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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 982469, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080274

ABSTRACT

Background: Increasing evidence indicated a clear association between COVID-19 pandemic and mental health. This study aimed to assess the dynamic change of mental burden during and after the COVID-19 outbreak and related predictive factors among Chinese undergraduate medical students. Methods: This longitudinal survey was conducted among Chinese undergraduate medical students before, during, and after the COVID-19 outbreak. We focused on COVID-19 related mental burdens including psychological distress, stress reaction, and insomnia symptoms, and defined the sum score of the three specific mental burden indexes as the overall mental burden index. The prevalence of specific and overall mental burdens and their changing patterns at two phases of the pandemic (during vs. after the COVID-19 outbreak) were measured. In addition, multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between the psychosocial status before the pandemic and specific and overall mental burden changing patterns. Results: Our findings showed that the prevalence of overall mental burden increased (from 27.46 to 37.28%) after the COVID-19 outbreak among the 863 Chinese undergraduate medical students who participated in the surveys at baseline, during, and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Specifically, the prevalence of stress reaction symptoms decreased (from 10.90 to 3.60%), while the rates of psychological distress (from 28.06 to 37.95%) and insomnia symptoms (from 12.54 to 20.71%) increased. Participants, with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, somatic symptoms, internet addiction, childhood adversity, stressful life events, and being neurotic were found to have a higher risk of developing mental burden in at least one survey (during or after the COVID-19 outbreak). Healthy family function and being extravert were found to positively impact mental burden. Conclusion: Psychological distress, stress reaction and insomnia symptoms have been prevalent among Chinese undergraduate medical students during the COVID-19 outbreak, and the prevalence of overall mental burden increased after the COVID-19 outbreak. Some students, especially those with the risk factors noted above, exhibited persistent or progression symptoms. Continued mental health care was in demand for them even after the COVID-19 outbreak.

2.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(1):10-19, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056573

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to establish an indirect ELISA technique for detecting the SIgA antibody against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to evaluate its mucosal immunity. Firstly, the S1D gene (534-789 aa) of PEDV was cloned into the pET-28a(+) vector, and induced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) by IPTG, the product of which was in the form of inclusion bodies. According to Western-blot, the target protein S1D with antigenic activity was 32 ku in molecular weight and could be well detected. Then, the S1D protein was denatured by 8 mol/L urea, purified and gradient as the coating antigen to establish an indirect ELISA for detecting the PEDV specific SIgA antibody in nasal or oral mucus by optimizing conditions. And the optimal antigen coating concentration of ELISA was 2 micro g mL, the working concentrations of nasal mucus was 1:1 and the optimal blocking solution was 50 g/L skimmed milk, while the working concentrations and optimal blocking solution were 1:2 and 30 g/L BSA in oral mucus, the working concentrations of the enzyme-labeled antibody was 1:2 000 in nasal and oral mucus. Finally, 84 samples of oral and nasal mucus from immunized pigs were detected by S1D of ELISA, and the coincidence rate could reach 95.2% compared with purified PEDV of ELISA. In conclusion, the indirect ELISA established in this study provided a quick, simple, sensitive, and specific method to detect PEDV specific SigA for evaluating the level of PEDV mucosal immunity.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 429, 2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050329

