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1.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323129

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are currently one of the major health issues around the world. Most CNS disorders are characterized by high oxidative stress levels and intense inflammatory responses in affected tissues. Lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein, plays a significant role in anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator, antitumor immunity, and anti-apoptotic processes. Previous studies have shown that Lf is abnormally expressed in a variety of neurological diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, the promotion of neurodevelopment and neuroprotection by Lf has attracted widespread attention, and Lf could be exploited both as an active therapeutic agent and drug nanocarrier. However, our understanding of the roles of Lf proteins in the initiation or progression of CNS diseases is limited, especially the roles of Lf in regulating neurogenesis. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the major pharmacological effects of Lf in CNS diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular disease, developmental delays in children, and brain tumors.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Lactoferrin/metabolism , Animals , Brain/embryology , Brain/pathology , Child , Child Development , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/pathology
3.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 583450, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133942

ABSTRACT

Objective: To present the evidence of the therapeutic effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used with or without conventional western therapy for COVID-19. Methods: Clinical studies on the therapeutic effects and safety of CHM for COVID-19 were included. We summarized the general characteristics of included studies, evaluated methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, analyzed the use of CHM, used Revman 5.4 software to present the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) and their 95% confidence interval (CI) to estimate the therapeutic effects and safety of CHM. Results: A total of 58 clinical studies were identified including RCTs (17.24%, 10), non-randomized controlled trials (1.72%, 1), retrospective studies with a control group (18.97%, 11), case-series (20.69%, 12) and case-reports (41.38%, 24). No RCTs of high methodological quality were identified. The most frequently tested oral Chinese patent medicine, Chinese herbal medicine injection or prescribed herbal decoction were: Lianhua Qingwen granule/capsule, Xuebijing injection and Maxing Shigan Tang. In terms of aggravation rate, pooled analyses showed that there were statistical differences between the intervention group and the comparator group (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.82, six RCTs; RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.64, five retrospective studies with a control group), that is, CHM plus conventional western therapy appeared better than conventional western therapy alone in reducing aggravation rate. In addition, compared with conventional western therapy, CHM plus conventional western therapy had potential advantages in increasing the recovery rate and shortening the duration of fever, cough and fatigue, improving the negative conversion rate of nucleic acid test, and increasing the improvement rate of chest CT manifestations and shortening the time from receiving the treatment to the beginning of chest CT manifestations improvement. For adverse events, pooled data showed that there were no statistical differences between the CHM and the control groups. Conclusion: Current low certainty evidence suggests that there maybe a tendency that CHM plus conventional western therapy is superior to conventional western therapy alone. The use of CHM did not increase the risk of adverse events.

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