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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 140, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reaching optimal vaccination rates is an essential public health strategy to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to simulate the optimal vaccination strategy to control the disease by developing an age-specific model based on the current transmission patterns of COVID-19 in Wuhan City, China. METHODS: We collected two indicators of COVID-19, including illness onset data and age of confirmed case in Wuhan City, from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. The reported cases were divided into four age groups: group 1, ≤ 14 years old; group 2, 15 to 44 years old; group 3, 44 to 64 years old; and group 4, ≥ 65 years old. An age-specific susceptible-exposed-symptomatic-asymptomatic-recovered/removed model was developed to estimate the transmissibility and simulate the optimal vaccination strategy. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was used to estimate the transmission interaction in different age groups. RESULTS: A total of 47 722 new cases were reported in Wuhan City from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. Before the travel ban of Wuhan City, the highest transmissibility was observed among age group 2 (Reff = 4.28), followed by group 2 to 3 (Reff = 2.61), and group 2 to 4 (Reff = 1.69). China should vaccinate at least 85% of the total population to interrupt transmission. The priority for controlling transmission should be to vaccinate 5% to 8% of individuals in age group 2 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% of age group 2), followed by 10% of age group 3 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% age group 3). However, the optimal vaccination strategy for reducing the disease severity identified individuals ≥ 65 years old as a priority group, followed by those 45-64 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 85% of the total population (nearly 1.2 billion people) should be vaccinated to build an immune barrier in China to safely consider removing border restrictions. Based on these results, we concluded that 90% of adults aged 15-64 years should first be vaccinated to prevent transmission in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , China , Cities , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Young Adult
2.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561885

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the magnitude of humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in cancer patients on active therapies. Patients and Methods: Patients ≥ 18 years in whom SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody (anti-S Ab) were measured after 2 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines were included. Patients with prior COVID-19 infection or on other immunosuppressive therapy were excluded. Results: Among 201 patients who met the criteria, 61 were immunocompetent, 91 had a hematologic malignancy, and 49 had a solid malignancy on treatments associated with cytopenia, including chemotherapy or cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i). Significantly greater proportion of immunocompetent patients (97%) had anti-S Ab titer ≥ 500 U/mL compared to patients with hematologic (8%) and solid malignancy (55%, p < 0.001). Despite 2 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, 53% of hematologic malignancy patients and 8% of solid malignancy patients on cytopenic therapy had no seroconversion (< 0.8 U/mL). Two patients subsequently developed breakthrough COVID-19 infection after full vaccination. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients with hematologic and solid malignancies on chemotherapies and CDK4/6i had poor humoral responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Our study adds to growing body of literature suggesting that immunosuppressed patients have suboptimal humoral response to COVID-19 vaccination. Our study also underscores the significance of assessing antibody response after COVID-19 vaccines in these vulnerable patients.

3.
World J Pediatr ; 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the imaging characteristics, diversity and changing trend in CT scans of pediatric patients infected with Delta-variant strain by studying imaging features of children infected with Delta and comparing the results to those of children with original COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective, comparative analysis of initial chest CT manifestations between 63 pediatric patients infected with Delta variant in 2021 and 23 pediatric patients with COVID-19 in 2020 was conducted. Corresponding imaging features were analyzed. In addition, the changing trend in imaging features of COVID-19 Delta-variant cases were explored by evaluating the initial and follow-up CT scans. RESULTS: Among 63 children with Delta-variant COVID-19 in 2021, 34 (53.9%) showed positive chest CT presentation; and their CT score (1.10 ± 1.41) was significantly lower than that in 2020 (2.56 ± 3.5) (P = 0.0073). Lesion distribution: lung lesions of Delta cases appear mainly in the lower lungs on both sides. Most children had single lobe involvement (18 cases, 52.9%), 14 (41.2%) in the right lung alone, and 14 (41.2%) in both lungs. A majority of Delta cases displayed initially ground glass (23 cases, 67.6%) and nodular shadows (13 cases, 38.2%) in the first CT scan, with few extrapulmonary manifestations. The 34 children with abnormal chest CT for the first time have a total of 92 chest CT examinations. These children showed a statistically significant difference between the 0-3 day group and the 4-7 day group (P = 0.0392) and a significant difference between the 4-7 day group and the more than 8 days group (P = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: The early manifestations of COVID-19 in children with abnormal imaging are mostly small subpleural nodular ground glass opacity. The changes on the Delta-variant COVID-19 chest CT were milder than the original strain. The lesions reached a peak on CT in 4-7 days and quickly improved and absorbed after a week. Dynamic CT re-examination can achieve a good prognosis.

