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1.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10631, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2006181

ABSTRACT

Background: As the population ages, cognitive impairment and dementia have become one of the greatest health threats in older adults. Prior studies suggest that exergaming could improve cognitive function in older adults. To date, few long-term exergames intervention studies on older adults during the COVID-19 epidemic exist. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exergame on cognitive function in Chinese older adults, and to examine whether exergame was more effective than aerobic dancing for executive function and working memory. Methods: 55 participants (mean age = 65.4 ±3.7 years) were randomly assigned to an exergame training (ET) group, an aerobic dancing training (ADT) group, or a control (CON) group. The ET and ADT groups received 36 sessions (three 75-min training sessions per week, exercise intensity = 65 to 75% HRmax) during a 12-week period. The outcome measures for cognitive function included working memory measured by the N-back test, and executive function measured by the Stroop test. Results: The ET group showed a significantly positive effect in working memory, relative to the ADT (accuracy in 1-back test: ES = 0.76, p < 0.01), and CON group (accuracy in 1-back test: ES = 0.87, p = 0.02). Moreover, the performance in the Stroop test showed some improvements in executive function after intervention in the ET and ADT groups (Stroop intervention effect: ES = 0.38;p = 0.25). Conclusions: Exergame had a positive benefit in improving cognitive functions in older adults without cognitive impairment. Long-term exergame training could improve working memory in older adults. Exergame and aerobic dancing can efficiently improve inhibitory control of executive function in older adults. Maintaining an active lifestyle is protective of cognitive health in older adults.

2.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; : 129868, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004220

ABSTRACT

Rapid and accurate discrimination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an available approach to implement a rapid diagnosis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we fully exploited the cleavage properties of exonuclease III (Exo III) and hairpin DNA-assisted target cycling technology to generate bulk single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that was employed to facilitate the constitution of a three-way junction structure on polymetallic particle (Ag-Au NPs) and Ti3C2 (Ti3C2@Ag-Au) complexes. Ag-Au NPs presented favorable stability without adding extra stabilizers, demonstrating the potential value of Ag-Au NPs as an alternative to Au NPs in the field of bioanalysis. Uppon the three-way junction structure, the dumbbell hybridization chain amplification (DHCA) was occurred which generated DNA nanostructure with tight conformation. Target cycling and DHCA reactions improved the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal, which dramatically advanced the assay sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 (0.59 fM). Moreover, our strategy remained to demonstrate favorable specificity and repeatability in environmental conditions and real human serum samples.

3.
Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja ; : 1-22, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1978083
4.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; PP2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961423

ABSTRACT

Currently, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still endangering world health and safety and deep learning (DL) is expected to be the most powerful method for efficient detection of COVID-19. However, patients' privacy concerns prohibit data sharing between medical institutions, leading to unexpected performance of deep neural network (DNN) models. Fortunately, federated learning (FL), as a novel paradigm, allows participating clients to collaboratively train models without exposing source data outside original location. Nevertheless, the current FL-based COVID-19 detection methods prefer optimizing secondary objectives including delay, energy consumption and privacy, while few works focus on improving the model accuracy and stability. In this paper, we propose a federated learning framework with dynamic focus for COVID-19 detection on CXR images, named FedFocus. Specifically, to improve the training efficiency and accuracy, the training loss of each model is taken as the basis for parameter aggregation weights. As training layer deepens, a constantly updated dynamic factor is designed to stabilize the aggregation process. In addition, to highly restore the real dataset, the training sets in our experiments are divided based on the population and the infection of three real cities. Extensive experiments conducted on the real-world CXR images dataset demonstrate that FedFocus outperforms the baselines in model training efficiency, accuracy and stability.

5.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the characteristics of trends in physical fitness and nutritional status among school-aged students during the COVID-19 pandemic, which could help to develop targeted guidelines and policies for students (adolescents) to promote health during lockdowns resulting from public health emergencies. METHODS: The physical fitness and nutritional status were measured from 2019 to 2021; the correlation between years and grade were analyzed. RESULTS: a declining trend was found in aerobic fitness, strength fitness, speed fitness, and BMI during this lockdown. CONCLUSION: The changes in dietary behavior and the decrease in outdoor physical activities may be the reason for the decline. Furthermore, differences in subjects' growth and limited space at home must be considered in the formulation of exercise and nutritional plans. According to the results of our study, exercise for aerobic fitness should receive more attention when students are enduring a pandemic lockdown. In addition, saying "no" to high-calorie foods in the form of snacking and ultra-processed food was the key to improving subjects' nutritional status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nutritional Status , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Promotion , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Fitness
6.
Sustainability ; 14(11):6529, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1892964

