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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626954

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were widely introduced to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. These interventions also likely led to substantially reduced activity of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). From late 2020, some countries observed out-of-season RSV epidemics. Here, we analyzed the role of NPIs, population mobility, climate, and SARS-CoV-2 circulation in RSV rebound through a time-to-event analysis across 18 countries. Full (re)-opening of schools was associated with an increased risk for RSV rebound (HR = 23.29 [95% CI: 1.09-495.84]); every 5°C increase in temperature was associated with a decreased risk (HR = 0.63 [0.40-0.99]). There was an increasing trend in the risk for RSV rebound over time, highlighting the role of increased population susceptibility. No other factors were found statistically significant. Further analysis suggests increasing population susceptibility and full (re)-opening of schools could both override the counter-effect of high temperatures, which explains the out-of-season RSV epidemics during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Gut ; 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori infection is mostly a family-based infectious disease. To facilitate its prevention and management, a national consensus meeting was held to review current evidence and propose strategies for population-wide and family-based H. pylori infection control and management to reduce the related disease burden. METHODS: Fifty-seven experts from 41 major universities and institutions in 20 provinces/regions of mainland China were invited to review evidence and modify statements using Delphi process and grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system. The consensus level was defined as ≥80% for agreement on the proposed statements. RESULTS: Experts discussed and modified the original 23 statements on family-based H. pylori infection transmission, control and management, and reached consensus on 16 statements. The final report consists of three parts: (1) H. pylori infection and transmission among family members, (2) prevention and management of H. pylori infection in children and elderly people within households, and (3) strategies for prevention and management of H. pylori infection for family members. In addition to the 'test-and-treat' and 'screen-and-treat' strategies, this consensus also introduced a novel third 'family-based H. pylori infection control and management' strategy to prevent its intrafamilial transmission and development of related diseases. CONCLUSION: H. pylori is transmissible from person to person, and among family members. A family-based H. pylori prevention and eradication strategy would be a suitable approach to prevent its intra-familial transmission and related diseases. The notion and practice would be beneficial not only for Chinese residents but also valuable as a reference for other highly infected areas.

3.
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control ; 72:103304, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1509612

ABSTRACT

Automatic cough detection in the patients’ realistic audio recordings is of great significance to diagnose and monitor respiratory diseases, such as COVID-19. Many detection methods have been developed so far, but they are still unable to meet the practical requirements. In this paper, we present a deep convolutional bidirectional long short-term memory (C-BiLSTM) model with boundary regression for cough detection, where cough and non-cough parts need to be classified and located. We added convolutional layers before the LSTM to enhance the cough features and preserve the temporal information of the audio data. Considering the importance of the cough event integrity for subsequent analysis, the novel model includes an embedded boundary regression on the last feature map for both higher detection accuracy and more accurate boundaries. We delicately designed, collected and labelled a realistic audio dataset containing recordings of patients with respiratory diseases, named the Corp Dataset. 168 h of recordings with 9969 coughs from 42 different patients are included. The dataset is published online on the MARI Lab website (https://mari.tongji.edu.cn/info/1012/1030.htm). The results show that the system achieves a sensitivity of 84.13%, a specificity of 99.82% and an intersection-over-union (IoU) of 0.89, which is significantly superior to other related models. With the proposed method, all the criteria on cough detection significantly increased. The open source Corp Dataset provides useful material and a benchmark for researchers investigating cough detection. We propose the state-of-the-art system with boundary regression, laying the foundation for identifying cough sounds in real-world audio data.