4.
Journal of Intensive Medicine ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1446889

ABSTRACT

Background There have been many studies about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19), but the clinical significance of quantitative serum severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2)-specific IgM and IgG levels in COVID-19 patients have not been exhaustively studied. We aimed to study the time profiles of these IgM/IgG levels in COVID-19 patients and their correlations with clinical features. Methods A multicenter clinical study was conducted from February to March 2020. It involved 179 COVID-19 patients (108 males and 71 females) from five hospitals in Huangshi in Hubei Province, China. To detect SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM/IgG, quantitative antibody assays (two-step indirect immunoassays with direct chemiluminescence technology) based on the nucleocapsid protein (NP) and spike protein 1 (S1) were used. For normally distributed data, means were compared using the t test, χ2 test, or exact probability method. For categorical data, medians were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Results The median age was 57(44-69) years (58(38-69) for males and 57(49-68) for females). The median duration of positive nucleic acid test was 22.32 (17.34-27.43) days. The mortality rate was relatively low (3/179, 1.68%). Serum SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG was detected around week 1 after illness onset, gradually increased until peaking in weeks 4 and 5, and then declined. Serum IgM peaked in weeks 2 and 3, then gradually declined and returned to its normal range by week 7 in all patients. Notably, children had milder respiratory symptoms with lower SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM/IgG levels. The duration of positive nucleic acid test in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) group was 30.36(18.99-34.76) days, which was significantly longer than that in the non-COPD group (21.52(16.75-26.51) days;P=0.011). The peak serum SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG was significantly positively correlated with the duration of positive nucleic acid test. The incidence rate of severe and critical cases in the IgMhi group (using the median IgM level of 29.95 AU/ml as the cutoff for grouping) was about 38% (19/50), which was twice as much as that in the IgMlo group (18.37%;9/49). The patients with positive chest imaging and lymphocytopenia (<1 × 109/L) had a higher SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM level. Conclusions Quantitative SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG levels are helpful for the diagnosis, severity classification, and management of COVID-19 patients, and they should be monitored in each stage of this disease.

5.
Ann Nucl Med ; 35(11): 1264-1269, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are known to provide an immune response seen on FDG PET studies. However, the time course of this metabolic response is unknown. We here present a temporal metabolic response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in oncology patients undergoing standard of care FDG PET. METHODS: 262 oncology patients undergoing standard of care FDG PET were included in the analysis. 231 patients had at least one dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine while 31 patients had not been vaccinated. The SUVmax of the lymph nodes ipsilateral to the vaccination was compared to the contralateral to obtain an absolute change in SUVmax (ΔSUVmax). RESULTS: ΔSUVmax was more significant at shorter times between FDG PET imaging and COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, with a median ΔSUVmax of 2.6 (0-7 days), 0.8 (8-14 days), and 0.3 (> 14 days), respectively. CONCLUSION: Consideration should be given to performing FDG PET at least 2 weeks after the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Axilla , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/metabolism , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymph Nodes/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pectoralis Muscles , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Time Factors , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2021 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267559
8.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(2): 215-219, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245512

