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2.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1893-1905, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777573

ABSTRACT

Bamlanivimab is routinely used in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of bamlanivimab treatment in patients with COVID-19. We searched articles from Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and medRxiv between January 30, 2020 and August 5, 2021. We selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies with a control group to assess the efficiency of bamlanivimab in treating patients with COVID-19. Our meta-analysis retrieved three RCTs and seven cohort studies including 14 461 patients. Bmlanivimab may help outpatients to prevent hospitalization or emergency department visits (RR 0.41, 95%CI 0.29-0.58), reduce ICU admission (RR 0.47, 95%CI 0.23-0.92), and mortality (RR 0.32, 95%CI 0.13-0.77) from the disease. The combination of bamlanivimab and etesevimab may have a greater potential for positive treatment outcomes. Bamlanivimab has demonstrated clinical efficacy on mild or moderate ill patients with COVID-19 to prevent hospitalization, reduce severity, and mortality from the disease. Combinations of bamlanivimab and etesevimab have a significant relative risk reduction for COVID-related hospitalization or death for patients than the monotherapy 700 mg group. Well-designed clinical trials to identify the clinical and biochemical characteristics in the COVID-19 patients' population that could benefit from bamlanivimab or plus etesevimab are warranted in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(3)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765756

ABSTRACT

Most yeasts causing infections in humans are part of commensal microflora and etiological agents of different infections when hosts become susceptible, usually due to becoming immunocompromised. The colonization of potentially pathogenic microbes in the oral cavity is increased by poor oral hygiene. This follow-up survey was conducted approximately two months after providing information on proper oral care at 10 nursing homes in Taiwan. Among the 117 of 165 residents colonized by yeasts, 67 were colonized by more than one yeast species. A total of 231 isolates comprising eight fungal genera and 25 species were identified. Candida albicans (44.6%) was the dominant species, followed by Candida glabrata (17.7%), Candida parapsilosis (8.7%), Candida tropicalis (7.8%), and Candida pararugosa (7.3%). Residents having a yeast colony-forming unit >10 (OR, 8.897; 95% CI 2.972-26.634; p < 0.001) or using a wheelchair (OR, 4.682; 95% CI 1.599-13.705; p = 0.005) were more likely to be colonized by multiple species. By comparing before and after oral-care education, dry mouth (OR, 3.199; 95% CI 1.448-7.068; p = 0.011) and having heart disease (OR, 2.681; 95% CI 1.068-6.732; p = 0.036) emerged as two independent risk factors for increased density of colonizing yeast.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329260

ABSTRACT

Background: People hospitalized with COVID-19 often exhibit hematological alterations, such as lower lymphocyte and platelet counts, which have been reported to associate with disease prognosis. It is unclear whether inter-individual variability in baseline hematological parameters prior to acute infection influences risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and progression to severe COVID-19. Methods: We assessed the association of blood cell counts and indices with incident SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 in UK Biobank and the Vanderbilt University Medical Center Synthetic Derivative (VUMC SD). Since genetically determined blood cell measures better represent cell abundance across the lifecourse, we used summary statistics from genome-wide association studies to assess the shared genetic architecture of baseline blood cell counts and indices on COVID-19 outcomes. Results: We observed inconsistent associations between measured blood cell indices and both SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalization in UK Biobank and VUMC SD. In Mendelian randomization analyses using genetic summary statistics, no putative causal relationships were identified between COVID-19 related outcomes and hematological indices after adjusting for multiple testing. We observed overlapping genetic association signals between hematological parameters and COVID-19 traits. For example, we observed overlap between infection susceptibility-associated variants at PPP1R15A and red blood cell parameters, and between disease severity-associated variants at TYK2 and lymphocyte and platelet phenotypes. Conclusions: We did not find convincing evidence of a relationship between baseline hematological parameters and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 severity, though this relationship should be re-examined as larger and better-powered genetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 become available.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324440

