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1.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196477

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a serious threat to human health and lives. The virus is still spreading throughout the world, and the cumulative number of confirmed cases is increasing. After patients with COVID-19 are treated and discharged, some have repeated clinical symptoms and become positive for nucleic acid tests a second time. Through analysis and review of the existing literature, the proportion of repositive patients in the discharged patient population and their clinical characteristics were systematically described for the first time. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the causes of repositive nucleic acid tests and the potential transmission of the disease provides the basis for the management and protection of discharged patients with COVID-19.

2.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 1938-1947, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the effective prevention and control of COVID-19 in China, the number of cured cases has increased significantly. Further monitoring of the disease prognosis and effective control of the "relapse" of the epidemic has become the next focus of work. This study analysed the clinical prognosis of discharged COVID-19 patients by monitoring their SAR-CoV-2 nucleic acid status, which provided a theoretical basis for medical institutions to formulate discharge standards and follow-up management for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We included 13 discharged COVID-19 patients who were quarantined for 4 weeks at home. The patient's daily clinical signs were recorded and sputum and faecal specimens were regularly sent for detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. RESULTS: The time between initial symptoms and meeting discharge criteria was 18 to 44 days with an average of 25 ± 6 days. The faecal samples of two patients still tested positive after meeting the discharge criteria and the sputum samples of four patients returned positive 5 to 14 days after discharge. The rate of the recurring positive test result in samples from the respiratory system was 31% (4/13). CONCLUSION: Under the present discharge criteria, the high presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in faecal and respiratory samples of discharged COVID-19 patients indicates potential infectivity. Therefore, we suggest that faecal virus nucleic acid should be tested as a routine monitoring index for COVID-19 and a negative result be added to the criteria. Simultaneously, we should strengthen the regular follow-up of discharged patients with continuous monitoring of the recurrence of viral nucleic acid.

3.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1272, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-853981

ABSTRACT

Background: A recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), which began in Wuhan, China, with a high level of human-to-human transmission has been reported. There are limited data available on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with hematological malignancies with more than 60 days of follow-up. This study describes the clinical characteristics, including multiple recurrences of COVID-19, in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) during 69 days of follow-up. Case Presentation: A 72-year-old female was admitted to hospital isolation after being infected with COVID-19 as part of a family cluster on January 30, 2020. Apart from SARS-Cov-2 virus infection, laboratory results revealed lymphocytosis of uncertain etiology and abnormal distribution of T lymphocytes. On blood smears, small blue lymphocytes with scant cytoplasm were observed, and the presence of high levels of circulating clonal B cells was also demonstrated by flow cytometry. The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 and CLL. Among her family members, she had the highest viral loads and the fastest progression on lung injury and developed severe pneumonia. Serological results showed she had both 2019-nCoV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies; however, only IgG antibodies were detected in her husband's plasma. Results: A combination regimen of antiviral therapy and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the early stage seemed to be effective for treating CLL and SARS-Cov-2 infection. Because of the low humoral immune response, the CLL patient could not effectively clear the SARS-Cov-2 infection and suffered from recurrence twice during the 69-day follow-up. Conclusion: In CLL, a neoplastic antigen-specific B-cell clone proliferates, and the progeny cells accumulate and outgrow other B cells, leading to immune deficiency. Considering the low humoral immune response and ineffective clearance of SARS-Cov-2 in CLL patients, the follow-up and home quarantine period should be extended. We need further studies to clarify suspending or continuing CLL therapy during COVID infection. For those patients who are prone to progression to severe disease, administering humoral immunity therapies can help to prevent disease progression and quickly meet the cure criteria.

4.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 68, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In China, mothers with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 pneumonia are recommended to stop breastfeeding. However, the evidence to support this guidance is lacking. There have been relatively few cases reported about direct breastfeeding an infant by a mother with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the safety of breastfeeding and the possible protective effects of breast milk on infants. CASE PRESENTATION: This report analyzes the case of a mother who continued breastfeeding her 13 month-old child when both were diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was determined in maternal serum, breast milk, nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and feces, and in infant serum, NP swabs and feces. IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were assessed in maternal serum and breast milk and in infant serum. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was not detected in the breast milk, and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in the mother's serum and milk. CONCLUSIONS: The present case further confirms that the possibility of mother-to-child transmission about SARS-CoV-2 via breast milk alone was very small, and breast milk is safe for direct feeding of infants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Breast Feeding , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Milk, Human/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
5.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-238993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical outcome of patients with moderate type of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge by retesting viral nucleic acid METHODS: Seven patients with moderate COVID-19 met the discharge criteria enacted by National Health Commission were quarantined in hospital for 7 days, then continuously quarantined at home for 4 weeks after discharged During the quarantined period, the symptoms and signs were documented, and sputum or nasal swab and feces samples were collected to test SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by RT-PCR method RESULTS: There was no symptoms and signs during the quarantine period in all 7 patients However, respiratory swabs from 3 patients were confirmed positive of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid at 5 to 7 days after they met the discharge criteria CONCLUSIONS: There is a relatively high incidence of positive viral nucleic acid in patients met the discharge criteria, and it is suggested that patients met the current discharge criteria should be quarantined in hospital for another 7 days and the follow-up viral testing is necessary

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