ABSTRACT

The association between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma of having a mental illness is not clear. This study examined the association between COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma among patients with recurrent depressive disorder (depression hereafter) using network analysis. Participants were 1149 depressed patients (842 men, 307 women) who completed survey measures of perceived stigma and COVID-19 vaccine attitudes. T-tests, chi-square tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between depressed patients who indented to accepted vaccines and those who were hesitant. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses assessed the unique association between COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma, independent of depression severity. Network analysis examined item-level relations between COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma after controlling for depressive symptoms. Altogether, 617 depressed patients (53.7%, 95 confidence intervals (CI) %: 50.82-56.58%) reported they would accept future COVID-19 vaccination. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated higher perceived stigma scores predicted lower levels of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance (ß = -0.125, P < 0.001), even after controlling for depression severity. In the network model of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and perceived stigma nodes, "Feel others avoid me because of my illness", "Feel useless", and "Feel less competent than I did before" were the most influential symptoms. Furthermore, "COVID-19 vaccination acceptance" had the strongest connections with illness stigma items reflecting social rejection or social isolation concerns ("Employers/co-workers have discriminated", "Treated with less respect than usual", "Sense of being unequal in my relationships with others"). Given that a substantial proportion of depressed patients reported hesitancy with accepting COVID-19 vaccines and experiences of mental illness stigma related to social rejection and social isolation, providers working with this group should provide interventions to reduce stigma concerns toward addressing reluctance in receiving COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Social Stigma , Vaccination
4.
mBio ; 13(5): e0035822, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029470

ABSTRACT

The thick mucus layer covering of the intestinal epithelium has received increasing attention, owing to its protective role in intestinal infection. However, the exact mechanisms by which the mucus increases intestinal resistance against viral infection remain largely unclear. Here, we identify prominent antiviral activity of the small intestinal mucus and extracted total mucus proteins, as evidenced by their inhibitory effects against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. Of all the extracted mucus proteins, mucin 2 and fraction III (~70 kDa) exhibited potent antiviral activity. We further evaluated the antiviral effects of three candidate factors in fraction III and found that calpain-1 contributed substantially to its antiviral activity. In vivo studies demonstrated that oral administration of calpain-1 provided effective protection against intestinal PEDV infection. As a calcium-activated cysteine protease, calpain-1 inhibited viral invasion by binding to and hydrolyzing the S1 domain of the viral spike protein. The region between amino acids 297 and 337 in the b domain of PEDV S1 protein was critical for calpain-1-mediated hydrolysis. Further investigation indicated that calpain-1 could be produced by goblet cells between intestinal epithelia. Taken together, the results of our study revealed calpain-1 to be a novel antiviral protein in porcine small intestinal mucus, suggesting that calpain-1 has potential for defending against intestinal infections. IMPORTANCE Although the antiviral activity of the intestinal mucus was recognized 20 years ago, the antiviral active ingredients in the mucus are poorly understood. Currently, most research on antiviral molecules in the intestinal mucus remains limited to members of the mucin family. This study identified the cysteine protease calpain-1 as a novel antiviral protein in porcine small intestinal mucus and revealed its underlying protective mechanism for the first time. This mechanism involves inhibiting porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) invasion by binding and hydrolyzing the S1 domain of the viral spike protein. Furthermore, the results of our PEDV-challenge experiment in piglets indicated that calpain-1 provides effective protection against intestinal PEDV infection. Our findings provide new insights into the protective function of the small intestinal mucus. In addition to potential therapeutic implications for the swine industry, our analysis of antiviral proteins in the small intestinal mucus may have implications for the prevention and control of coronavirus infection in humans.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Enteritis , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Amino Acids , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Calcium , Calpain , Mucin-2 , Mucus , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Swine , Viral Proteins
5.
Imeta ; : e42, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976732

ABSTRACT

In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used for coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention, treatment, and recovery and has played a part in the battle against the disease. A variety of TCM treatments have been recommended for different stages of COVID-19. But, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive database for storing and organizing anti-COVID TCM treatments is still lacking. Herein, we developed TCM2COVID, a manually curated resource of anti-COVID TCM formulas, natural products (NPs), and herbs. The current version of TCM2COVID (1) documents over 280 TCM formulas (including over 300 herbs) with detailed clinical evidence and therapeutic mechanism information; (2) records over 80 NPs with detailed potential therapeutic mechanisms; and (3) launches a useful web server for querying, analyzing and visualizing documented formulas similar to those supplied by the user (formula similarity analysis). In summary, TCM2COVD provides a user-friendly and practical platform for documenting, querying, and browsing anti-COVID TCM treatments, and will help in the development and elucidation of the mechanisms of action of new anti-COVID TCM therapies to support the fight against the COVID-19 epidemic. TCM2COVID is freely available at http://zhangy-lab.cn/tcm2covid/.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 303, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967593