4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504985

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The burden of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI), and common viral ALRI aetiologies among 5-19 years are less well understood. We conducted a systematic review to estimate global burden of all-cause and virus-specific ALRI in 5-19 years. METHODS: We searched eight databases and Google for studies published between 1995 and 2019 and reporting data on burden of all-cause ALRI or ALRI associated with influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and human parainfluenza virus. We assessed risk of bias using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We developed an analytical framework to report burden by age, country and region when there were sufficient data (all-cause and influenza-associated ALRI hospital admissions). We estimated all-cause ALRI in-hospital deaths and hospital admissions for ALRI associated with respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and human parainfluenza virus by region. RESULTS: Globally, an estimated 5.5 million (UR 4.0-7.8) all-cause ALRI hospital admissions occurred annually between 1995 and 2019 in 5-19 year olds, causing 87 900 (UR 40 300-180 600) in-hospital deaths annually. Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus were associated with 1 078 600 (UR 4 56 500-2 650 200) and 231 800 (UR 142 700-3 73 200) ALRI hospital admissions in 5-19 years. Human metapneumovirus and human parainfluenza virus were associated with 105 500 (UR 57 200-181 700) and 124 800 (UR 67 300-228 500) ALRI hospital admissions in 5-14 years. About 55% of all-cause ALRI hospital admissions and 63% of influenza-associated ALRI hospital admissions occurred in those 5-9 years globally. All-cause and influenza-associated ALRI hospital admission rates were highest in upper-middle income countries, Asia-Pacific region and the Latin America and Caribbean region. CONCLUSION: Incidence and mortality data for all-cause and virus-specific ALRI in 5-19 year olds are scarce. The lack of data in low-income countries and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, South Asia, and West and Central Africa warrants efforts to improve the development and access to healthcare services, diagnostic capacity, and data reporting.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adolescent , Child , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
5.
Journalism Practice ; : 1-20, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1479314
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1076, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus remains a major threat to public health. At present, it is recommended that patients with known or suspected COVID-19 undergo quarantine or medical observation for 14 days. However, recurrent SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity and prolonged viral shedding have been documented in convalescent COVID-19 patients, complicating efforts to control viral spread and ensure patient recovery. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a patient who experienced two recurrent episodes of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and IgM positivity and viral shedding over 60 days during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This case report demonstrates that relapses of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and IgM positivity may occur even after COVID-19 symptoms have resolved, possibly as a consequence of prolonged viral shedding rather than re-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
7.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(10): e676-e683, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community mobility data have been used to assess adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions and its impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We assessed the association between location-specific community mobility and the reproduction number (R) of SARS-CoV-2 across UK local authorities. METHODS: In this modelling study, we linked data on community mobility from Google with data on R from 330 UK local authorities, for the period June 1, 2020, to Feb 13, 2021. Six mobility metrics are available in the Google community mobility dataset: visits to retail and recreation places, visits to grocery and pharmacy stores, visits to transit stations, visits to parks, visits to workplaces, and length of stay in residential places. For each local authority, we modelled the weekly change in R (the R ratio) per a rescaled weekly percentage change in each location-specific mobility metric relative to a pre-pandemic baseline period (Jan 3-Feb 6, 2020), with results synthesised across local authorities using a random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: On a weekly basis, increased visits to retail and recreation places were associated with a substantial increase in R (R ratio 1·053 [99·2% CI 1·041-1·065] per 15% weekly increase compared with baseline visits) as were increased visits to workplaces (R ratio 1·060 [1·046-1·074] per 10% increase compared with baseline visits). By comparison, increased visits to grocery and pharmacy stores were associated with a small but still statistically significant increase in R (R ratio 1·011 [1·005-1·017] per 5% weekly increase compared with baseline visits). Increased visits to parks were associated with a decreased R (R ratio 0·972 [0·965-0·980]), as were longer stays at residential areas (R ratio 0·952 [0·928-0·976]). Increased visits to transit stations were not associated with R nationally, but were associated with a substantial increase in R in cities. An increasing trend was observed for the first 6 weeks of 2021 in the effect of visits to retail and recreation places and workplaces on R. INTERPRETATION: Increased visits to retail and recreation places, workplaces, and transit stations in cities are important drivers of increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission; the increasing trend in the effects of these drivers in the first 6 weeks of 2021 was possibly associated with the emerging alpha (B.1.1.7) variant. These findings provide important evidence for the management of current and future mobility restrictions. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and Data-Driven Innovation initiative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Transportation , Travel , Workplace , Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Models, Biological , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; : 131626, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1363113

ABSTRACT

Melatonin is a lipophilic antioxidant generally dissolved in organic solvent before delivery. However, the presence of organics may severely depress the functional effects of melatonin. By rendering deionized water (DIW) flow through gold nano-particles under localized surface plasmon resonant illumination, we developed plasmon-activated water (PAW) which successfully increases the solubility of melatonin to 150.325%. Melatonin dissolved in PAW also exhibits stronger anti-viral and anti-oxidative activities than that dissolved in DIW in which the percentage of dengue virus infected human hepatocellular carcinoma cells is remarkably decreased (14.7% vs. 20.6%) whilst the clearance rate of hydroxyl radical is significantly enhanced (11.9% vs. 6.69%), respectively. Moreover, in vivo approaches further show that following chronic sleep deprivation, the level of oxidative stress, hepatic bioenergetics, anti-oxidative enzyme activity, and metabolic function are all significantly improved in rats received melatonin prepared in PAW than that in DIW. As the bio-activity of melatonin depends largely on its solubility, utilizing PAW as a non-organic solvent will not only enhance the anti-viral and anti-oxidative function of melatonin, but also offer great potential for clinical use of melatonin as a therapeutic strategy to depress virus infection and counteract oxidative damage in a more natural, more economic and more efficient way.