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) swept across the world in early 2020, triggering the lockdowns of several billion people across many countries, including China, Spain, India, the U.K., Italy, France, Germany, and most states of the U.S. The transmission of the virus accelerated rapidly with the most confirmed cases in the U.S., and New York City became an epicenter of the pandemic by the end of March. In response to this national and global emergency, the NSF Spatiotemporal Innovation Center brought together a taskforce of international researchers and assembled implemented strategies to rapidly respond to this crisis, for supporting research, saving lives, and protecting the health of global citizens. This perspective paper presents our collective view on the global health emergency and our effort in collecting, analyzing, and sharing relevant data on global policy and government responses, geospatial indicators of the outbreak and evolving forecasts;in developing research capabilities and mitigation measures with global scientists, promoting collaborative research on outbreak dynamics, and reflecting on the dynamic responses from human societies.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324221

ABSTRACT

Background: Bamlanivimab is routinely used in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in worldwide. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of bamlanivimab treatment in patients with COVID-19. Methods: We searched articles from Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and MedRxiv between 30 January 2020 and August 5, 2021. We selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies with a control group to assess the efficiency of bamlanivimab in treating patients with COVID-19. Results: Our meta-analysis retrieved 3 RCTs and 7 cohort studies including 14461 patients. Bmlanivimab may help outpatients to prevent hospitalization or emergency department visit (RR 0.41 95%CI 0.29 to 0.58), reduce ICU admission (RR 0.47 95%CI 0.23 to 0.92) and mortality (RR 0.32 95%CI 0.13 to 0.77) from the disease. The combination of bamlanivimab and etesevimab may had a greater potential for positive treatment outcome. Conclusion: Bamlanivimab has demonstrated clinical efficacy on mild or moderate ill patients with COVID-19 to prevent hospitalization, reduce severity and mortality from the disease . Combinations of two or more monoclonal antibody increase the effect. Well-designed clinical trials to identify the clinical and biochemical characteristics in COVID-19 patients’ population that could benefit from bamlanivimab are warranted in the future.Funding Statement: None to declare. Declaration of Interests: The authors declared there are no competing interests.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323728

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, novel coronavirus pneumonia-19 (COVID-19) was discovered in the viral pneumonia cases that occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China;and then quickly spread inside and outside of Wuhan and even other countries. This report describes the clinical course of two patients who had COVID-19. Case presentation: The first case was a typical COVID-19 case. A 66-year-old female presented to our hospital with a 3-day history of fever with coughing, white sputum, runny nose and dizziness. She had contacted with a COVID-19 patient, her daughter-in-law who was diagnosed with COVID-19 two days before. Chest CT showed typical COVID-19 CT imaging. She was diagnosed with COVID-19 by positive nucleic acid test. The second case was a 50-year-old male with a 2-day history of fever and dry coughing. He denied having been to Wuhan. Chest CT also showed typical COVID-19 CT imaging. He accepted COVID-19 nucleic acid test using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of his throat swab sampling 7 times and the test results remained controversial. Eventually, he was diagnosed with COVID-19 after 5 days. Conclusions: : Chest CT examination has high sensitivity for diagnosis of COVID-19 clinically, particularly when nucleic acid test is negative. Chest CT should be considered for the COVID-19 screening, comprehensive evaluation and following-up and patients could benefit from effective treatment in time.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323673

ABSTRACT

Background: To explore the kinetic changes in virology, specific antibody response and imaging during the clinical course of COVID-19. Methods: : This observational study enrolled 20 patients with COVID-19, who were hospitalized between January 20-April 6, 2020, in the two COVID-19 designated hospitals of Zhoushan, Zhejiang and Rushan, Shandong, China, The laboratory findings, imaging, serum response to viral infection, and viral RNA level in the throat and stool samples were assessed from onset to recovery phase in patients with COVID-19. Results: : SARS-COV-2 RNA was positive as early as day four. It remained positive until day 55 post-onset in the sputum-throat swabs and became negative in most cases (55%) within 14 days after onset. Lymphocytopenia occurred in 40% (8/20) of patients during the peak infection period and returned to normal at week five. The most severe inflammation in the lungs appeared in week 2 or 3 after onset, and this was completely absorbed between week 6 and 8 in 85.7% of patients. All patients had detectable antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD), and 95% of these patients had IgG to viral N proteins. The antibody titer peaked at week four. Anti-S IgM was positive in 7 of 20 patients after week three. Conclusions: : All COVID-19 patients in this study were self-limiting and recovered well though it may take as long as 6-8 weeks. Our findings on the kinetic changes in imaging, serum response to viral infection and viral RNA level may help understand pathogenesis and define clinical course of COVID-19.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312747