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has a disproportionate impact on vulnerable subpopulations, including those with severe mental illness (SMI). This study examined the one-year prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI), suicide plans (SP), and suicide attempts (SA) in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) patients during the pandemic. Prevalence rates were compared between the two disorders and associated factors were examined. A survey was conducted in six tertiary psychiatric hospitals and psychiatric units. People with a diagnosis of BD or SCZ were invited to participate. SI, SP, and SA (suicidality for short) were assessed and associated factors were examined using binary logistical regression. The 1-year prevalence of SI, SP and SA in BD patients were 58.3%, (95% CI: 54.1-62.6%), 38.4% (95% CI: 34.3-42.6%) and 38.6% (95% CI: 34.5-42.8%), respectively, which were higher than the corresponding figures in SCZ patients (SI: 33.2%, 95% CI: 28.6-37.8%; SP: 16.8%, 95% CI: 13.2-20.5%; SA: 19.4%, 95% CI: 15.5-23.3%). Patients with younger age, experience of cyberbullying, a history of SA among family or friends, a higher fatigue and physical pain score, inpatient status, and severe depressive symptoms were more likely to have suicidality. The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increased risk of suicidality, particularly in BD patients. It is of importance to regularly screen suicidality in BD and SCZ patients during the pandemic even if they are clinically stable.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , COVID-19 , Schizophrenia , Suicide , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation
7.
Psychol Med ; 52(9): 1793-1800, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 generated severe emotional reactions, and restricted mobility was a crucial measure to reduce the spread of the virus. This study describes the changes in public emotional reactions and mobility patterns in the Chinese population during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: We collected data on public emotional reactions in response to the outbreak through Weibo, the Chinese Twitter, between 1st January and 31st March 2020. Using anonymized location-tracking information, we analyzed the daily mobility patterns of approximately 90% of Sichuan residents. RESULTS: There were three distinct phases of the emotional and behavioral reactions to the COVID-19 outbreak. The alarm phase (19th-26th January) was a restriction-free period, characterized by few new daily cases, but a large amount public negative emotions [the number of negative comments per Weibo post increased by 246.9 per day, 95% confidence interval (CI) 122.5-371.3], and a substantial increase in self-limiting mobility (from 45.6% to 54.5%, changing by 1.5% per day, 95% CI 0.7%-2.3%). The epidemic phase (27th January-15th February) exhibited rapidly increasing numbers of new daily cases, decreasing expression of negative emotions (a decrease of 27.3 negative comments per post per day, 95% CI -40.4 to -14.2), and a stabilized level of self-limiting mobility. The relief phase (16th February-31st March) had a steady decline in new daily cases and decreasing levels of negative emotion and self-limiting mobility. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 outbreak in China, the public's emotional reaction was strongest before the actual peak of the outbreak and declined thereafter. The change in human mobility patterns occurred before the implementation of restriction orders, suggesting a possible link between emotion and behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Emotions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Virol ; 96(14): e0047722, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909579

