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1.
Frontiers in medicine ; 7:356-356, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-689148

ABSTRACT

Faced with the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a global public health threat, psychiatric hospitals are under huge pressure to prevent and control nosocomial infection The current research analyzed the COVID-19 infection control practices in a regional mental health center in China and addressed how this type of medical institutions could enhance their ability to prevent and control hospital transmission of major respiratory diseases and general management of nosocomial infection risks Firstly, hospital-related risks of COVID-19 were analyzed, and targeted prevention and control measures were then established Pre- and post-intervention theoretical knowledge of nosocomial infection control, hand hygiene compliance and accuracy, use of personal protective equipment, and disinfection and sterilization effectiveness were evaluated and compared All the indexes displayed significant improvements following the implementation of the prevention and control measures Up to the submission of this paper, the mental health center had obtained no suspected or confirmed case of COVID-19 infection due to hospital transmission The findings provide empirical evidence for the effectiveness of the COVID-19 preventive strategies and have important implications for integrated and characterized infection control in mental health centers during a major epidemic The establishment of the transitional isolation ward and air fumigation using traditional Chinese medicine for patients and staff are preventive measures worthy of further discussion and dissemination

3.
J Infect Dis ; 222(2): 189-193, 2020 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel ß-coronavirus, causes severe pneumonia and has spread throughout the globe rapidly. The disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the only test able to confirm this infection. However, the accuracy of RT-PCR depends on several factors; variations in these factors might significantly lower the sensitivity of detection. METHODS: In this study, we developed a peptide-based luminescent immunoassay that detected immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM. The assay cutoff value was determined by evaluating the sera from healthy and infected patients for pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: To evaluate assay performance, we detected IgG and IgM in the sera from confirmed patients. The positive rate of IgG and IgM was 71.4% and 57.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, combining our immunoassay with real-time RT-PCR might enhance the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Luminescent Measurements , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptides/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/immunology
4.
J Affect Disord ; 275: 188-193, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although studies have suggested experiencing the epidemic of severe infectious diseases increased the prevalence of mental health problems, the association between COVID-19 epidemic and risk of anxiety and depression symptom in college students in China was unclear. METHODS: A large cross-sectional online survey with 44,447 college students was conducted in Guangzhou, China. The Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D Scale) were used to define the anxiety and depression symptom, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between COVID-19 epidemic and risk of anxiety and depression symptom. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptom was 7.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.5%, 8.0%) and 12.2% (95%CI: 11.9%, 12.5%), respectively. Compared with students who reported have not infected or suspected cases in family members and relatives, students who reported having confirmed (OR=4.06; 95%CI: 1.62, 10.19; P = 0.003), and suspected (OR=2.11; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.00; P = 0.023) cases in family members and relatives had higher risk of depression symptom. Additionally, the proportions of students with anxiety and depression symptom reported more demand of psychological knowledge and interventions than those without (P<0.001). LIMITATIONS: All the data in this study was collected through online questionnaire, and we did not evaluate the reliability and validity. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptom was relatively low in college students, but the COVID-19 epidemic-related factors might be associated with higher depression symptom risk.

5.
Pathog Dis ; 78(4)2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616775

ABSTRACT

The evidence of long-term clinical dynamic on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA re-positive case are less. We performed a 108 days follow-up on dynamic clinical presentations in a case, who hospitalized three times due to the positive recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA after discharge, to understand the prognosis of the 2019-Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this case, positive SARS-CoV-2 recurred even after apparent recovery (normal CT imaging, no clinical symptoms, negative SARS-CoV-2 on stool sample and negative serum IgM test) from COVID-19, viral shedding duration lasted for 65 days, the time from symptom onset to disappearance was up to 95 days. Erythrocyte-associated indicators, liver function and serum lipid metabolism presented abnormal throughout during the observation period. Awareness of atypical presentations such as this one is important to prompt the improvement of the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Shedding , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biomarkers/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Recurrence , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/blood
6.
Med. J. Chin. Peoples Liberation Army ; 4(45): 375-383, 20200428.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-526119

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus mainly causes local infection in birds and mammals. In recent decades, there has been an evidence that it can infect humans. Highly pathogenic coronavirus, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are fatal zoonotic viruses, which have posed a major threat to public health. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) has also seriously endangered the health and safety of the human beings. These coronaviruses transmit through close contact between people, resulting in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) and having a higher morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the structure, epidemiology, immunology and treatment of the coronavirus, hoping to provide reference for the prevention, control and treatment of the disease.