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study investigated the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on lung function in early convalescence phase. Methods: A prospective retrospective study of COVID-19 patients at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were conducted, with serial assessments including lung volumes (TLC), spirometry (FVC, FEV1), lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO),respiratory muscle strength, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) and high resolution CT being collected at 30 days after discharged. Results: 57 patients completed the serial assessments. There were 40 non-severe cases and 17 severe cases. Thirty-one patients (54.3%) had abnormal CT findings. Abnormalities were detected in the pulmonary function tests in 43 (75.4%) of the patients. Six (10.5%), 5(8.7%), 25(43.8%) 7(12.3%), and 30 (52.6%) patients had FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, TLC, and DLCO values less than 80% of predicted values, respectively. 28 (49.1%) and 13 (22.8%) patients had PImax and PEmax values less than 80% of the corresponding predicted values. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients showed higher incidence of DLCO impairment (75.6%vs42.5%, p=0.019), higher lung total severity score(TSS)and R20, and significantly lower percentage of predicted TLC and 6MWD. No significant correlation between TSS and pulmonary function parameters was found during follow-up visit. Conclusion: Impaired diffusing-capacityDeclining DLCO, lower respiratory muscle strength, and lung imaging abnormalities were detected in more than half of the COVID-19 patients in early convalescence phase. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients had a higher incidence of DLCO impairment and encountered more TLC decrease and 6MWD decline.

10.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 80: 103753, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665461

ABSTRACT

Indoor transmission of COVID-19 is highly probable. Multiple sources have verified that the SARS-CoV-2 can be detected within toilets, and people can be infected in restrooms. There is a huge gap in the coronavirus transmission mechanism in restrooms. Understanding it can help to flatten the curve of the infected cases as well as prevent other viruses transmitted through the sewage or human body fluid. Previous studies have shown how simple actions in daily life (coughing, sneezing, or toilet flushing) contribute to virus transmission. This paper visually and quantitatively demonstrates that male urination, which is also a daily action, can agitate virus particles within the toilet and raise them, which may be the main promoter of cross-infection of COVID-19 in restrooms. Adopting numerical and experimental methods, we demonstrate that male urination can cause strong turbulent flow with an averaged urine impinging velocity of 2.3 m/s, which can act as an agitator to raise the virus particles. The climbing velocity of the airflow can be 0.75-1.05 m/s. The observed upwards flow will disturb and spread any lurking virus particles (not limited to SARS-CoV-2). Experiments demonstrated that the concentration of the airborne particle could be tripled during male urination. Corresponding precautions are offered as well to prepare the public to act properly when and after using facilities in restrooms for preventing emerging and re-emerging pandemics not limited to the current COVID-19, contributing to the sustainability of human society.

11.
Pediatrics ; 149(2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: With the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pediatric ambulatory encounter volume and antibiotic prescribing both decreased; however, the durability of these reductions in pediatric primary care in the United States has not been assessed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures on antibiotic prescribing in 27 pediatric primary care practices. Encounters from January 1, 2018, through June 30, 2021, were included. The primary outcome was monthly antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 patients. Interrupted time series analysis was performed. RESULTS: There were 69 327 total antibiotic prescriptions from April through December in 2019 and 18 935 antibiotic prescriptions during the same months in 2020, a 72.7% reduction. The reduction in prescriptions at visits for respiratory tract infection (RTI) accounted for 87.3% of this decrease. Using interrupted time series analysis, overall antibiotic prescriptions decreased from 31.6 to 6.4 prescriptions per 1000 patients in April 2020 (difference of -25.2 prescriptions per 1000 patients; 95% CI: -32.9 to -17.5). This was followed by a nonsignificant monthly increase in antibiotic prescriptions, with prescribing beginning to rebound from April to June 2021. Encounter volume also immediately decreased, and while overall encounter volume quickly started to recover, RTI encounter volume returned more slowly. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in antibiotic prescribing in pediatric primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic were sustained, only beginning to rise in 2021, primarily driven by reductions in RTI encounters. Reductions in viral RTI transmission likely played a substantial role in reduced RTI visits and antibiotic prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care , Child , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Pandemics , Pediatrics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1897267, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575983