ABSTRACT

The convergence of physical stores and e-commerce has led to the emergence of a new retail business mode in the retail industry. In today’s world, new retail supply chains face the potential risks of disruption caused by natural and man-made disasters, and epidemics. In this paper, we simulate a three-stage new retail supply chain consisting of suppliers, manufacturers, and a retailer with online and offline channels in the AnyLogistix simulation and optimization software. We develop a simulation model to analyze the effects of various supply chain node disruptions on new retail supply chain performance and service level with consideration of four scenarios: disruption-free;manufacturer disruption;warehouse center disruption;offline store disruption. The main results show that supply chain node disruptions have negative impacts on the performance and service level. Besides, the warehouse center disruption has the most devastating effect on this new retail supply chain. Overall, this paper provides insights for decision-makers to consider disruption issues when designing resilient new retail supply chains.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most studies on health disparities during COVID-19 pandemic focused on reported cases and deaths, which are influenced by testing availability and access to care. This study aimed to examine SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in the U.S. and its associations with race/ethnicity, rurality, and social vulnerability over time. METHODS: This repeated cross-sectional study used data from blood donations in 50 states and Washington, D.C. from July 2020 through June 2021. Donor ZIP codes were matched to counties and linked with Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) and urban-rural classification. SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalences induced by infection and infection-vaccination combined were estimated. Association of infection-induced seropositivity with demographics, rurality, SVI, and its four themes were quantified using multivariate regression models. FINDINGS: Weighted seroprevalence differed significantly by race/ethnicity and rurality, and increased with increasing social vulnerability. During the study period, infection-induced seroprevalence increased from 1.6% to 27.2% and 3.7% to 20.0% in rural and urban counties, respectively, while rural counties had lower combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence (80.0% vs. 88.1%) in June 2021. Infection-induced seropositivity was associated with being Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and living in rural or higher socially vulnerable counties, after adjusting for demographic and geographic covariates. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrated increasing SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the U.S. across all geographic, demographic, and social sectors. The study illustrated disparities by race-ethnicity, rurality, and social vulnerability. The findings identified areas for targeted vaccination strategies and can inform efforts to reduce inequities and prepare for future outbreaks.

8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 884433, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862609

ABSTRACT

The development of an effective multivalent vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants is an important means to improve the global public health situation caused by COVID-19. In this study, we identified the antigen epitopes of the main global epidemic SARS-CoV-2 and mutated virus strains using immunoinformatics approach, and screened out 8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes (CTLEs), 17 helper T lymphocyte epitopes (HTLEs), 9 linear B-cell epitopes (LBEs) and 4 conformational B-cell epitopes (CBEs). The global population coverage of CTLEs and HTLEs was 93.16% and 99.9% respectively. These epitopes were spliced together by corresponding linkers and recombined into multivalent vaccine. In silico tests, the vaccine protein was a non-allergen and the docking with TLR-3 molecule showed a strong interaction. The results of immune simulation showed that the vaccine may be helpful to initiate both cellular and humoral immunity against all VOC. The optimistic immunogenicity of the vaccine was confirmed in vivo and in vitro finally. Therefore, our vaccine may have potential protection against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Combined
9.
Applied Sciences ; 12(8):3919, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809670

ABSTRACT

This paper is concerned with stable trading between the coal mining and power generation companies in China. Under the current marketized coal and planned electricity price systems, barriers to price shifting between coal and electricity are created and conflicts between the two sectors are aggravated. The stable trading matching between coal mining and power generation companies is not only an effective means to resolve the conflict in the coal trading market, but also a ballast stone for price stabilization and supply guarantees in coal trading. Based on the two-sided matching theory, this paper starts from the micro market preference and matching willingness of coal mining and power generation companies, puts forward the conceptual framework of the pairwise stable matching of both sides, innovates a mechanism for trading between coal mining and power generation companies, and designs a stable trading matching algorithm. The algorithm has certain theoretical innovation significance from the matching problem of non-separable commodities to that of separable commodities considering the trading volume between coal mining and power generation companies. Furthermore, it is a complement and perfection of the existing coal–power trading platform in its transaction mechanism and trading function. The results reveal that the trading relations between coal mining and power generation companies under the stable matching mechanism are resistant to disintegration and that the pairwise stable matching result is sensitive.