7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2265-2274, 2020 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-398790

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of viral pneumonia began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, which caused the spread of infectious pneumonia to a certain extent in China and neighboring countries and regions, and triggered the epidemic crisis. The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease listed as a B infectious disease, which is managed according to standards for A infectious disease. Traditional Chinese medicine and integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine have played an active role in the prevention and control of this epidemic. China's ethnomedicine has recognized infectious diseases since ancient times, and formed a medical system including theory, therapies, formula and herbal medicines for such diseases. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Chuxiong Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, Qiandongnan Autonomous Prefecture of Guizhou have issued the prevention and control programs for COVID-19 using Tibetan, Mongolian, Uygur, Yi and Miao medicines. These programs reflect the wisdom of ethnomedicine in preventing and treating diseases, which have successfully extracted prescriptions and preventive measures for the outbreak of the epidemic from their own medical theories and traditional experiences. In this paper, we summarized and explained the prescriptions and medicinal materials of ethnomedicine in these programs, and the origin of Tibetan medicine prescriptions and Mongolian medicine prescriptions in ancient books were studied. These become the common characteristics of medical prevention and treatment programs for ethnomedicine to formulate therapeutic programs under the guidance of traditional medicine theories, recommend prescriptions and prevention and treatment methods with characteristics of ethnomedicine, and focus on the conve-nience and standardization. However, strengthening the support of science and technology and the popularization to the public, and improving the participation of ethnomedicine in national public health services and the capacity-building to deal with sudden and critical diseases are key contents in the development of ethnomedicine in the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , China , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Pandemics , Tibet
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(8)2020 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326142

ABSTRACT

With the development and deepening of the process of global integration, global health is gaining increasing attention. An increasing number of studies have examined global health from diverse perspectives to promote the realization of global public health. The purpose of this research is to systematically and comprehensively evaluate the knowledge structure, knowledge domain, and evolution trend in the field of global health research. Based on the 14,692 document data retrieved from Web of Science Core Collection from 1996 to 2019, this article carried out a visual analysis of global health research from the perspective of scientific output characteristics, scientific research cooperation networks, keywords, and highly cited literature. The results show that scholars' interest in global health research is increasing, especially after the outbreak of SARS. USA, England, Canada, Australia, and China have the most prominent contributions to global health research. Significant authors, high impact journals and core institutions also identified. The study found that "global health governance", "global health diplomacy", "medical education", "global health education" and "antimicrobial resistance" are the research frontiers and hot spots. This study provides an overview and valuable guidance for researchers and related personnel to find the research direction and practice of global health.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1499-1508, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324707

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to explore the intervention mechanism of Qingwen Baidu Yin in cytokine storm based on network pharmacology. TCMSP and TCMIP V2.0 server were used to predict all chemical components and action targets of Qingwen Baidu Yin. Diseases that could be treated by Qingwen Baidu Yin were predicted through Enrichr database. A compound target interaction(PPI) network diagram was constructed using STRING 11.0. OmicShare was used to analyzed the gene ontology(GO) enrichment and enrichment of the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) pathway of core targets. Component-target-path network diagram was constructed with Cytoscape 3.6.0 software. After analysis of the database, 267 compounds were screened for Qingwen Baidu Yin, involving 1 450 targets, and a protein interaction network was constructed. Total 219 core target proteins were predicted, such as NFKB1, STAT1, RAF1, IL2, JAK1, IL6, TNF, BCL2 and other important targets, and 221 core target pathways were enriched, including cancer pathway, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus infection, chemokine signal pathway, PI3 K-AKT signal pathway, EB virus infection, virus carcinogenesis and T cell receptor signaling pathways, a collection of which were highly related to cytokine storms. GO annotation analysis suggested that Qingwen Baidu Yin Decoction may exert therapeutic effects by regulating protein phosphorylation, cell response to cytokine stimulation, cell proliferation, inflammatory response, transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, and cytokine-mediated signaling pathways. This study revealed potential active components of Qingwen Baidu Yin in defending against cytokine storm and its possible mechanism of action, and provided theoretical basis and technical support for further clinical application of this prescription.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Cytokines , Gene Ontology , Protein Interaction Maps
10.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Timely diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is a prerequisite for treatment and prevention. The serology characteristics and complement diagnosis value of the antibody test to RNA test need to be demonstrated. METHOD: Serial sera of 80 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 were collected at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, China. Total antibody (Ab), IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected, and the antibody dynamics during the infection were described. RESULTS: The seroconversion rates for Ab, IgM and IgG were 98.8%, 93.8% and 93.8%, respectively. The first detectible serology marker was Ab, followed by IgM and IgG, with a median seroconversion time of 15, 18 and 20 days post exposure (d.p.e) or 9, 10 and 12 days post onset (d.p.o), respectively. The antibody levels increased rapidly beginning at 6 d.p.o. and were accompanied by a decline in viral load. For patients in the early stage of illness (0-7 d.p.o), Ab showed the highest sensitivity (64.1%) compared to IgM and IgG (33.3% for both, p<0.001). The sensitivities of Ab, IgM and IgG increased to 100%, 96.7% and 93.3% 2 weeks later, respectively. When the same antibody type was detected, no significant difference was observed between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and other forms of immunoassays. CONCLUSIONS: A typical acute antibody response is induced during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Serology testing provides an important complement to RNA testing in the later stages of illness for pathogenic specific diagnosis and helpful information to evaluate the adapted immunity status of patients.