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms of colostrum-mediated virus transmission are difficult to elucidate because of the absence of experimental animal models and the difficulties in tissue sample collection from mothers in the peripartum period. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a reemerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that has catastrophic impacts on the global pig industry. PEDV primarily infects neonatal piglets by multiple routes, especially 1- to 2-day-old neonatal piglets. Here, our epidemiological investigation and animal challenge experiments revealed that PEDV could be vertically transmitted from sows to neonatal piglets via colostrum, and CD3+ T cells in the colostrum play an important role in this process. The results showed that PEDV colonizing the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of orally immunized infected sows could be transferred to CD3+ T cells located just beneath the IECs. Next, PEDV-carrying CD3+ T cells, with the expression of integrin α4ß7 and CCR10, migrate from the intestine to the mammary gland through blood circulation. Arriving in the mammary gland, PEDV-carrying CD3+ T cells could be transported across mammary epithelial cells (MECs) into the lumen (colostrum), as illustrated by an autotransfusion assay and an MECs/T coculture system. The PEDV-carrying CD3+ T cells in colostrum could be interspersed between IECs of neonatal piglets, causing intestinal infection via cell-to-cell contact. Our study demonstrates for the first time that colostrum-derived CD3+ T cells comprise a potential route for the vertical transmission of PEDV. IMPORTANCE The colostrum represents an important infection route for many viruses. Here, we demonstrate the vertical transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) from sows to neonatal piglets via colostrum. PEDV colonizing the intestinal epithelial cells could transfer the virus to CD3+ T cells located in the sow intestine. The PEDV-carrying CD3+ T cells in the sow intestine, with the expression of integrin α4ß7 and CCR10, arrive at the mammary gland through blood circulation and are transported across mammary epithelial cells into the lumen, finally leading to intestinal infection via cell-to-cell contact in neonatal piglets. Our study not only demonstrates an alternative route of PEDV infection but also provides an animal model of vertical transmission of human infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Colostrum , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Colostrum/virology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Female , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/transmission , Swine Diseases/virology , T-Lymphocytes/virology
9.
Vet Sci ; 9(5)2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892994

ABSTRACT

Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), a probiotic bacterium and feeding additive, is widely used for heterologous antigen expression and protective immunisation. Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) invades swine via mucosal tissue. To enhance the mucosal immune response to PEDV, we modified B. subtilis to express a PEDV antigen and used it as a mucosal vaccine delivery system. Initially, we constructed a recombinant B. subtilis strain (B.s-RCL) that expressed the PEDV spike protein and L-Lectin-ß-GF, with the goal of inducing mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and anti-PEDV serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) production, as well as to increase the number of microfold cells (M cells). Following the oral administration of B.s-RCL to mice, the small intestinal PEDV-specific sIgA expression levels significantly increased, as well as the increased number of B.s-RCL adhered to M cells. Moreover, we found that mice administered B.s-RCL exhibited markedly higher percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen compared to the control mice. Furthermore, we found that intestinal mucosa sIgA and serum anti-PEDV IgG levels were higher in mice orally immunised with B.s-RCL, suggesting that the mice could be more resistant to PEDV. In this study, we developed a novel oral vaccine to prevent porcine diarrhoea epidemics.

10.
Psychol Med ; 51(11): 1952-1954, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the drastic surge of COVID-19 patients, many countries are considering or already graduating health professional students early to aid professional resources. We aimed to assess outbreak-related psychological distress and symptoms of acute stress reaction (ASR) in health professional students and to characterize individuals with potential need for interventions. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1442 health professional students at Sichuan University, China. At baseline (October 2019), participants were assessed for childhood adversity, stressful life events, internet addiction, and family functioning. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined associations of the above exposures with subsequent psychological distress and ASR in response to the outbreak. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-four (26.63%) participants demonstrated clinically significant psychological distress, while 160 (11.10%) met the criterion for a probable ASR. Individuals who scored high on both childhood adversity and stressful life event experiences during the past year were at increased risks of both distress (ORs 2.00-2.66) and probable ASR (ORs 2.23-3.10), respectively. Moreover, internet addiction was associated with elevated risks of distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.60-2.64) and probable ASR (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.50-3.10). By contrast, good family functioning was associated with decreased risks of distress (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33-0.55) and probable ASR (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.33-0.69). All associations were independent of baseline psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that COVID-19 related psychological distress and high symptoms burden of ASR are common among health professional students. Extended family and professional support should be considered for vulnerable individuals during these unprecedented times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/epidemiology , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Internet Addiction Disorder/psychology , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
11.
J Virol ; 96(9): e0038022, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794532