9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(12): 1615-1617, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356506
10.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(6): 804-812, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several local studies showed that the 2009 influenza pandemic delayed the RSV season. However, no global-level analyses are available on the possible impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic on the RSV season. OBJECTIVES: We aim to understand the impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic on the RSV season. METHODS: We compiled data from published literature (through a systematic review), online reports/datasets and previously published data on global RSV seasonality and conducted a global-level systematic analysis on the impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic on RSV seasonality. RESULTS: We included 354 seasons of 45 unique sites, from 26 countries. Globally, the influenza pandemic delayed the onset of the first RSV season by 0.58 months on average (95% CI: 0.42, 0.73; maximum delay: 2.5 months) and the onset of the second RSV season by a lesser extent (0.25 months; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.39; maximum delay: 3.4 months); no delayed onset was observed for the third RSV season. The delayed onset was most pronounced in the northern temperate, followed by the southern temperate, and was least pronounced in the tropics. CONCLUSIONS: The 2009 influenza pandemic delayed the RSV onset on average by 0.58 months and up to 2.5 months. This suggests evidence of viral interference as well as the impact of public health measures and has important implications for preparedness for RSV season during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234720

ABSTRACT

At present, strategies for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic have made significant and strategic strides; however, and the large quantities of healthcare treatment waste have become another important "battlefield". For example, in Wuhan, the production rate of healthcare waste in hospitals, communities, temporary storage, and other units was much faster than the disposal rate during the COVID-19 pandemic. Improving the efficiency of healthcare waste transfer and treatment has become an important task for government health and environmental protection departments at all levels. Based on the situation of healthcare waste disposal in Wuhan during the critical period of the pandemic, this paper analyzes and studies green governance principles and summarizes the problems that exist in the current healthcare waste management system. Through the establishment of temporary storage facilities along transit routes, digital simulation and bionic experiments were carried out in the Hongshan District of Wuhan to improve the efficiency of healthcare waste transfer. Furthermore, this study discusses the coordination and cooperation of government, hospitals, communities, and other departments in the healthcare waste disposal process and provides guiding suggestions for healthcare waste disposal nationwide in order to deal with potential risks and provide effective references in all regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Waste Disposal , Waste Management , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Exp Ther Med ; 21(6): 570, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222241

ABSTRACT

Non-invasive strategies for monitoring post-tuberculosis (TB) tracheobronchial stenosis (PTTS) are clinically important but currently lacking. Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and procollagen type I N-propeptide (PINP) have been identified as markers of fibrosis. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of serum TGF-ß1 and PINP in PTTS. Serum samples were collected from 119 patients with tracheobronchial TB after the condition was treated for at least 6 months (59 patients with airway stenosis and 60 patients with no stenosis). Serum TGF-ß1 and PINP levels were measured using ELISA and compared between the groups. Relationships between serum TGF-ß1 and PINP levels and clinical characteristics, interventional bronchoscopy and outcomes of airway stenosis were analysed. The correlation between TGF-ß1 and PINP, and their diagnostic efficacy for airway stenosis were also analysed. The TGF-ß1 and PINP levels in the airway stenosis group were higher than those in the non-stenosis group. Furthermore, airway stenosis with atelectasis or mucus plugging was associated with higher TGF-ß1 levels, and airway stenosis with atelectasis, mucus plugging, right main bronchus stenosis or severe airway tracheal stenosis was associated with higher PINP levels. In addition, TGF-ß1 and PINP levels increased after interventional bronchoscopy therapy and airway stenosis with recurrent stenosis was associated with higher baseline levels of both markers. Finally, TGF-ß1 levels were positively correlated with PINP levels in patients with airway stenosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of TGF-ß1 and PINP for distinguishing airway stenosis from non-stenosis cases was 0.824 (95% CI: 0.748-0.900) and 0.863 (95% CI: 0.796-0.930), respectively. Therefore, TGF-ß1 and PINP are potential biomarkers that may be useful for diagnosing and monitoring PTTS.