10.
RSC advances ; 12(10):6093-6098, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787361

ABSTRACT

Copper alloys are known for their high antimicrobial efficacy. Retrofitting high-touch surfaces in public space with solid copper components is expensive and often impractical. Directly coating copper onto these high-touch surfaces can be achieved with hot or cold spray, but the procedure is complicated and requires special equipment. This article reports on the development of sprayable copper and copper–zinc nanowire inks for antiviral surface coating applications. Our results show that copper nanowires inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus faster than bulk copper. And a trace amount of zinc addition has a significant effect in enhancing the virucidal effect. More importantly, these nanowire inks are sprayable. They can be easily applied on high-touch surfaces with a spray can. When combined with common chemical disinfectants, the copper-based nanowire ink spray may prolong the disinfecting effect well after application. SEM and TEM images of copper and copper–zinc nanowires that are sprayable for antiviral surface coating.

11.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 22(2): 83-94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725177

ABSTRACT

As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) has been widely used for treating infectious diseases of the respiratory tract such as encephalitis, pneumonia, and asthma. During the past few decades, considerable research has focused on pharmacological action, pharmacokinetic interaction with antibiotics, and clinical applications of SHL. A huge and more recent body of pharmacokinetic studies support the combination of SHL and antibiotics have different effects such as antagonism and synergism. SHL has been one of the best-selling TCM products. However, there is no systematic review of SHL preparations, ranging from protection against respiratory tract infections to interaction with antibiotics. Since their important significance in clinical therapy, the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and interactions with antibiotics of SHL were reviewed and discussed. In addition, this review attempts to explore the possible potential mechanism of SHL preparations in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. We are concerned about the effects of SHL against viruses and bacteria, as well as its interactions with antibiotics in an attempt to provide a new strategy for expanding the clinical research and medication of SHL preparations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Virtual Real ; 26(1): 279-294, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702653

ABSTRACT

Real chemical experiments may be dangerous or pollute the environment; meanwhile, the preparation of drugs and reagents is time-consuming. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, few experiments can be actually operated by students, which is not conducive to the chemistry learning and the phenomena principle understanding. Recently, due to the impact of Covid-19, many schools adopt online teaching, which is even more detrimental to students' learning of chemistry. Fortunately, MR(mixed reality) technology provides us with the possibility of solving the safety issues and breaking the space-time constraints, while the theory of human needs (Maslow's hierarchical needs) provides us with a way to design a comfortable and stimulant MR system with realistic visual presentation and interaction. The paper combines with the theory of human needs to propose a new needs model for virtual experiment. Based on this needs model, we design and develop a comprehensive MR system called MagicChem, which offers a robust 6-DoF interactive and illumination consistent experimental space with virtual-real occlusion, supporting realistic visual interaction, tangible interaction, gesture interaction with touching, voice interaction, temperature interaction, olfactory interaction and virtual human interaction. User study shows that MagicChem satisfies the needs model better than other MR experimental environments that partially meet the needs model. In addition, we explore the application of the needs model in VR environment. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10055-021-00560-z.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321465

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies showed that the effect of antivirals for COVID-19 was promising but varied across patient population, and was modest among severe cases. Chinese Medicine (CM) was extensively used and reported effective in China, awaiting further evidence support. We aimed to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of add-on semi-individualized.Methods: A retrospective total sampling cohort of 1788 adult confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited from all 2235 consecutive records retrieved from 5 hospitals in Wuhan during15 January to 13 March 2020. Consultation notes, laboratory/imaging investigations, pharmacy and prognosis records were linked by an electronic medical record system and verified by at least 2 researchers independently. The mortality of add-on semi-individualized CM users and non-users was compared by weighted hazard ratios of multivariable Cox regression and by propensity score matching. Change of biomarkers was compared between groups and the frequency of CMs used was analysed. Subgroup analysis was performed to stratify disease severity and dose of CM exposure. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness.Findings: The crude mortality was 3.8% in the semi-individualized CM user group and 17.0% among the non-users. Add-on CM was associated with a significant mortality reduction of 58% (HR=0.42, 95%CI: 0.23 to 0.77, p=0.005) and 66% (HR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.15 to 0.76, p=0.009) among all and severe/critical COVID-19 cases with dose-dependent response, after inversely weighted with propensity score calculated by age, gender, history of hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease and disease severity. The result was robust in various stratified, weighted, matched, adjusted and sensitivity analyses. Severe/critical patients received add-on CM had a trend of stabilized D-dimer level after 3-7 days of admission compared to baseline.Interpretation: Add-on semi-individualized CM was associated with reduced mortality demonstrating dose-dependent response, especially among severe/critical COVID-19 patients. Chinese medicine could be considered as an add-on regimen for trial use.Funding Statement: This work is partially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (2017YFC1703506 and 2020YFC0841600). Declaration of Interests: No financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years;no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the ethics review board of Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (HBZY2020-C01-01). Written consent was waived due to the retrospective nature.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315331