ABSTRACT

During the spring semester of 2020, medical school anatomists in China were forced by the COVID-19 pandemic to transition from face-to-face educators or part-time online educators to full-time online educators. This nationwide survey was conducted to assess online anatomy education during the pandemic for medical students from nonclinical medicine and clinical medicine majors at medical schools in China via WeChat. The total of 356 responders included 293 responders from clinical medicine and 63 respondents from nonclinical medicine majors (i.e., 21 from preventive medicine, 13 from stomatology, and 29 from traditional Chinese medicine). The survey results showed that several aspects of online anatomy education were quite similar in clinical and nonclinical majors' classes, including theoretical and practical sessions, active learning, assessments and evaluations. However, there were statistically significant differences in class size, implementation of active learning activities prior to the pandemic, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of online learning during the pandemic, between clinical and nonclinical medicine majors. These results indicated that, compared with teachers of anatomy courses in clinical medicine, teachers of nonclinical medicine majors using online learning in medical schools in China had relatively poor preparation for online learning in response to the unforeseen pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Pandemics , China , Education, Distance , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-9, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the cumulative seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among employees of a large pediatric healthcare system. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational cohort study open to adult employees at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, conducted April 20-December 17, 2020. METHODS: Employees were recruited starting with high-risk exposure groups, utilizing e-mails, flyers, and announcements at virtual town hall meetings. At baseline, 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months, participants reported occupational and community exposures and gave a blood sample for SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A post hoc Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to identify factors associated with increased risk for seropositivity. RESULTS: In total, 1,740 employees were enrolled. At 6 months, the cumulative seroprevalence was 5.3%, which was below estimated community point seroprevalence. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among employees who provided direct care and was 3.4% among employees who did not perform direct patient care. Most participants who were seropositive at baseline remained positive at follow-up assessments. In a post hoc analysis, direct patient care (hazard ratio [HR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.68), Black race (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.24-5.87), and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting (HR, 4.32; 95% CI, 2.71-6.88) were associated with statistically significant increased risk for seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: Employee SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rates remained below the point-prevalence rates of the surrounding community. Provision of direct patient care, Black race, and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting conferred increased risk. These data can inform occupational protection measures to maximize protection of employees within the workplace during future COVID-19 waves or other epidemics.

15.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S97-S98, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564076

ABSTRACT

Background With the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pediatric primary care delivery changed rapidly. Prior studies have demonstrated a reduction in ambulatory encounters and antibiotic prescriptions with the pandemic onset;however, the durability of these reductions in pediatric primary care in the United States has not been assessed. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures (e.g. social distancing, masking, school closures, and increased availability of telemedicine) on antibiotic prescribing and encounter volume in 27 pediatric primary care practices, and the duration of these changes. Patients under age 19 with an encounter from January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2020 were included. The primary outcome was monthly antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 patients, in the overall population and a subset of encounters with infectious diagnoses, including respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis was performed. Results There were 60,562 total antibiotic prescriptions from April to December in 2019 and 14,605 antibiotic prescriptions during the same months in 2020, a 76% reduction. The reduction in RTI encounter prescriptions accounted for 91.5% of the overall reduction in prescriptions from 2019 to 2020. Using ITS analysis, there was an immediate decrease from 31.6 to 7.4 prescriptions/1000 patients (predicted means) in April 2020 (-24.2 prescriptions/1000 patients;95% CI: -31.9, -16.4) (Figures 1 and 2). This was followed by a stable rate of antibiotic prescriptions that remained flat through December 2020. For RTI encounters, a similar pattern was seen, with a decrease by 21.8 prescriptions/1000 patients;95% CI: -29.5, -14.2) (Figures 1 and 2). Encounter volume also decreased immediately, and while overall encounter volume began returning to a pre-pandemic baseline volume toward the end of the study period, RTI encounter volume remained persistently lower through December 2020 (Figure 3). Figure 1. Antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 patients prescribed by month from January 2018 to December 2020, overall and for disease-specific subgroups RTI = respiratory tract infection;UTI = urinary tract infection;SSTI = skin and soft tissue infection. Months are numbered sequentially, starting with January (number 1). Dashed line indicates first full month of the pandemic, April 2020. Interrupted time series analysis for antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 patients by month from January 2018 to December 2020 for (A) all antibiotics as well as antibiotics prescribed at encounters with (B) respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (C) urinary tract infections (UTIs), and (D) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) Intervention starts in April 2020 (dashed line). Months are numbered sequentially, starting with January (number 1). Dashed line indicates first full month of the pandemic, April 2020. Antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 billed encounters by month from January 2018 to December 2020 for (A) all encounters, as well as antibiotics prescribed at encounters with (B) respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (C) urinary tract infections (UTIs), and (D) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) Months are numbered sequentially, starting with January (number 1). Conclusion Dramatic reductions in antibiotic prescribing in pediatric primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic were sustained through 2020, primarily driven by reductions in RTI encounters. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 810: 152290, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560713