13.
J Glob Health ; 11: 10001, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154786

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the risk factors for poor outcomes among COVID-19 patients could help identify vulnerable populations who would need prioritisation in prevention and treatment for COVID-19. We aimed to critically appraise and synthesise published evidence on the risk factors for poor outcomes in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Methods: We searched PubMed, medRxiv and the WHO COVID-19 literature database for studies that reported characteristics of COVID-19 patients who required hospitalisation. We included studies published between January and May 2020 that reported adjusted effect size of any demographic and/or clinical factors for any of the three poor outcomes: mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation. We appraised the quality of the included studies using Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal tools and quantitatively synthesised the evidence through a series of random-effect meta-analyses. To aid data interpretation, we further developed an interpretation framework that indicated strength of the evidence, informed by both quantity and quality of the evidence. Results: We included a total of 40 studies in our review. Most of the included studies (29/40, 73%) were assessed as "good quality", with assessment scores of 80 or more. We found that male sex (pooled odds ratio (OR) = 1.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-1.48; 20 studies), older age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.04-1.07, per one year of age increase; 10 studies), obesity (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.02-2.48; 4 studies), diabetes (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.11-1.40; 11 studies) and chronic kidney diseases (6 studies; OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.27-1.93) were associated with increased risks for mortality with the greatest strength of evidence based on our interpretation framework. We did not find increased risk of mortality for several factors including chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (5 studies), cancer (4 studies), or current smoker (5 studies); however, this does not indicate absence of risk due to limited data on each of these factors. Conclusion: Male sex, older age, obesity, diabetes and chronic kidney diseases are important risk factors of COVID-19 poor outcomes. Our review provides not only an appraisal and synthesis of evidence on the risk factors of COVID-19 poor outcomes, but also a data interpretation framework that could be adopted by relevant future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(2): 193-202, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were implemented by many countries to reduce the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of COVID-19. A resurgence in COVID-19 cases has been reported in some countries that lifted some of these NPIs. We aimed to understand the association of introducing and lifting NPIs with the level of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, as measured by the time-varying reproduction number (R), from a broad perspective across 131 countries. METHODS: In this modelling study, we linked data on daily country-level estimates of R from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (London, UK) with data on country-specific policies on NPIs from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker, available between Jan 1 and July 20, 2020. We defined a phase as a time period when all NPIs remained the same, and we divided the timeline of each country into individual phases based on the status of NPIs. We calculated the R ratio as the ratio between the daily R of each phase and the R from the last day of the previous phase (ie, before the NPI status changed) as a measure of the association between NPI status and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We then modelled the R ratio using a log-linear regression with introduction and relaxation of each NPI as independent variables for each day of the first 28 days after the change in the corresponding NPI. In an ad-hoc analysis, we estimated the effect of reintroducing multiple NPIs with the greatest effects, and in the observed sequence, to tackle the possible resurgence of SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: 790 phases from 131 countries were included in the analysis. A decreasing trend over time in the R ratio was found following the introduction of school closure, workplace closure, public events ban, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits; the reduction in R ranged from 3% to 24% on day 28 following the introduction compared with the last day before introduction, although the reduction was significant only for public events ban (R ratio 0·76, 95% CI 0·58-1·00); for all other NPIs, the upper bound of the 95% CI was above 1. An increasing trend over time in the R ratio was found following the relaxation of school closure, bans on public events, bans on public gatherings of more than ten people, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits; the increase in R ranged from 11% to 25% on day 28 following the relaxation compared with the last day before relaxation, although the increase was significant only for school reopening (R ratio 1·24, 95% CI 1·00-1·52) and lifting bans on public gatherings of more than ten people (1·25, 1·03-1·51); for all other NPIs, the lower bound of the 95% CI was below 1. It took a median of 8 days (IQR 6-9) following the introduction of an NPI to observe 60% of the maximum reduction in R and even longer (17 days [14-20]) following relaxation to observe 60% of the maximum increase in R. In response to a possible resurgence of COVID-19, a control strategy of banning public events and public gatherings of more than ten people was estimated to reduce R, with an R ratio of 0·71 (95% CI 0·55-0·93) on day 28, decreasing to 0·62 (0·47-0·82) on day 28 if measures to close workplaces were added, 0·58 (0·41-0·81) if measures to close workplaces and internal movement restrictions were added, and 0·48 (0·32-0·71) if measures to close workplaces, internal movement restrictions, and requirements to stay at home were added. INTERPRETATION: Individual NPIs, including school closure, workplace closure, public events ban, ban on gatherings of more than ten people, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits, are associated with reduced transmission of SARS-CoV-2, but the effect of introducing and lifting these NPIs is delayed by 1-3 weeks, with this delay being longer when lifting NPIs. These findings provide additional evidence that can inform policy-maker decisions on the timing of introducing and lifting different NPIs, although R should be interpreted in the context of its known limitations. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Fund and Data-Driven Innovation initiative.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19 , Models, Theoretical , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Time Factors
15.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 34(2): 108-114, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127303