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we describe our system for the AAAI 2021 shared task of COVID-19 Fake News Detection in English, where we achieved the 3rd position with the weighted F1 score of 0.9859 on the test set. Specifically, we proposed an ensemble method of different pre-trained language models such as BERT, Roberta, Ernie, etc. with various training strategies including warm-up,learning rate schedule and k-fold cross-validation. We also conduct an extensive analysis of the samples that are not correctly classified. The code is available at:https://github.com/archersama/3rd-solution-COVID19-Fake-News-Detection-in-English.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312665

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has caused mortality and morbidity worldwide. Oropharyngeal-swab (OP-swab) sampling is widely used for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in the world. To avoid the clinical staff from being affected by the virus, we developed a 9-degree-of-freedom (DOF) rigid-flexible coupling (RFC) robot to assist the COVID-19 OP-swab sampling. This robot is composed of a visual system, UR5 robot arm, micro-pneumatic actuator and force-sensing system. The robot is expected to reduce risk and free up the clinical staff from the long-term repetitive sampling work. Compared with a rigid sampling robot, the developed force-sensing RFC robot can facilitate OP-swab sampling procedures in a safer and softer way. In addition, a varying-parameter zeroing neural network-based optimization method is also proposed for motion planning of the 9-DOF redundant manipulator. The developed robot system is validated by OP-swab sampling on both oral cavity phantoms and volunteers.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310364

ABSTRACT

Background: To review the clinical characteristics of patients with mild cases of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia admitted to shelter hospitals and to investigate the management patterns of shelter hospitals. Methods: : We collected and analyzed the case data of 931 patients of their general conditions, main clinical presentations, outcomes, laboratory results, imaging. Results: : The average age of patients with mild cases of COVID-19 was (46.68 ± 12.13) years. There was no significant difference in incidence between males and females. The most common clinical presentations were fever (60.79%), cough (47.37%), myalgia and fatigue (17.40%), sore throat (13.86%), sputum (13.86%), diarrhea (9.98%), chest distress and dyspnea (8.38%), nasal congestion (6.02%), and runny nose (5.69%), while 10.10% were asymptomatic. In addition, anxiety and insomnia were present in 12.13% of cases. COVID-19 clinical type: mild, 248 cases (26.64%);moderate, 683 cases (73.36%). Blood biochemical examination showed that some patients exhibited WBC count (26.32%) lower to normal. Most patients tested positive for novel coronavirus nucleic acid (55.45%), while 44.55% tested negative. The rate of positive chest computed tomography (CT )examination findings was 94.36%. The most common change were ground-glass opacities (48.70%) and multiple patchy opacities (44.58%). Moreover, 65 patients (6.98%) were transferred to designated hospital, primarily due to exacerbation of novel coronavirus pneumonia (32 cases, 49.2%). Conclusions: : COVID-19 patients in shelter hospitals were in a relatively mild overall condition and were predominantly of the moderate clinical type. Attention should be paid to asymptomatic positive patients and patients without respiratory symptoms. CT is still the main patient screening method. Shelter hospitals can carry the burden of epidemic prevention and treatment of patients with mild cases of COVID-19.

17.
Tourism Review of AIEST - International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism ; 77(1):146-162, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1642519

ABSTRACT

PurposeSome researchers have found that disasters may have a “blessing in disguise effect” that some disaster sites transformed into more popular tourism destinations;however, no studies have analyzed the heterogeneity of the “blessing in disguise effect”. This paper aims to explore and determine the effect of cultural distance on international inbound tourist arrivals to a post-disaster tourist destination that could explain this heterogeneous phenomenon.Design/methodology/approachThis study used a threshold regression model and a differences-in-differences (DID) approach to analyze 2000–2016 international tourist arrival data from 13 main origin countries to Sichuan Province before and after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China.FindingsThe effect of cultural distance on post-disaster inbound arrivals from the various origin countries followed a non-linear U-shaped “double-edged sword” pattern rather than displaying a simple linear relationship. Most notably, the disaster appeared to have a more positive effect on arrivals from countries with larger cultural distances, while the effect on arrivals from countries with shorter cultural distances was negative.Originality/valueThis study found that cultural distance could explain the heterogeneous “blessing in disguise” phenomenon, and it had both positive and negative impacts on tourism destination recovery;that is, a definite “double-edged sword effect” of cultural distance was found, which could help destination marketing organizations and management departments to design appropriately targeted marketing for post-disaster tourism destination recovery.

