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Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623918


Objectives The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread globally. The laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection has relied on nucleic acid testing; however, it has some limitations, such as low throughput and high rates of false negatives. Tests of higher sensitivity are needed to effectively identify infected patients. Methods This study has developed fully automated chemiluminescent immunoassays to determine IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human serum. The assay performance has been evaluated at 10 hospitals. Clinical specificity was evaluated by measuring 972 hospitalized patients and 586 donors of a normal population. Clinical sensitivity was assessed on 513 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Results The assays demonstrated satisfied assay precision with coefficient of variation of less than 4.45%. Inactivation of specimen did not affect assay measurement. SARS-CoV-2 IgM showed clinical specificity of 97.33 and 99.49% for hospitalized patients and the normal population respectively, and SARS-CoV-2 IgG showed clinical specificity of 97.43 and 99.15% respectively. SARS-CoV-2 IgM showed clinical sensitivity of 82.54, 92.93, and 84.62% before 7 days, 7-14 days, and after 14 days respectively, since onset of symptoms, and SARS-CoV-2 IgG showed clinical sensitivity of 80.95, 97.98, and 99.15% respectively at the same time points above. Conclusions We have developed fully automated immunoassays for detecting SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies in human serum. The assays demonstrated high clinical specificity and sensitivity, and add great value to nucleic acid testing in fighting against the global pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Curr. Issues Tour. ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-324531


News coverage plays a significant role in the tourism industry. 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has severely affected the tourism-related businesses and has been featured in Chinese news coverage. This research studied 499 newspaper articles through automated content analysis. Nine key themes were identified, including COVID-19's impact on tourism, people's sentiment, control of tourism activities and cultural venues, the role of the hospitality industry, national command and local response, tourism disputes and solutions, corporate self-improvement strategies, government assistance, and post-crisis tourism product. This research provides insights into future investigations of the tourism crisis related to an epidemic.

Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17886


BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus. The antibody response in infected patient remains largely unknown, and the clinical values of antibody testing have not been fully demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 173 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. Their serial plasma samples (n=535) collected during the hospitalization were tested for total antibodies (Ab), IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2. The dynamics of antibodies with the disease progress was analyzed. RESULTS: Among 173 patients, the seroconversion rate for Ab, IgM and IgG was 93.1%, 82.7% and 64.7%, respectively. The reason for the negative antibody findings in 12 patients might due to the lack of blood samples at the later stage of illness. The median seroconversion time for Ab, IgM and then IgG were day-11, day-12 and day-14, separately. The presence of antibodies was <40% among patients within 1-week since onset, and rapidly increased to 100.0% (Ab), 94.3% (IgM) and 79.8% (IgG) since day-15 after onset. In contrast, RNA detectability decreased from 66.7% (58/87) in samples collected before day-7 to 45.5% (25/55) during day 15-39. Combining RNA and antibody detections significantly improved the sensitivity of pathogenic diagnosis for COVID-19 (p<0.001), even in early phase of 1-week since onset (p=0.007). Moreover, a higher titer of Ab was independently associated with a worse clinical classification (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The antibody detection offers vital clinical information during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The findings provide strong empirical support for the routine application of serological testing in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients.