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1.
International Journal of Production Research ; 61(14):4934-4950, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244424

ABSTRACT

Because of the Covid-19 pandemic, urgent surging demand for healthcare products such as personal protective equipment (PPE) has caused significant challenges for multi-tier supply chain management. Although a given firm may predominantly focus on an arms-length solution by targeting the first-tier supplier, the firm can still struggle with extended multi-tier suppliers it cannot choose which use unsustainable practices. One key goal is compliance across various dimensions with production, environmental and labour standards across the multi-tier supply chain, a goal that blockchain technology can be applied to manage. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this research develops a system architecture of blockchain-based multi-tier sustainable supply chain management in the PPE industry designed to identify and coordinate standards in production and social and environmental sustainability in multi-tier PPE supply chains. The architecture was validated by theoretical basis, expert opinions and technical solutions. We conclude with managerial implications for implementing blockchain technology to advance sustainable multi-tier supply chain practices.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 336: 106-111, 2023 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression is common among myocardial infarction (MI) survivors and is strongly associated with poor quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence, correlates and the network structure of depression, and its association with QOL in MI survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated depression and QOL in MI survivors with the Chinese version of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. Univariable analyses, multivariable analyses, and network analyses were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 total score ≥ 5) among 565 MI survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic was 38.1 % (95 % CI: 34.1-42.1 %), which was significantly associated with poor QOL. Patients with depression were less likely to consult a doctor regularly after discharge, and more likely to experience more severe anxiety symptoms and fatigue. Item PHQ4 "Fatigue" was the most central symptom in the network, followed by PHQ6 "Guilt" and PHQ2 "Sad mood". The flow network showed that PHQ4 "Fatigue" had the highest negative association with QOL. CONCLUSION: Depression was prevalent among MI survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic and was significantly associated with poor QOL. Those who failed to consult a doctor regularly after discharge or reported severe anxiety symptoms and fatigue should be screened for depression. Effective interventions for MI survivors targeting central symptoms, especially fatigue, are needed to reduce the negative impact of depression and improve QOL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Quality of Life , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Survivors
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1085456, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327391

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to clarify the effects of two processed forms of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on immunosuppression caused by cyclophosphamide (CTX) in mice. In the CTX-induced immunosuppressive model, mice were given either steamed American ginseng (American ginseng red, AGR) or raw American ginseng (American ginseng soft branch, AGS) by intragastric administration. Serum and spleen tissues were collected, and the pathological changes in mice spleens were observed by conventional HE staining. The expression levels of cytokines were detected by ELISA, and the apoptosis of splenic cells was determined by western blotting. The results showed that AGR and AGS could relieve CTX-induced immunosuppression through the enhanced immune organ index, improved cell-mediated immune response, increased serum levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2) and immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), as well as macrophage activities including carbon clearance and phagocytic index. AGR and AGS downregulated the expression of BAX and elevated the expression of Bcl-2, p-P38, p-JNK, and p-ERK in the spleens of CTX-injected animals. Compared to AGS, AGR significantly improved the number of CD4+CD8-T lymphocytes, the spleen index, and serum levels of IgA, IgG, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. The expression of the ERK/MAPK pathway was markedly increased. These findings support the hypothesis that AGR and AGS are effective immunomodulatory agents capable of preventing immune system hypofunction. Future research may investigate the exact mechanism to rule out any unforeseen effects of AGR and AGS.


Subject(s)
Panax , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Mice , Animals , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Immunosuppression Therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages , Immunoglobulin G/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Immunoglobulin A/pharmacology
4.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 261(5): 1381-1389, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323659

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) in the patients treated with intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IDI). METHOD: Twenty-one eyes of 11 AIR patients treated with at least 1 injection of IDI were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes before and after treatment, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optic coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), full-field electroretinography (ff-ERG), and visual field (VF) at last visit within 6 and/or 12 months, were recorded. RESULTS: Among all the patients, 3 had cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) and 8 had non-paraneoplastic-AIR (npAIR) with mean followed up of 8.52 ± 3.03 months (range 4-12 months). All patients achieved improved or stable BCVA within 6 and/or 12 months after the treatment. Cystoid macular edema (CME) in 2 eyes and significant retinal inflammation in 4 eyes were markedly resolved after single injection. Central retinal thickness (CFT) in all eyes without CME, ellipsoid zone (EZ) on OCT in 71.4% of eyes, ERG response in 55% of eyes, and VF in 50% of eyes were stable or improved within 6 months after treatment. At last visit within 12 months, both BCVA and CFT remained stable in the eyes treated with either single or repeated IDI; however, progression of EZ loss and damage of ERG response occurred in some patients with single IDI. CONCLUSION: Clinical outcomes, including BCVA and parameters of OCT, ERG, and VF, were stable or improved after IDI in a majority of AIR patients. Local treatment of AIR with IDI was a good option to initiate the management or an alternative for the patients' refractory to the systemic therapy but with limited side effect.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Edema , Retinal Diseases , Humans , Dexamethasone , Glucocorticoids , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/complications , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/etiology , Retina , Intravitreal Injections , Drug Implants/therapeutic use , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications
5.
Carbohydrate polymers ; 273:Not Available, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2320511

ABSTRACT

Diffuse alveolar injury and pulmonary fibrosis (PF) are the main causes of death of Covid-19 cases. In this study a low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) with unique structural was obtained from Laminaria japonica, and its anti- PF and anti-epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) bioactivity were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. After LWMF treatment the fibrosis and inflammatory factors stimulated by Bleomycin (BLM) were in lung tissue. Immunohistochemical and Western-blot results found the expression of COL2A1, β-catenin, TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-6 were declined in mice lung tissue. Besides, the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt were inhibited by LMWF. In addition, the progression of EMT induced by TGF-β1 was inhibited by LMWF through down-regulated both TGF-β/Smad and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. These data indicate that unique LMWF can protect the lung from fibrosis by weakening the process of inflammation and EMT, and it is a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PF.

6.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2009, 2023 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296713

ABSTRACT

We conducted a matched retrospective cohort study of two cohorts to estimate inactivated vaccine effectiveness (VE) and its comparative effectiveness of booster dose among older people in Shanghai. Cohort 1 consisted of a vaccinated group (≥1 dose) and an unvaccinated group (3,317,475 pairs), and cohort 2 consisted of a booster vaccinated group and a fully vaccinated group (2,084,721 pairs). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models were used to estimate risk and hazard ratios (HRs) study outcomes. For cohort 1, the overall estimated VEs of ≥1 dose of inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe/critical Covid-19, and Covid-19 related death were 24.7% (95%CI 23.7%-25.7%), 86.6% (83.1%-89.4%), and 93.2% (88.0%-96.1%), respectively. Subset analysis showed that the booster vaccination provided greatest protection. For cohort 2, compared with full vaccination, relative VEs of booster dose against corresponding outcome were 16.3% (14.4%-17.9%), 60.5% (37.8%-74.9%), and 81.7% (17.5%-95.9%). Here we show, although under the scenario of persistent dynamic zero-Covid policy and non-pharmaceutical interventions, promoting high uptake of the full vaccination series and booster dose among older adults is critically important. Timely vaccination with the booster dose provided effective protection against Covid-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268703