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is associated with strong infectiousness and has no effective therapy. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of Mycobacterium vaccae nebulization in the treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we included 31 adult patients with moderate COVID-19 who were admitted to the Fourth People's Hospital of Nanning (Nanning, China) between January 22, 2020 and February 17, 2020. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A (standard care group) and group B (M. vaccae in combination with standard care group). The primary outcome was the time interval from admission to viral RNA negative conversion (oropharyngeal swabs were used in this study). Secondary outcomes included chest computed tomography (CT), mortality, length of hospital stay, complications during treatment, and so on. Patients were followed up to 4 weeks after discharge (reexamination of viral RNA, chest CT, etc.). Results: Nucleic acid test negative conversion time in group B was shorter than that in group A (2.9 days [2.7-8.7] vs. 6.8 days [3.3-13.8]; p = 0.045). No death and no conversion to severe or critical cases were observed in both groups. Two weeks after discharge, neither "relapse" nor "return to positive" cases were found. Four weeks after discharge, it was found that there was no case of " relapse " or "return to positive" in group B, and 1 patient in group A showed "return to positive", but there was no clinical manifestation and imaging progression. No adverse reactions related to M. vaccae were found during observation period. Conclusion: M. vaccae treatment might shorten the time interval from admission to viral RNA negative conversion, which might be beneficial to the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: ChiCTR2000030016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Length of Stay , Mycobacteriaceae/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5246

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to explore the active compounds of Yupingfeng powder in the treatment of new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) through network pharmacol. and mol. docking technol. The chem. constituents and action targets of Saposhnikovia divaricata, Astragali Radix and Atractylodes macrocephala in Yupingfeng powder were searched by means of TCMSP. The genes corresponding to the target were searched by UniProt, GeneCards, OMIM and other databases, then the network of medicinalm aterials-compounds-targets was constructed by using Cytoscape 3.7.2. Target protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by STRING database, gene ontol. (GO) functional enrichment anal. and KEGG pathway enrichment anal. were conducted by DAVID to predict its mechanism of action. The medicinal compounds-targets in the network's top eight ingredients and new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) 3 CL hydrolytic enzyme and angiotensin conversion enzyme II (ACE2) for mol. docking. The medicinal material-compounds-targets network contained 3 medicinal materials, 44 compounds and 198 corresponding targets, the key targets involved PTGS2, DPP4, HTR, PTGS1 and HSP90AA1, etc. The protein interaction (PPI) network obtained 25 key target proteins for the treatment of coronavirus pneumonia by Yupingfen powder. The function enrichment anal. of GO was 1 632 (P<0.05), of which there were 1 539 biol. processes (BP), 17 related items of cell composition (CC) and 76 mol. function (MF) items. There were 20 signal pathways (P<0.05) in the KEGG pathway enrichment screening, the relevant targets correspond to 25 components involving AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, IL-17 signaling pathway, Chagas disease, TNF signaling pathway and pertussis, etc. The results of mol. docking showed that the affinity of 5-O-methyramitol, quercetin, kaempferol and other active compounds was similar to recommended drugs treatment of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. In conclusion, the quercetin, kaempferol, 5-O-methyramitol and other active compounds in Yupingfeng powder can target PTGS2, DPP4, HTR, PTGS1 and HSP90AA1 to regulate multiple signal pathways, it may play a preventive and therapeutic role in COVID-19.