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Cortical hyperexcitability is a feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and cortical excitability can be measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Resting motor threshold (MT) is a measure of cortical excitability, largely driven by glutamate. Perampanel, a glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor blocker, is predicted to increase the cortical excitability threshold. This study aimed to evaluate TMS to functionally assess target engagement in a study of perampanel in ALS. METHOD: We studied the MT of ALS patients randomized to a single dose of perampanel or placebo 5:1 hourly for 4 h. Twelve patients participated at 4 mg and 7 returned for dosing and retesting at 8 mg. The study was terminated in April 2020 due to coronavirus disease 2019-related restrictions, after 7 out of 12 planned patients had received the 8 mg dose. Serum concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: Ten patients received the 4 mg dose (2 received placebo) and 5 received the 8 mg dose (2 received placebo). Motor Threshold increased at 2 h after dosing in the combined treatment group +7% of maximal stimulator output (P < .01). Change could be detected in the larger 4 mg group (P = .02), but not in the smaller 8 mg dose group (P = .1). No side effects were reported after single dose exposure. DISCUSSION: This study shows that perampanel effects the physiology of upper motor neurons. Studies aiming at gauging the effect of perampanel on ALS disease progression are already ongoing. Motor threshold may serve as a marker of biological target engagement.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/drug therapy , Cortical Excitability/drug effects , Motor Neurons/drug effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Receptors, AMPA/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/blood , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/diagnosis , Cortical Excitability/physiology , Double-Blind Method , Evoked Potentials, Motor/drug effects , Evoked Potentials, Motor/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motor Neurons/physiology , Nitriles , Pilot Projects , Pyridones/blood , Receptors, AMPA/physiology , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods
9.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 53, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes an immense disease burden. Although public health countermeasures effectively controlled the epidemic in China, non-pharmaceutical interventions can neither be maintained indefinitely nor conveniently implemented globally. Vaccination is mainly used to prevent COVID-19, and most current antiviral treatment evaluations focus on clinical efficacy. Therefore, we conducted population-based simulations to assess antiviral treatment effectiveness among different age groups based on its clinical efficacy. METHODS: We collected COVID-19 data of Wuhan City from published literature and established a database (from 2 December 2019 to 16 March 2020). We developed an age-specific model to evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral treatment in patients with COVID-19. Efficacy was divided into three types: (1) viral activity reduction, reflected as transmission rate decrease [reduction was set as v (0-0.8) to simulate hypothetical antiviral treatments]; (2) reduction in the duration time from symptom onset to patient recovery/removal, reflected as a 1/γ decrease (reduction was set as 1-3 days to simulate hypothetical or real-life antiviral treatments, and the time of asymptomatic was reduced by the same proportion); (3) fatality rate reduction in severely ill patients (fc) [reduction (z) was set as 0.3 to simulate real-life antiviral treatments]. The population was divided into four age groups (groups 1, 2, 3 and 4), which included those aged ≤ 14; 15-44; 45-64; and ≥ 65 years, respectively. Evaluation indices were based on outbreak duration, cumulative number of cases, total attack rate (TAR), peak date, number of peak cases, and case fatality rate (f). RESULTS: Comparing the simulation results of combination and single medication therapy s, all four age groups showed better results with combination medication. When 1/γ = 2 and v = 0.4, age group 2 had the highest TAR reduction rate (98.48%, 56.01-0.85%). When 1/γ = 2, z = 0.3, and v = 0.1, age group 1 had the highest reduction rate of f (83.08%, 0.71-0.12%). CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral treatments are more effective in COVID-19 transmission control than in mortality reduction. Overall, antiviral treatments were more effective in younger age groups, while older age groups showed higher COVID-19 prevalence and mortality. Therefore, physicians should pay more attention to prevention of viral spread and patients deaths when providing antiviral treatments to patients of older age groups.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adolescent , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Young Adult
10.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 155(5): 191-196, 2020 09 11.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526756