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected billions of individuals and is the cause of the current global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We previously developed an mRNA vaccine (LVRNA009) based on the S protein of the Wuhan-Hu-1 strain; the phases I and II clinical trials showed that LVRNA009 has a promising safety and immunogenicity profile. In order to counteract the immune escape by SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, a panel of mRNA vaccines was developed based on the S proteins of the Wuhan-Hu-1, Delta, Omicron BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 strains, and each vaccine's protective potency against the virus variants was evaluated. Furthermore, to achieve excellent neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants, bivalent vaccines were developed and tested against the variants. We found that the monovalent Wuhan-Hu-1 or the Delta vaccines could induce high level of neutralization antibody and protect animals from the infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1 or Delta strains, respectively. However, serum samples from mice immunized with monovalent Delta vaccine showed relatively low virus neutralization titers (VNTs) against the pseudotyped virus of the Omicron strains. Serum samples from mice immunized with bivalent Delta/BA.1 vaccine had high VNTs against the pseudotyped Wuhan-Hu-1, Delta, and BA.1 strains but low VNTs against BA.2 and BA.5 (p < 0.05). Serum samples from mice immunized with Delta/BA.2 vaccine had high VNTs against the pseudotyped Wuhan-Hu-1, Delta, BA.1 and BA.2 strains but low VNTs against BA.5. Finally, serum samples from mice immunized with Delta/BA.5 vaccine had high VNTs against all the tested pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 strains including the Wuhan-Hu-1, Delta, and Omicron variants (p > 0.05). Therefore, a bivalent mRNA vaccine with Delta/BA.5 combination is promising to provide broad spectrum immunity against all VOCs.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 542, 2023 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a major global health threat. The dominant variant of SARS-CoV-2 has changed over time due to continuous evolution. We aimed to evaluate the coverage of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among employees in China, explore their willingness to receive the SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccine and examine the potential factors influencing vaccination coverage and willingness. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted online from January 1, 2022, to January 30, 2022. The information collected in the survey included sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, vaccination coverage, willingness to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 variants and the reasons for vaccination and willingness. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of potential factors with the rate of vaccination and the willingness to be vaccinated. RESULTS: Among 62,395 eligible participants, the coverage of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was 98.9% for at least one dose and 70.1% for a booster. The great majority of vaccinated individuals (94.4%) voluntarily received the vaccine. A total of 60,694 respondents (97.7%) were willing to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 variants, mainly due to confidence in the effectiveness of vaccines (92.8%). A total of 1431 respondents were unwilling to be vaccinated, mainly because of concerns about the adverse effects of vaccines (77.6%). Longer education duration was associated with a higher rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and willingness to be vaccinated. General or poor health status and having no history of influenza vaccination were associated with a lower rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and willingness to be vaccinated. Additionally, we observed a significant positive association of abuse experience with the willingness to be vaccinated. CONCLUSION: Although the rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and the willingness to be vaccinated were relatively high in the study population, there were still some respondents with vaccine hesitancy. Relevant strategies based on significant related factors should be developed and implemented to encourage vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Logistic Models , Occupational Groups , China
9.
Atmospheric Environment ; : 119666.0, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2245650

ABSTRACT

In March 2022, the resurgence of COVID-19 cases in Shenzhen, a megacity in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China, led to unusual restrictions on anthropogenic activities within a single city, in contrast to the restrictions COVID-19 caused on a national scale at the beginning of 2020. In this unique event, we found that only under unfavorable meteorological conditions did substantial urban local emission reductions have an impact on air pollutant changes (−42.4%–6.6%), whereas the deweathered changes were very small (−8.3%–3.4%) under favorable meteorological conditions. Primary anthropogenic pollutants, such as NO2, toluene, BC, and primary organic aerosol (POA), responded most considerably to emission reductions from early morning to noon during unfavorable meteorological days;for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), regulating the daytime total oxidant (Ox = O3 + NO2) was found to be more effective than controlling its precursors within the city scale, whereas secondary nitrate displayed the opposite trend. Since Ox changed little during the urban lockdown despite the remarkable decrease in precursors, it is emphasized that regionally coordinated control of VOCs and NOx is necessary to effectively reduce Ox levels. In addition, Shenzhen's NOx emission reduction efforts should be sustained in order to control PM2.5 and O3 pollution synergistically for long-term attainment.

10.
Heliyon ; 9(2): e13090, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179059

ABSTRACT

Objective: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an increased mental burden has been widely reported among medical health workers such as physicians and nurses. However, data on laboratory technicians exposed to COVID-19 have rarely been published. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of psychological symptoms among laboratory technicians and analyze potential risk factors associated with these symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was performed via the Wenjuanxing platform (a professional online questionnaire platform) (https://www.wjx.cn/mobile/statnew.aspx) to investigate the mental health of laboratory technicians during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hebei, China from October 4, 2021, to November 3, 2021. The online questionnaire included demographic and occupational characteristics data of responders, and the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL90-R)was used to quantify the magnitude of psychological symptoms among laboratory technicians. Participants' demographic and occupational characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistical analyses. Chi-square tests were applied to compare the severity of each symptom between two or more groups. A binary logistic regression model was developed to identify the predictors of laboratory technicians' mental health in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and outcomes are presented as odds ratios and 95% confidence interval. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 (SPSS, New Orchard Road, Armonk, New York, USA). Results: A total of 3081 valid questionnaires were collected. Of these 3081 participants, 338 (11.0%) reported a total SCL90-R score >160, which indicated positive psychological symptoms. Among the 338 participants who reported psychological problems, most of them were mild symptoms. Several factors associated with mental health problems in laboratory technicians during COVID-19 were found, which include a history of physical and/or psychological problems (all 10 symptoms p < 0.001), more than 10 years of work experience (depression symptoms: OR = 2.350, p = 0.024; anxiety symptoms: OR = 2.642, p = 0.038), frontline work (depression symptoms: OR = 1.761, p = 0.001; anxiety symptoms: OR = 2.619, p < 0.001; hostility symptoms: OR = 1.913, p = 0.001), participant in more than 3 times large-scale SARS-CoV-2 screenings and more than 36 h per week in SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing. Conclusion: A portion of laboratory technicians reported experiencing varying levels of psychological burden. During the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple interventions should be developed and implemented to address existing psychosocial challenges and promote the mental health of laboratory technicians.