ABSTRACT

Household and personal care products (HPCPs) are a kind of contaminants closely related to daily life, capturing worldwide concern. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt focusing on the spatiotemporal occurrence and mixture risk of HPCPs in the waters from rivers to Laizhou Bay. Nine HPCPs were quantitated in 216 water samples gathered from Laizhou Bay and its adjacent rivers in 2018, 2019, and 2021 to reveal the spatiotemporal occurrence and mixture ecological risks in Laizhou Bay. Eight HPCPs were detected with detection frequencies ranging from 74% to 100%. The total concentrations were in the ranges 105-721 ng L-1 in river water and 51.3-332 ng L-1 in seawater. The HPCPs were dominated by p-hydroxybenzoic and triclosan, which together contributed over 75% of the total HPCPs. The average level of the total HPCP concentration in the summer of 2018 (96.1 ng L-1) was slightly exceed that in the spring of 2019 (91.6 ng L-1), which is associated with the higher usage of HPCPs and enhanced tourism during summer. However, the highest total concentrations were found in spring of 2021 (124 ng L-1 in average), which was attribute to a higher level of methylparaben, a predominant paraben used as preservatives in commercial pharmaceuticals of China. Influenced by riverine inputs and ocean currents, higher HPCP concentrations in Laizhou Bay were found nearby the estuary of Yellow River and the southern part of the bay. Triclosan should be given constant concern considering its medium to high risks (RQ > 0.1) in nearly 80% of the water samples. The cumulative risk assessment in two approaches revealed that HPCP mixtures generally elicit medium or high risk to three main aquatic taxa. Considering the worldwide outbreak of COVID-19, the levels and risks of multiple HPCPs in natural waters requires constant attention in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cosmetics , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Bays , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Risk Assessment , Rivers , SARS-CoV-2 , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294822

ABSTRACT

Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive disease with characteristic clinical features of primary microcephaly, growth deficiency, skin lesions, cancer predisposition, and immunodeficiency. Here, we report the clinical and molecular findings of eight patients from six families diagnosed with BS. We identified causative mutations in all families, three different homozygous mutations in BLM and one causative homozygous mutation in RMI1 . The homozygous c.581_582delTT (p.Phe194*) and c.3164G>C (p.Cys1055Ser) mutations in BLM have already been reported in BS patients, while the c.572_573delGA (p.Arg191Lysfs*4) is novel. Interestingly, whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in RMI1 in two BS patients of a consanguineous Turkish family. All BS patients had primary microcephaly, intrauterine growth delay, and short stature, presenting the phenotypic hallmarks of BS. However, a narrow face, skin lesions, and upper airway infections were observed only in some of the patients. Overall, patients with homozygous BLM mutations had a more severe BS phenotype compared to patients carrying the homozygous RMI1 mutation, especially in terms of immunodeficiency and associated recurrent infections. Low-level immunoglobulins were observed in all BLM -mutated patients, emphasizing the immunodeficiency profile of the disease, which should be considered as an important phenotypic characteristic of BS, especially in the current Covid-19 pandemic era.