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to assess organ function in 102 patients with severe COVID-19 infections, using retrospective clinical analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 102 patients with severe COVID-19 infections. The patients were divided into a survival group (n=73) and a non-survival group (n=29) according to their prognosis. The age, sex, underlying diseases, clinical laboratory data within 48h (routine blood tests, ALT, AST, TBIL, ALB, BUN, CR, D-Dimer, PT, APTT, FIB, F VIII:C, CK-MB, CK, and LDH), and ventilation status were collected. The organ functions of these severe COVID-19 patients were assessed by comparing the differences between the two groups. RESULTS: AST, BUN, CR, CK-MB, LDH, and CK in the non-survival group were higher than those in the survival group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). D-Dimer, PT, FIB, and F VIII:C in the non-survival group were higher than the values observed in the survival group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). PLT, AST, BUN, CR, D-Dimer, PT, FIB, F VIII:C, CK-MB, CK, and LDH predicted the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the COVID19 endpoint events and were 0.721, 0.854, 0.867, 0.757, 0.699, 0.679, 0.715, 0.811, 0.935, and 0.802, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results showed that there were different degrees of damage to the liver, kidneys, blood coagulation, and heart function in the non-survival group. In addition, PLT, AST, BUN, CR, D-Dimer, PT, FIB, F VIII:C, CK-MB, CK, and LDH had value in evaluating disease prognosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 13, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Until January 18, 2021, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 93 million individuals and has caused a certain degree of panic. Viral pneumonia caused by common viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses have been more common in children. However, the incidence of COVID-19 in children was significantly lower than that in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of COVID-19 in children compared with those of other sources of viral pneumonia diagnosed during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Children with COVID-19 and viral pneumonia admitted to 20 hospitals were enrolled in this retrospective multi-center cohort study. A total of 64 children with COVID-19 were defined as the COVID-19 cohort, of which 40 children who developed pneumonia were defined as the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort. Another 284 children with pneumonia caused by other viruses were defined as the viral pneumonia cohort. The epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings were compared by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Contingency table method. Drug usage, immunotherapy, blood transfusion, and need for oxygen support were collected as the treatment indexes. Mortality, intensive care needs and symptomatic duration were collected as the outcome indicators. RESULTS: Compared with the viral pneumonia cohort, children in the COVID-19 cohort were mostly exposed to family members confirmed to have COVID-19 (53/64 vs. 23/284), were of older median age (6.3 vs. 3.2 years), and had a higher proportion of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on computed tomography (18/40 vs. 0/38, P < 0.001). Children in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort had a lower proportion of severe cases (1/40 vs. 38/284, P = 0.048), and lower cases with high fever (3/40 vs. 167/284, P < 0.001), requiring intensive care (1/40 vs. 32/284, P < 0.047) and with shorter symptomatic duration (median 5 vs. 8 d, P < 0.001). The proportion of cases with evaluated inflammatory indicators, biochemical indicators related to organ or tissue damage, D-dimer and secondary bacterial infection were lower in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort than those in the viral pneumonia cohort (P < 0.05). No statistical differences were found in the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in 25 children with COVID-19 who received antiviral drugs (lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, and arbidol) as compared with duration in 39 children without antiviral therapy [median 10 vs. 9 d, P = 0.885]. CONCLUSION: The symptoms and severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in children were no more severe than those in children with other viral pneumonia. Lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and arbidol do not shorten the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in children with COVID-19. During the COVID-19 outbreak, attention also must be given to children with infection by other pathogens infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(24): 1631, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045261

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already become a pandemic wherein the infection's timely diagnosis has proven beneficial to patient treatment and disease control. Nucleic acid detection has been the primary laboratory diagnostic method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. To ensure laboratory staff safety and quality nucleic acid testing, the Chinese Society of Laboratory Medicine formulated this consensus, based on the Chinese National Recommendations and previous literature for nucleic acid detection. A working group comprises 34 hospital professionals experience with real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 drafted guidance statements during online discussions. A modified Delphi methodology was used in forming a consensus among a wider group of hospital professionals with SARS-CoV-2 detection experience. Guidance statements were developed for four categories: (I) specimen type, priority, collecting, transportation and receiving; (II) nucleic acid isolation and amplification; (III) quality control; (IV) biosafety management and decontamination. The modified Delphi voting process included a total of 29 guidance statements and final agreement. Consensus was reached after two rounds of voting. Recommendations were established for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 using real time PCR testing based on evidence and group consensus. The manuscript was evaluated against The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation Instrument (AGREE II) and was developed to aid medical laboratory staff in the detection of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) of SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Molecules ; 26(1)2020 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044927