17.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11786, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011760

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has touched every aspect of society, and as the pandemic continues around the globe, many of the clinical factors that influence the disease course remain unclear. A useful clinical decision-making tool is a risk stratification model to determine in-hospital mortality as defined in this study. The study was performed at Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (RWJUH) in New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. Data was extracted from our electronic medical records on 44 variables that included demographic, clinical, laboratory tests, treatments, and mortality information. We used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression with corrected Akaike's information criterion to identify a subset of variables that yielded the smallest estimated prediction error for the risk of in-hospital mortality. During the study period, 808 COVID-19 patients were admitted to RWJUH. The sample size was limited to patients with at least one confirmed in-house positive nasopharyngeal swab COVID-19 test. Pregnant patients or those who were transferred to our facility were excluded. Patients who were in observation and were discharged from the emergency room were also excluded. A total of 403 patients had complete values for all variables and were eligible for the study. We identified significant clinical, laboratory, and radiologic variables determining severe outcomes and mortality. An in-hospital mortality risk calculator was created after the identification of significant factors for the specific cohort, which were abnormal CT scan or chest X-ray, chronic kidney disease, age, white blood cell count, platelet count, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase with a sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of 82%, 72%, and 93%, respectively. While numerous reports from around the globe have helped outline the pandemic, demographic factors vary widely. This study is more applicable to an urban, highly diverse population in the United States.

19.
J Infect Dis ; 222(7): 1090-1097, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could recur as seasonal outbreaks, a circulating pattern observed among other preexisting human seasonal coronaviruses (sCoVs). However, little is known about seasonality of sCoVs on a global scale. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of data on seasonality of sCoVs. We compared seasonality of sCoVs with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. We modeled monthly activity of sCoVs using site-specific weather data. RESULTS: We included sCoV seasonality data in 40 sites from 21 countries. sCoVs were prevalent in winter months in most temperate sites except for China, whereas sCoVs tended to be less seasonal in China and in tropical sites. In temperate sites excluding China, 53.1% of annual sCoV cases (interquartile range [IQR], 34.6%-61.9%) occurred during influenza season and 49.6% (IQR, 30.2%-60.2%) of sCoV cases occurred during respiratory syncytial virus season. Low temperature combined with high relative humidity was associated with higher sCoV activity. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that provides an overview of the global seasonality of sCoVs. Our findings offer clues to the possible postpandemic circulating season of SARS-CoV-2 and add to the knowledge pool necessary for postpandemic preparedness for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
20.
Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics ; 22(8):844-853, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-720278

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize the clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, Weipu Database, and Wanfang Database were searched for clinical studies on COVID-19 in children published up to May 21, 2020. Two reviewers independently screened the articles, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of the studies included. A descriptive analysis was then performed for the studies. Related indices between children with COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) were compared. RESULTS: A total of 75 studies were included, with a total of 806 children with COVID-19. The research results showed that the age of the children ranged from 36 hours after birth to 18 years, with a male-female ratio of 1.21 : 1. Similar to SARS and MERS, COVID-19 often occurred with familial aggregation, and such cases accounted for 74.6% (601/806). The children with COVID-19, SARS, and MERS had similar clinical symptoms, mainly fever and cough. Some children had gastrointestinal symptoms. The children with asymptomatic infection accounted for 17.9% (144/806) of COVID-19 cases, 2.5% (2/81) of SARS cases, and 57.1% (12/21) of MERS cases. The children with COVID-19 and MERS mainly had bilateral lesions on chest imaging examination, with a positive rate of lesions of 63.4% (421/664) and 26.3% (5/19) respectively, which were lower than the corresponding positive rates of viral nucleic acid detection, which were 99.8% and 100% respectively. The chest radiological examination of the children with SARS mainly showed unilateral lesion, with a positive rate of imaging of 88.9% (72/81), which was higher than the corresponding positive rate of viral nucleic acid detection (29.2%). Viral nucleic acid was detected in the feces of children with COVID-19 or SARS, with positive rates of 60.2% (56/93) and 71.4% (5/7) respectively. The children with COVID-19 had a rate of severe disease of 4.6% (31/686) and a mortality rate of 0.1% (1/806), the children with SARS had a rate of severe disease of 1.5% (1/68) and a mortality rate of 0%, and those with MERS had a rate of severe disease of 14.3% (3/21) and a mortality rate of 9.5% (2/21). CONCLUSIONS: Children with COVID-19 have similar symptoms to those with SARS or MERS, mainly fever and cough. Asymptomatic infection is observed in all three diseases. Children with COVID-19 or SARS have milder disease conditions than those with MERS. COVID-19 in children often occurs with familial aggregation. Epidemiological contact history, imaging examination findings, and viral nucleic acid testing results are important bases for the diagnosis of COVID-19.

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