11.
Anal Chem ; 94(51): 17795-17802, 2022 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160134

ABSTRACT

Addressing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted the need for rapid, accurate, and low-cost diagnostic methods that detect specific antigens for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Tests for COVID-19 are based on reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), which requires laboratory services and is time-consuming. Here, by targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we present a point-of-care SERS detection platform that specifically detects SARS-CoV-2 antigen in one step by captureing substrates and detection probes based on aptamer-specific recognition. Using the pseudovirus, without any pretreatment, the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its variants were detected by a handheld Raman spectrometer within 5 min. The limit of detection (LoD) for the pseudovirus was 124 TU µL-1 (18 fM spike protein), with a linear range of 250-10,000 TU µL-1. Moreover, this assay can specifically recognize the SARS-CoV-2 antigen without cross reacting with specific antigens of other coronaviruses or influenza A. Therefore, the platform has great potential for application in rapid point-of-care diagnostic assays for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods
12.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1048999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142156

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused an ongoing global pandemic of COVID-19. It has been found that COVID-19 has an influence on the changes of blood coagulation parameters and the high incidence of thrombosis. Changchun experienced the epidemic of the Omicron BA.2 variant SARS-CoV-2 in March 2022 in China. Once infected, BA.2 spreads rapidly and most of them are asymptomatic. The purpose of this study is to research venous thrombosis and laboratory changes (including PLT, PT, APTT, DD, FDP, CRP, WBC, IL-6 and lymphocyte subsets) among 92 cancer patients with COVID-19 and 73 COVID-19 patients with non-cancer by Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square test. It was found that the levels of D-dimer, FDP, CRP and IL-6 in cancer patients were significantly higher than those in the COVID-19 cohort. There were 9 (9.8%) cancer patients and 2 (2.7%) non-cancer patients found VTE, with no significant difference. The results showed that WBC, lymphocytes and B cells in cancer patients were significantly lower than those in the other group. Prophylactic anticoagulation was recommended for cancer patients with high risk factors, while paying attention to the occurrence of bleeding events. The detection of leukocyte classification, D-dimer, prothrombin time and fibrinogen at different time points are helpful for the diagnosis and anticoagulation of COVID-19 patients with cancer.