18.
Nano Converg ; 8(1): 31, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477472

ABSTRACT

It is highly important to sensitively measure the abundance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on various surfaces. Here, we present a nucleic acid-based detection method consisting of a new sample preparation protocol that isolates only viruses, not the free RNA fragments already present on the surfaces of indoor human-inhabited environments, using a graphene oxide-coated microbead filter. Wet wipes (100 cm2), not cotton swabs, were used to collect viruses from environmental surfaces with large areas, and viruses were concentrated and separated with a graphene oxide-coated microbead filter. Viral RNA from virus was recovered 88.10 ± 8.03% from the surface and free RNA fragment was removed by 99.75 ± 0.19% from the final eluted solution. When we tested the developed method under laboratory conditions, a 10-fold higher viral detection sensitivity (Detection limit: 1 pfu/100 cm2) than the current commercial protocol was observed. Using our new sample preparation protocol, we also confirmed that the virus was effectively removed from surfaces after chemical disinfection; we were unable to measure the disinfection efficiency using the current commercial protocol because it cannot distinguish between viral RNA and free RNA fragments. Finally, we investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and bacteria in 12 individual negative pressure wards in which patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection had been hospitalized. Bacteria (based on 16 S DNA) were found in all samples collected from patient rooms; however, SARS-CoV-2 was mainly detected in rooms shared by two patients.

19.
Geohealth ; 5(9): e2021GH000450, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467050

ABSTRACT

Previous research has noted that many factors greatly influence the spread of COVID-19. Contrary to explicit factors that are measurable, such as population density, number of medical staff, and the daily test rate, many factors are not directly observable, for instance, culture differences and attitudes toward the disease, which may introduce unobserved heterogeneity. Most contemporary COVID-19 related research has focused on modeling the relationship between explicitly measurable factors and the response variable of interest (such as the infection rate or the death rate). The infection rate is a commonly used metric for evaluating disease progression and a state's mitigation efforts. Because unobservable sources of heterogeneity cannot be measured directly, it is hard to incorporate them into the quantitative assessment and decision-making process. In this study, we propose new metrics to study a state's performance by adjusting the measurable county-level covariates and unobservable state-level heterogeneity through random effects. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) is postulated, and we calculate two model-based metrics-the standardized infection ratio (SDIR) and the adjusted infection rate (AIR). This analysis highlights certain time periods when the infection rate for a state was high while their SDIR was low and vice versa. We show that trends in these metrics can give insight into certain aspects of a state's performance. As each state continues to develop their individualized COVID-19 mitigation strategy and ultimately works to improve their performance, the SDIR and AIR may help supplement the crude infection rate metric to provide a more thorough understanding of a state's performance.

20.
Sleep Med ; 91: 262-272, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the prevention/control measures for COVID-19 may cause insomnia during the acute phase of COVID-19 pandemic in China. However, it is unclear whether insomnia sustains during the later phases of the pandemic. METHODS: We searched PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from the 27th December 2019 to the 2nd February 2021. As early stage studies on COVID-19 pandemic in China were defined as those conducted prior to April 1st, 2020, while late stage studies were those conducted after April 1st, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 98 studies with 193,889 participants were included. The pooled prevalence of insomnia symptoms among all populations was 39.1% (95% CI 36.2-42.0%); the pooled prevalence of insomnia symptoms during the early and late stages of COVID-19 in China were 37.0% (95% CI 34.1-39.9%) and 41.8% (95% CI 33.6-50.0%), respectively. Importantly, there was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of insomnia symptoms between the early and late stages of COVID-19. Meta-regression showed that healthcare workers, COVID-19 patients, patients with chronic medical conditions and patients with mental disorders had a higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms compared to the general population. This association remained significant in healthcare workers and patients with chronic medical conditions after adjusting for age, gender, areas of high or low prevalence of COVID-19 cases, anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Over one third of our sample present insomnia symptoms during the early stage of COVID-19 pandemic in China. Interestingly, prevalence of insomnia symptoms sustains high during the late stage of the pandemic despite the control of the disease and the amelioration of its adverse effects. Our findings suggest that insomnia symptoms related to COVID-19 appear to persist of over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
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