiple lung lobe involvement and pleural effusion in the critical group than in the moderate group. More patients received antiviral agents within the first 4 days in the moderate group than in the severe group, and more patients received antibiotics and corticosteroids in the critical and severe groups. Patients >75 years old had a significantly lower survival rate than younger patients.Conclusions: Multiple organ dysfunction and impaired immune function were the typical characteristics of patients with severe or critical illness. There was a significant difference in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers among patients with different severities of disease. Involvement of multiple lung lobes and pleural effusion were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Advanced age (≥75 yr) was a risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Front Med ; 14(2): 232-248, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-268345

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease and a serious threat to human health. COVID-19 can cause multiple organ dysfunction, such as respiratory and circulatory failure, liver and kidney injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and thromboembolism, and even death. The World Health Organization reports that the mortality rate of severe-type COVID-19 is over 50%. Currently, the number of severe cases worldwide has increased rapidly, but the experience in the treatment of infected patients is still limited. Given the lack of specific antiviral drugs, multi-organ function support treatment is important for patients with COVID-19. To improve the cure rate and reduce the mortality of patients with severe- and critical-type COVID-19, this paper summarizes the experience of organ function support in patients with severe- and critical-type COVID-19 in Optical Valley Branch of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. This paper systematically summarizes the procedures of functional support therapies for multiple organs and systems, including respiratory, circulatory, renal, hepatic, and hematological systems, among patients with severe- and critical-type COVID-19. This paper provides a clinical reference and a new strategy for the optimal treatment of COVID-19 worldwide.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Respiration
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e94, 2020 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186670

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were classified into four clinical stages (uncomplicated illness, mild, severe and critical pneumonia) depending on disease severity. We aim to investigate the corresponding clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics between different clinical stages. A retrospective, single-centre study of 101 confirmed patients with COVID-19 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from 2 January to 28 January 2020 was enrolled; follow-up endpoint was on 8 February 2020. Clinical data were collected and compared during the course of illness. The median age of the 101 patients was 51.0 years and 33.6% were medical staff. Fever (68%), cough (50%) and fatigue (23%) are the most common symptoms. About 26% patients underwent the mechanical ventilation and 98% patients were treated with antibiotics. Thirty-seven per cent patients were cured and 11 died. On admission, the number of patients with uncomplicated illness, mild, severe and critical pneumonia were 2 [2%], 86 [85%], 11 [11%] and 2 [2%]. Forty-four of the 86 mild pneumonia progressed to severe illness within 4 days, with nine patients worsened due to critical pneumonia within 4 days. Two of the 11 severe patients improved to mild condition while three others deteriorated. Significant differences were observed among groups of different clinical stages in numbers of influenced pulmonary segments (6 vs. 12 vs. 17, P < 0.001). A significantly upward trend was witnessed in ground-glass opacities overlapped with striped shadows (33% vs. 42% vs. 55% vs. 80%, P < 0.001), while pure ground-glass opacities gradually decreased as disease progressed (45% vs. 35% vs. 24% vs. 13%, P < 0.001) within 12 days. Lymphocytes, prealbumin and albumin showed a downtrend as disease progressed from mild to severe or critical condition, an uptrend was found in white blood cells, C-reactive protein, neutrophils and lactate dehydrogenase. The proportions of serum amyloid A > 300 mg/l in mild, severe and critical conditions were 18%, 46% and 71%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Health Status Indicators , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Community Ment Health J ; 56(5): 786-792, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186618

ABSTRACT

This article describes a peer support project developed and carried out by a group of experienced mental health professionals, organized to offer peer psychological support from overseas to healthcare professionals on the frontline of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China. This pandemic extremely challenged the existing health care systems and caused severe mental distress to frontline healthcare workers. The authors describe the infrastructure of the team and a novel model of peer support and crisis intervention that utilized a popular social media application on smartphone. Such a model for intervention that can be used elsewhere in the face of current global pandemic, or future disaster response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Crisis Intervention/methods , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Health , Peer Group , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Media , Social Support , Australia , Canada , China , Humans , International Cooperation , Mental Health , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Smartphone , United States
13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(11): 1380-1388, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47397

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is now a global health concern.Objectives: We compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, computed tomography images, and treatments of patients with COVID-19 from three different cities in China.Methods: A total of 476 patients were recruited from January 1, 2020, to February 15, 2020, at three hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Anhui. The patients were divided into four groups according to age and into three groups (moderate, severe, and critical) according to the fifth edition of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of China.Measurements and Main Results: The incidence of comorbidities was higher in the severe (46.3%) and critical (67.1%) groups than in the moderate group (37.8%). More patients were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the moderate group than in the severe and critical groups. More patients had multiple lung lobe involvement and pleural effusion in the critical group than in the moderate group. More patients received antiviral agents within the first 4 days in the moderate group than in the severe group, and more patients received antibiotics and corticosteroids in the critical and severe groups. Patients >75 years old had a significantly lower survival rate than younger patients.Conclusions: Multiple organ dysfunction and impaired immune function were the typical characteristics of patients with severe or critical illness. There was a significant difference in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers among patients with different severities of disease. Involvement of multiple lung lobes and pleural effusion were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Advanced age (≥75 yr) was a risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Gut ; 69(6): 1002-1009, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18560

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19) outbreak is a major threat to human beings. Previous studies mainly focused on Wuhan and typical symptoms. We analysed 74 confirmed COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms in the Zhejiang province to determine epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics. DESIGN: COVID-19 hospital patients were admitted in the Zhejiang province from 17 January 2020 to 8 February 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management and outcome data of patients with GI symptoms were analysed using multivariate analysis for risk of severe/critical type. Bioinformatics were used to analyse features of SARS-CoV-2 from Zhejiang province. RESULTS: Among enrolled 651 patients, 74 (11.4%) presented with at least one GI symptom (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea), average age of 46.14 years, 4-day incubation period and 10.8% had pre-existing liver disease. Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 17 (22.97%) and 23 (31.08%) had severe/critical types and family clustering, respectively, significantly higher than those without GI symptoms, 47 (8.14%) and 118 (20.45%). Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 29 (39.19%), 23 (31.08%), 8 (10.81%) and 16 (21.62%) had significantly higher rates of fever >38.5°C, fatigue, shortness of breath and headache, respectively. Low-dose glucocorticoids and antibiotics were administered to 14.86% and 41.89% of patients, respectively. Sputum production and increased lactate dehydrogenase/glucose levels were risk factors for severe/critical type. Bioinformatics showed sequence mutation of SARS-CoV-2 with m6A methylation and changed binding capacity with ACE2. CONCLUSION: We report COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms with novel features outside Wuhan. Attention to patients with COVID-19 with non-classic symptoms should increase to protect health providers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors
16.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
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