13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141903

ABSTRACT

The metabolic characteristics of COVID-19 disease are still largely unknown. Here, 44 patients with COVID-19 (31 mild COVID-19 patients and 13 severe COVID-19 patients), 42 healthy controls (HC), and 42 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), were involved in the study to assess their serum metabolomic profiles. We used widely targeted metabolomics based on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The differentially expressed metabolites in the plasma of mild and severe COVID-19 patients, CAP patients, and HC subjects were screened, and the main metabolic pathways involved were analyzed. Multiple mature machine learning algorithms confirmed that the metabolites performed excellently in discriminating COVID-19 groups from CAP and HC subjects, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 1. The specific dysregulation of AMP, dGMP, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and carnitine was observed in the severe COVID-19 group. Moreover, random forest analysis suggested that these metabolites could discriminate between severe COVID-19 patients and mild COVID-19 patients, with an AUC of 0.921. This study may broaden our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 and may offer an experimental basis for developing novel treatment strategies against it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Humans , Metabolomics/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
14.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 400, 2022 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the effectiveness of inactivated and Ad5-nCoV COVID-19 vaccines in real-world use-especially against Omicron variants in SARS-CoV-2 infection-naïve population. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted among people aged ≥ 3 years between 2 December 2021 and 13 May 2022. Cases were SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, individuals with severe/critical COVID-19, or COVID-19-related deaths. Controls were selected from consecutively test-negative individuals at the same time as cases were diagnosed and were exact-matched on year-of-age, gender, birthplace, illness onset date, and residential district in ratios of 1:1 with infected individuals and 4:1 with severe/critical COVID-19 and COVID-19-related death. Additionally, two subsets were constructed to analyze separate vaccine effectiveness (VE) of inactivated vaccines (subset 1) and Ad5-vectored vaccine (subset 2) against each of the three outcomes. RESULTS: Our study included 612,597 documented SARS-CoV-2 infections, among which 1485 progressed to severe or critical illness and 568 died. Administering COVID-19 vaccines provided limited protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection across all age groups (overall VE: 16.0%, 95% CI: 15.1-17.0%) but high protection against severe/critical illness (88.6%, 85.8-90.8%) and COVID-19-related death (91.6%, 86.8-94.6%). In subset 1, inactivated vaccine showed 16.3% (15.4-17.2%) effective against infection, 88.6% (85.8-90.9%) effective against severe/critical COVIID-19, and 91.7% (86.9-94.7%) against COVID-19 death. Booster vaccination with inactivated vaccines enhanced protection against severe COVID-19 (92.7%, 90.1-94.6%) and COVID-19 death (95.9%, 91.4-98.1%). Inactivated VE against infection began to wane 12 weeks after the last dose, but two and three doses sustained high protection levels (> 80%) against severe/critical illness and death, while subset 2 showed Ad5-vectored vaccine was 13.2% (10.9-15.5%) effective against infection and 77.9% (15.6-94.2%) effective against severe/critical COVIID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our real-world study found high and durable two- and three-dose inactivated VE against Omicron-associated severe/critical illness and death across all age groups, but lower effectiveness against Omicron infection, which reinforces the critical importance of full-series vaccination and timely booster dose administration for all eligible individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Critical Illness , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Severity of Illness Index
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1417-1423, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066671

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the COVID-19 pandemic has been affected to varying degrees. This study is the first to explore the impact of COVID-19 on the treatment and prognosis of rural and urban AMI in developing countries. METHODOLOGY: A total of 128 patients with AMI in our hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic were enrolled. A total of 197 patients diagnosed with AMI before the COVID-19 pandemic were selected as the control group and one year of follow-up was performed. RESULTS: Hospital stay and the proportion of Killip class ≥ 2 patients were increased among rural AMI patients in the 'during COVID-19' group, compared with the 'before COVID-19' group. Among ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) total and rural STEMI patients, the treatment time in the during-COVID-19 group was longer than that in the before-COVID-19 group, whereas only the symptom to door (S to D) total and door to balloon (D to B) were extended in urban STEMI patients. In AMI total and rural AMI patients, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality were increased in the during-COVID-19 group compared with the before-COVID-19 group. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the survival and occurrence of MACEs in AMI total and rural AMI patients were significantly higher in the during-COVID-19 group. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic led to delayed treatment and worse prognosis in AMI patients. Rural areas appear to be at a greater risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Prognosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors
16.
Transp Res Part A Policy Pract ; 165: 439-453, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061938

ABSTRACT

This study empirically identifies business travellers' preferences during the COVID-19 pandemic across different regions. A stated preference study was conducted during April to June 2021 on respondents in the U.S., the city of Shanghai in mainland China and Hong Kong. Generalised mixed multinomial logit (GMXL) models are estimated incorporating attributes of travel characteristics, severity levels of the pandemic, and health control measures at the airport. When an online meeting is inapplicable, respondents from Shanghai and Hong Kong highly value heath control measures, and are not sensitive to the time spent at airport health checkpoints. In comparison, U.S. respondents are averse to the time spent for health check, the reporting of personal information, travel history, symptoms, and the requirements of compulsory mask wearing and onsite sample testing. However, when online meeting is applicable, all the respondents show no appreciation for health control measures, while the U.S. respondents are twice more averse to the time spent at airport health checkpoints. Online meeting reduces the intention of international business travel amid the pandemic for passengers in Shanghai and Hong Kong, but imposes no significant effects on U.S. travellers. Such significant heterogeneity in traveller preference partly explains the different recovery patterns observed in various aviation markets, and justifies individualized travel arrangements and service priority in fulfilling pandemic control requirements across different regions. Our study also suggests that there are commonly accepted areas for global cooperation such as the sharing of vaccination record, and the option of online meeting calls for convenient travel arrangements amid pandemic to all countries.