ABSTRACT

Crossing the endothelium from the entry site and spreading in the bloodstream are crucial but obscure steps in the pathogenesis of many emerging viruses. Previous studies confirmed that porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) caused intestinal infection by intranasal inoculation. However, the role of the nasal endothelial barrier in PEDV translocation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that PEDV infection causes nasal endothelial dysfunction to favor viral dissemination. Intranasal inoculation with PEDV compromised the integrity of endothelial cells (ECs) in nasal microvessels. The matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7) released from the PEDV-infected nasal epithelial cells (NECs) contributed to the destruction of endothelial integrity by degrading the tight junctions, rather than direct PEDV infection. Moreover, the proinflammatory cytokines released from PEDV-infected NECs activated ECs to upregulate ICAM-1 expression, which favored peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) migration. PEDV could further exploit migrated cells to favor viral dissemination. Together, our results reveal the mechanism by which PEDV manipulates the endothelial dysfunction to favor viral dissemination and provide novel insights into how coronavirus interacts with the endothelium. IMPORTANCE The endothelial barrier is the last but vital defense against systemic viral transmission. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause severe atrophic enteritis and acute viremia. However, the mechanisms by which the virus crosses the endothelial barrier and causes viremia are poorly understood. In this study, we revealed the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in PEDV infection. The viral infection activates NECs and causes the upregulation of MMP-7 and proinflammatory cytokines. Using NECs, ECs, and PBMCs as in vitro models, we determined that the released MMP-7 contributed to the destruction of endothelial barrier, and the released proinflammatory cytokines activated ECs to facilitate PBMCs migration. Moreover, the virus further exploited the migrated cells to promote viral dissemination. Thus, our results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction induced by coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Endothelium , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Virus Shedding , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines , Endothelium/virology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 7/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/transmission , Swine Diseases/virology , Viremia
12.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 252, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788322

ABSTRACT

The location of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) between epithelial cells provide a first line of immune defense against enteric infection. It is assumed that IELs migrate only along the basement membrane or into the lateral intercellular space (LIS) between epithelial cells. Here, we identify a unique transepithelial migration of porcine IELs as they move to the free surface of the intestinal epithelia. The major causative agent of neonatal diarrhea in piglets, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), increases the number of IELs entering the LIS and free surface of the intestinal epithelia, driven by chemokine CCL2 secreted from virus-infected intestinal epithelial cells. Remarkably, only virus pre-activated IELs inhibits PEDV infection and their antiviral activity depends on the further activation by virus-infected cells. Although high levels of perforin is detected in the co-culture system, the antiviral function of activated IELs is mainly mediated by IFN-γ secretion inducing robust antiviral response in virus-infected cells. Our results uncover a unique migratory behavior of porcine IELs as well as their protective role in the defense against intestinal infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Intestinal Diseases , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Virus Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine
13.
J Affect Disord ; 307: 142-148, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems including suicide in many subpopulations, but its influence on stable patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been studied fleetingly. This study examined the one-year prevalence of suicidality including suicidal ideation (SI), suicide plans (SP), and suicide attempts (SA) as well as their correlates in clinically stable MDD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted between October 1, 2020, and October 15, 2021, in six tertiary psychiatric hospitals. Socio-demographic information, clinical data and one-year prevalence of suicidality were recorded. RESULTS: Altogether, 1718 participants who met the eligibility criteria were included. The overall one-year prevalence of suicidality during the COVID-19 pandemic was 68.04% (95% confidence intervals (CI) =65.84-70.25%), with one-year SI prevalence of 66.4% (95%CI = 64.18-68.65%), SP prevalence of 36.26% (95%CI = 33.99-38.54%), and SA prevalence of 39.35% (95%CI = 37.04-41.66%). Binary logistic regression analyses revealed male gender, married marital status, college education level and above and age were negatively associated with risk of suicidality. Urban residence, unemployed work status, experiences of cyberbullying, a history of suicide among family members or friends, and more severe fatigue, physical pain, and residual depressive symptoms were positively associated with risk of suicidality. CONCLUSIONS: Suicidality is common among clinically stable MDD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Regular suicide screening and preventive measures should be provided to clinically stable MDD patients during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Suicide , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Suicidal Ideation
14.
Int J Nurs Sci ; 9(1): 5-10, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587597

