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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 773271, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions were implemented in most countries to reduce the transmission of COVID-19. We aimed to describe the incidence of influenza in four countries in the 2019-2020 season and examined the effect of these non-pharmaceutical interventions on the incidence of influenza. METHODS: We used the network surveillance data from 2015 to 2020 to estimate the percentage increase in influenza cases to explore the effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions implemented to control the COVID-19 on the incidence of influenza in China, the United States, Japan, and Singapore. RESULTS: We found that the incidence of influenza has been almost zero and reached a persistent near-zero level for a continuous period of six months since epidemiologic week 14 of 2020 in the four countries. Influenza incidence decreased by 77.71% and 60.50% in the early days of COVID-19 in the 2019-2020 season compared to the same period in preceding years in Japan and Singapore, respectively. Furthermore, influenza incidence decreased by 60.50-99.48% during the period of compulsory interventions in the 2019-2020 season compared to the same period in preceding years in the four countries. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the application of non-pharmaceutical interventions, even everyday preventive action, was associated with a reduction of influenza incidence, which highlights that more traditional public health interventions need to be reasserted and universalized to reduce influenza incidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(1): 58-65, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605425

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Both genetic variants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute to the risk of incident severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Whether genetic risk of incident severe COVID-19 is the same regardless of preexisting COPD is unknown. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential interaction between genetic risk and COPD in relation to severe COVID-19. Methods: We constructed a polygenic risk score for severe COVID-19 by using 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 430,582 participants from the UK Biobank study. We examined the associations of genetic risk and COPD with severe COVID-19 by using logistic regression models. Results: Of 430,582 participants, 712 developed severe COVID-19 as of February 22, 2021, of whom 19.8% had preexisting COPD. Compared with participants at low genetic risk, those at intermediate genetic risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.66) and high genetic risk (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.92) had higher risk of severe COVID-19 (P for trend = 0.001), and the association was independent of COPD (P for interaction = 0.76). COPD was associated with a higher risk of incident severe COVID-19 (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.67; P = 0.002). Participants at high genetic risk and with COPD had a higher risk of severe COVID-19 (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.35-3.04; P < 0.001) than those at low genetic risk and without COPD. Conclusions: The polygenic risk score, which combines multiple risk alleles, can be effectively used in screening for high-risk populations of severe COVID-19. High genetic risk correlates with a higher risk of severe COVID-19, regardless of preexisting COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5182

ABSTRACT

A review. Coronavirus (CoV) mainly causes local infection in birds and mammals, in recent decades ,there is evidence that it can infect humans. Highly pathogenic coronavirus, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are fatal zoonotic viruses, which have posed a major threat to public health. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) has also seriously endangered the health and safety of the human beings. These coronaviruses transmitted through close contact between people, resulting in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure (MOF), leading to higher morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the structure, epidemiol., immunol. and treatment of coronavirus, hoping to provide reference for the prevention, control and treatment of the disease.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008584, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771813

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently emerged as a global threat. Understanding workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding this new infectious disease is crucial to preventing and controlling it. This study aimed to assess KAP regarding COVID-19 during the outbreak among workers in China. The present study was part of a cross-sectional online survey study conducted based on a large labor-intensive factory, which has 180,000 workers from various Chinese provinces, from 2 February 2020 to 7 February 2020. KAP related to COVID-19 were measured by 32 items, each item was measured with an agree/disagree/unclear format, and only correct responses were given 1 point. KAP regarding COVID-19 were measured with 20 items, 6 items and 6 items, respectively. A total of 123,768 valid responses (68.8%) were included in the analysis. Generally, the levels of knowledge (mean: 16.3 out of 20 points), attitudes (mean: 4.5 out of 6 points), and practices (mean: 5.8 out of 6 points) related to COVID-19 were high. Only 36,373 respondents (29.4%) disagreed that gargling with salt water is effective in protecting against COVID-19. Moreover, older respondents had decreased levels of knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 (both P values for the trend <0.001), while better-educated respondents had increased levels of knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 (both P values for the trend <0.001). These results suggest that Chinese workers are highly aware of COVID-19, but health authorities still need to provide correct information on COVID-19 prevention and strengthen health interventions, particularly for older and less-educated workers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 495-502, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has gained intense attention globally. However, little is known about the COVID-19-ralated mental health status among workers. METHODS: The cross-sectional online survey with 123,768 workers was conducted from February 2, 2020 to February 7, 2020 on a mega-size labor-intensive factory in Shenzhen, China. Oral consent was obtained prior to the questionnaire survey. The information collected in the survey included demographic characteristics, psychological symptoms, COVID-19-related information, and demands for psychological education and interventions. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured by the Zung's Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale. Logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between related factors and mental health status. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms was 3.4% and 22.8%, respectively. The dominant epidemic-related factors were having confirmed cases in the community (odds ratio [OR], 2.75, 95% CI, 2.37-3.19) and having confirmed friends (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.69-3.52) for the increased risk of anxiety and depression symptoms, respectively. Nevertheless, major traditional risk factors such as general or poor health status and always drinking alcohol were still the dominant factors associated with the increased risk of anxiety and depression symptoms. Overall, 67.3% and 26.8% workers reported desire for psychological education and interventions, respectively. LIMITATIONS: All assessments were self-reported, resulting in a risk of method bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a relatively low prevalence of anxiety symptoms, a relatively high prevalence of depression symptoms, and urgent demand for psychological education and interventions among workers during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Employment , Female , Friends , Health Status , Humans , Male , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
J Affect Disord ; 275: 188-193, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although studies have suggested experiencing the epidemic of severe infectious diseases increased the prevalence of mental health problems, the association between COVID-19 epidemic and risk of anxiety and depression symptom in college students in China was unclear. METHODS: A large cross-sectional online survey with 44,447 college students was conducted in Guangzhou, China. The Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D Scale) were used to define the anxiety and depression symptom, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between COVID-19 epidemic and risk of anxiety and depression symptom. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptom was 7.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.5%, 8.0%) and 12.2% (95%CI: 11.9%, 12.5%), respectively. Compared with students who reported have not infected or suspected cases in family members and relatives, students who reported having confirmed (OR=4.06; 95%CI: 1.62, 10.19; P = 0.003), and suspected (OR=2.11; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.00; P = 0.023) cases in family members and relatives had higher risk of depression symptom. Additionally, the proportions of students with anxiety and depression symptom reported more demand of psychological knowledge and interventions than those without (P<0.001). LIMITATIONS: All the data in this study was collected through online questionnaire, and we did not evaluate the reliability and validity. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptom was relatively low in college students, but the COVID-19 epidemic-related factors might be associated with higher depression symptom risk.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Med. J. Chin. Peoples Liberation Army ; 4(45): 375-383, 20200428.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-526119

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus mainly causes local infection in birds and mammals. In recent decades, there has been an evidence that it can infect humans. Highly pathogenic coronavirus, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are fatal zoonotic viruses, which have posed a major threat to public health. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) has also seriously endangered the health and safety of the human beings. These coronaviruses transmit through close contact between people, resulting in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) and having a higher morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the structure, epidemiology, immunology and treatment of the coronavirus, hoping to provide reference for the prevention, control and treatment of the disease.

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