17.
World J Psychiatry ; 12(7): 999-1001, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997980

ABSTRACT

The article not only successfully evaluated regular physical activities can improve mental well-being during self-isolation and social distancing policies related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but also concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to augmented levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. By reading the article of Walid Kamal Abdelbasset, we have some questions and put forward some suggestions on the content of the article.

18.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5640-5652, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990497

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory inflammation that has emerged worldwide since December 2019, and it quickly became a global epidemic. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic nonspecific intestinal inflammatory diseases whose etiology has not been elucidated. The two have many overlapping symptoms in clinical presentation, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, pneumonia, etc. Imbalance of the autoimmune system in IBD patients and long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs may increase the risk of infection; and systemic symptoms caused by COVID-19 may also induce or exacerbate intestinal inflammation. It has been found that the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2, which is highly expressed in the lung and intestine, is an inflammatory protective factor, and is downregulated and upregulated in COVID-19 and IBD, respectively, suggesting that there may be a coregulatory pathway. In addition, the immune activation pattern of COVID-19 and the cytokine storm in the inflammatory response have similar roles in IBD, indicating that the two diseases may influence each other. Therefore, this review aimed to address the following research questions: whether SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to the progression of IBD; whether IBD increases the risk of COVID-19 infection and poor prognosis; possible common mechanisms and genetic cross-linking between the two diseases; new treatment and care strategies for IBD patients, and the feasibility and risk of vaccination in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970641

ABSTRACT

The metabolic characteristics of COVID-19 disease are still largely unknown. Here, 44 patients with COVID-19 (31 mild COVID-19 patients and 13 severe COVID-19 patients), 42 healthy controls (HC), and 42 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), were involved in the study to assess their serum metabolomic profiles. We used widely targeted metabolomics based on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The differentially expressed metabolites in the plasma of mild and severe COVID-19 patients, CAP patients, and HC subjects were screened, and the main metabolic pathways involved were analyzed. Multiple mature machine learning algorithms confirmed that the metabolites performed excellently in discriminating COVID-19 groups from CAP and HC subjects, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 1. The specific dysregulation of AMP, dGMP, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and carnitine was observed in the severe COVID-19 group. Moreover, random forest analysis suggested that these metabolites could discriminate between severe COVID-19 patients and mild COVID-19 patients, with an AUC of 0.921. This study may broaden our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 and may offer an experimental basis for developing novel treatment strategies against it.

20.
Vaccine ; 40(36): 5322-5332, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The safety and immunogenicity of the coadministration of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV), quadrivalent split-virion inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in adults in China is unknown. METHODS: In this open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial, participants aged ≥ 18 years were recruited from the community. Individuals were eligible if they had no history of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine or any pneumonia vaccine and had not received an influenza vaccine during the 2020-21 influenza season. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1), using block randomization stratified, to either: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and IIV4 followed by SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and PPV23 (SARS-CoV-2 + IIV4/PPV23 group); two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (SARS-CoV-2 vaccine group); or IIV4 followed by PPV23 (IIV4/PPV23 group). Vaccines were administered 28 days apart, with blood samples taken on day 0 and day 28 before vaccination, and on day 56. RESULTS: Between March 10 and March 15, 2021, 1152 participants were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups (384 per group). 1132 participants were included in the per-protocol population (375 in the SARS-CoV-2 + IIV4/PPV23 group, 380 in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine group, and 377 in the IIV4/PPV23 group). The seroconversion rate (100 % vs 100 %) and GMT (159.13 vs 173.20; GMT ratio of 0.92 [95 % CI 0.83 to 1.02]) of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies in the SARS-CoV-2 + IIV4/PPV23 group was not inferior to those in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine group. The SARS-CoV-2 + IIV4/PPV23 group was not inferior to the IIV4/PPV23 group in terms of seroconversion rates and GMT of influenza virus antibodies for all strains except for the seroconversion rate for the B/Yamagata strain. The SARS-CoV-2 + IIV4/PPV23 group was not inferior to the IIV4/PPV23 group regarding seroconversion rates and GMC of Streptococcus pneumoniae IgG antibodies specific to all serotypes. All vaccines were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: The coadministration of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and IIV4/PPV23 is safe with satisfactory immunogenicity. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04790851.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China , Double-Blind Method , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/methods , Humans , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined , Vaccines, Inactivated , Virion
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