18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 767617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595348

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has greatly disrupted the normal treatment of patients with liver cancer and increased their risk of death. The weight of therapeutic safety was significantly amplified for decision-making to minimize the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Herein, the safety and effectiveness of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for unresectable liver cancer (ULC) were evaluated, and Chinese experiences were shared to solve the predicament of ULC treatment caused by SARS-CoV-2. Worldwide studies were collected to evaluate CIRT for ULC as the world has become a community due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We not only searched five international databases including the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, and Scopus but also performed supplementary retrieval with other sources. Chinese experiences of fighting against COVID-19 were introduced based on the advancements of CIRT in China and a prospective clinical trial of CIRT for treating ULC. A total of 19 studies involving 813 patients with ULC were included in the systematic review. The qualitative synthetic evaluation showed that compared with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), CIRT could achieve superior overall survival, local control, and relative hepatic protection. The systematic results indicated that non-invasive CIRT could significantly minimize harms to patients with ULC and concurrently obtain superior anti-cancer effectiveness. According to the Chinese experience, CIRT allows telemedicine within the hospital (TMIH) to keep a sufficient person-to-person physical distance in the whole process of treatment for ULC, which is significant for cutting off the transmission route of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, CIRT could maximize the utilization rate of hospitalization and outpatient care (UHO). Collectively, CIRT for ULC patients not only allows TMIH and the maximized UHO but also has the compatible advantages of safety and effectiveness. Therefore, CIRT should be identified as the optimal strategy for treating appropriate ULC when we need to minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to improve the capacity of medical service in the context of the unprecedented COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Heavy Ion Radiotherapy , Liver Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/radiotherapy , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295303

ABSTRACT

Background: Most studies on health disparities during COVID-19 pandemic focused on reported cases and deaths and were limited in capturing disparities in true infection rates or the impact of social determinants of health. This nationwide study aimed to examine SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) antibody seroprevalence in the U.S. and its associations with rurality and social vulnerability over time.<br><br>Methods: This repeated cross-sectional study used data from blood donations made July 2020 - June 2021 in 50 states and Washington, D.C. Donor ZIP codes were matched to counties and linked with Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) and urban-rural classification. SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalences induced by infection and infection-vaccination combined were estimated. Association of infection-induced seropositivity with demographics, rurality, SVI, and its four themes were quantified using stratified analyses and multivariate regression models.<br><br>Findings: Weighted seroprevalence differed significantly by race/ethnicity, age, rurality, and social vulnerability with distinct temporal trends. From July 2020 to June 2021, infection-induced seroprevalence increased from 1.6% to 27.2% in rural counties and from 3.7% to 20.0% in urban counties. However, in June 2021, the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence in rural counties was lower (80.0% vs. 88.1%). Adjusting for covariates, higher infection-induced seropositivity was associated with being Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black, younger, and living in rural or higher socially vulnerable counties.<br><br>Interpretation: The findings demonstrated continuously increasing SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the U.S. across all geographic, demographic, and social sectors. Infection-induced seroprevalence rates were consistently higher among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black donors, and those from rural or socially vulnerable counties. Vaccine-induced seroprevalence was lower in rural counties than urban counties. The findings illustrated disparities in SARS-CoV-2 infections in the U.S. independent of case-based surveillance and testing availability, identified areas for targeted vaccination strategies, and can inform efforts to reduce inequities and prepare for future outbreaks.<br><br>Funding Information: This analysis did not have external funding sources<br><br>Declaration of Interests: All coauthors declare no conflict of interests. <br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by CDC as non-research public health surveillance based on anonymization of data and routine consent for blood donation testing that includes use of residual samples for research purposes. The study does not require human-subject research review nor clearance by the Office of Management and Budget and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy.<br><br>

20.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews ; : 111825, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1521509

ABSTRACT

A large proportion of carbon emissions emitted by human activities is from the household sector. Efforts to control such carbon emissions need a timely accounting. We attempt to establish a rapid accounting China Carbon Watch (CCW) system, through which we use an alternative solution for accounting household carbon emissions in China by applying monthly nighttime light (NTL) data. The compiled carbon emission accounting method is considered as timely with high accuracy by employing a 1-km grid dataset built from point-emission sources. The heterogeneities of carbon emissions in both urban and rural sectors are presented. Furthermore, this research calculates monthly data of urban and rural household carbon emissions at the provincial level from January to May 2020. Results show that the overall household carbon emissions slightly increased during the COVID-19 forced confinement due to the closure of international borders and the confinement of urbanists with significant heterogeneity between provinces.

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