11.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 198-202, 2020 May 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the CT findings of patients with different clinical types of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A total of 67 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 by nucleic acid testing were collected and divided into 4 groups according to the clinical stages based on Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (trial version 6). The CT imaging characteristics were analyzed among patients with different clinical types. RESULTS: Among 67 patients, 3(4.5%) were mild, 35 (52.2%) were moderate, 22 (32.8%) were severe, and 7(10.4%) were critical ill. No significant abnormality in chest CT imaging in mild patients. The 35 cases of moderate type included 3 (8.6%) single lesions, the 22 cases of severe cases included 1 (4.5%) single lesion and the rest cases were with multiple lesions. CT images of moderate patients were mainly manifested by solid plaque shadow and halo sign (18/35, 51.4%); while fibrous strip shadow with ground glass shadow was more frequent in severe cases (7/22, 31.8%). Consolidation shadow as the main lesion was observed in 7 cases, and all of them were severe or critical ill patients. CONCLUSIONS: CT images of patients with different clinical types of COVID-19 have characteristic manifestations, and solid shadow may predict severe and critical illness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Lung , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics/classification , Pneumonia, Viral/classification , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging
12.
J Infect Dis ; 222(2): 189-193, 2020 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel ß-coronavirus, causes severe pneumonia and has spread throughout the globe rapidly. The disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the only test able to confirm this infection. However, the accuracy of RT-PCR depends on several factors; variations in these factors might significantly lower the sensitivity of detection. METHODS: In this study, we developed a peptide-based luminescent immunoassay that detected immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM. The assay cutoff value was determined by evaluating the sera from healthy and infected patients for pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: To evaluate assay performance, we detected IgG and IgM in the sera from confirmed patients. The positive rate of IgG and IgM was 71.4% and 57.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, combining our immunoassay with real-time RT-PCR might enhance the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Luminescent Measurements , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptides/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/immunology
13.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 845-848, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155234

ABSTRACT

We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
14.
Genes Dis ; 2020 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-52595

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China and rapidly spread worldwide. Few information on clinical features and immunological profile of COVID-19 in paediatrics. The clinical features and treatment outcomes of twelve paediatric patients confirmed as COVID-19 were analyzed. The immunological features of children patients was investigated and compared with twenty adult patients. The median age was 14.5-years (range from 0.64 to 17), and six of the patients were male. The average incubation period was 8 days. Clinically, cough (9/12, 75%) and fever (7/12, 58.3%) were the most common symptoms. Four patients (33.3%) had diarrhea during the disease. As to the immune profile, children had higher amount of total T cell, CD8+ T cell and B cell but lower CRP levels than adults (P < 0.05). Ground-glass opacity (GGO) and local patchy shadowing were the typical radiological findings on chest CT scan. All patients received antiviral and symptomatic treatment and the symptom relieved in 3-4 days after admitted to hospital. The paediatric patients showed mild symptom but with longer incubation period. Children infected with SARS-CoV-2 had different immune profile with higher T cell amount and low inflammatory factors level, which might ascribed to the mild clinical symptom. We advise that nucleic acid test or examination of serum IgM/IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 should be taken for children with exposure history regardless of clinical symptom.

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