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Major infectious disease has become a serious threat to people's health worldwide. As the world's largest healthcare workforce and the core forces fighting against the epidemic, nurses are on the frontline of this battle. A number of ethical issues have given rise to numerous concerns that have largely affected nurses in different ways as they respond to the epidemic. In addition, excessive expectations from people can exert undue pressure, which can easily lead to burnout in nurses. METHODS: In this consensus, the expert panel method was used to develop and reach a consensus. The members involved in the formation of the consensus included an expert discussion panel and a consensus writing expert group, a methodologist, and four secretaries. After 16 rounds of online expert consultation and two rounds of expert panel meetings, the writing team analyzed and reviewed the 78 amendments suggested by the experts to develop a consensus on nursing ethics for prevention and control of major infectious disease outbreaks based on the ethical vision of life care. RESULTS: This expert consensus focuses on five essential domains: the responsibilities and rights of nurses, the nurse-patient relationship, the doctor-nurse relationship, and the relationship between society and nurses throughout the epidemic. CONCLUSIONS: We hope this consensus can help nurses better understand and respond to the ethical issues and challenges in public health emergencies, and raise reasonable public expectations of the roles and responsibilities of nurses in these situations.

15.
European Journal of Operational Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1458687

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a comprehensive production planning problem under uncertain demand is investigated. The problem intertwines two NP-hard optimization problems: an assembly line balancing problem and a capacitated lot-sizing problem. The problem is modelled as a two-stage stochastic program assuming a risk-averse decision maker. Efficient solution procedures are proposed for tackling the problem. A case study related to mask production is presented. Several insights are provided stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, the results of a series of computational tests are reported.

17.
Journal of Function Spaces ; : 1-10, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1282171

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we select eight indicators from the aspects of an enterprise's bill transaction information, namely, whether the enterprise's loan is in breach of contract, effective invoice rate, total utilization rate of price and tax, negative invoice rate, strength of enterprise, coefficient of variation, flow efficiency of assets, and influence of upstream and downstream enterprises;then, we construct an evaluation index system. According to different industries, different categories, and the impact of random factors, we divide the types of enterprises into 10 categories. Then, we use three kinds of Poisson random numbers to carry out numerical simulation on the total price and tax of enterprises in different industries under the influence of COVID-19. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Function Spaces is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

18.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e041671, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883374

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 outbreak has caused enormous strain on healthcare systems, and healthcare trainees, which comprise the future healthcare workforce, may be a vulnerable group. It is essential to assess the psychological distress experienced by healthcare trainees during the COVID-19 outbreak. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study with 4184 healthcare trainees at Sichuan University in China was implemented during 7-13 February 2020. Participants were grouped by training programmes (medicine, medical technology and nursing) and training stages (undergraduate, postgraduate and residency). MAIN OUTCOMES: COVID-19-related psychological distress and acute stress reaction (ASR) were assessed using the Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. We estimated the ORs of distress by comparing trainees across programmes and training stages using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Significant psychological distress was found in 1150 (30.90%) participants and probable ASR in 403 (10.74%). Compared with the nursing trainees, the medical trainees (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.95) reported a higher burden of psychological distress during the outbreak, while the medical technology trainees (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.62) reported similar symptom scores. Postgraduates (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.08) in medicine had higher levels of distress than their undergraduate counterparts did, whereas the nursing residents (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.71) reported a lower burden than did nursing undergraduates. A positive association was found between having active clinical duties during the outbreak and distress (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.39), particularly among the medical trainees (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.33) and undergraduates (OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.61 to 11.70). No clear risk patterns of ASR symptoms were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Medical trainees, particularly postgraduates and those with active clinical duties, were at risk for psychological distress during the COVID-19 outbreak. Stress management may be considered for high-risk healthcare trainees.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Young Adult
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