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (2019-nCoV) has been affecting global health since the end of 2019, and there is no sign that the epidemic is abating. Targeting the interaction between the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor is a promising therapeutic strategy. In this study, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used as the primary method to screen a library of 960 compounds. A compound 02B05 (demethylzeylasteral, CAS number: 107316-88-1) that had high affinities for S-RBD and ACE2 was discovered, and binding affinities (KD, µM) of 02B05-ACE2 and 02B05-S-RBD were 1.736 and 1.039 µM, respectively. The results of a competition experiment showed that 02B05 could effectively block the binding of S-RBD to ACE2 protein. Furthermore, pseudovirus infection assay revealed that 02B05 could inhibit entry of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus into 293T cells to a certain extent at nontoxic concentration. The compoundobtained in this study serve as references for the design of drugs which have potential in the treatment of COVID-19 and can thus accelerate the process of developing effective drugs to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Binding
14.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4744

ABSTRACT

A review on new coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19: emergency response to GCP in Hunan province under primary response to major public health emergencies (Version 2.0)

15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 595109, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013337

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, COVID-19 has aroused global attention. Studies show the link between obesity and severe outcome of influenza and COVID-19. Thus, we aimed to compare the impacts of obesity on the severity and mortality of influenza and COVID-19 by performing a meta-analysis. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Web of Science from January 2009 to July 2020. The protocol was registered onto PROSPERO (CRD42020201461). After selection, 46 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were analyzed. We found obesity was a risk factor for the severity and mortality of influenza (ORsevere outcome = 1.56, CI: 1.28-1.90; ORmortality = 1.99, CI: 1.15-3.46). For COVID-19, obesity was a significant risk factor only for severe outcome (OR = 2.07, CI: 1.53-2.81) but not for mortality (OR = 1.57, CI: 0.85-2.90). Compared with obesity, morbid obesity was linked with a higher risk for the severity and mortality of both influenza (OR = 1.40, CI: 1.10-1.79) and COVID-19 (OR = 3.76, CI: 2.67-5.28). Thus, obesity should be recommended as a risk factor for the prognosis assessment of COVID-19. Special monitoring and earlier treatment should be implemented in patients with obesity and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/mortality , Obesity/mortality , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Molecules ; 26(1):57, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-984996

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (2019-nCoV) has been affecting global health since the end of 2019, and there is no sign that the epidemic is abating. Targeting the interaction between the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor is a promising therapeutic strategy. In this study, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used as the primary method to screen a library of 960 compounds. A compound 02B05 (demethylzeylasteral, CAS number: 107316-88-1) that had high affinities for S-RBD and ACE2 was discovered, and binding affinities (KD, μM) of 02B05-ACE2 and 02B05-S-RBD were 1.736 and 1.039 μM, respectively. The results of a competition experiment showed that 02B05 could effectively block the binding of S-RBD to ACE2 protein. Furthermore, pseudovirus infection assay revealed that 02B05 could inhibit entry of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus into 293T cells to a certain extent at nontoxic concentration. The compoundobtained in this study serve as references for the design of drugs which have potential in the treatment of COVID-19 and can thus accelerate the process of developing effective drugs to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections.

17.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 271, 2020 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) caused by COVID-19 has affected more than 46 million people worldwide. In China, primary care has played a vital role during the COVID-19 outbreak, and it is important to examine the challenges faced by general practitioners (GPs). This study investigated the roles, preparedness and training needs of GPs in China in managing the NCP outbreak. Based on the outcomes of the study, we hope to take lessons and identify how GPs could be supported in delivering their gatekeeping roles and clinical duties in times of infectious disease outbreak. METHODS: An online survey on the official website of Shenzhen Continuing Education Center. It included questions on GPs' demographics, their awareness of COVID-19 and their preparedness in managing suspected cases of NCP, as well as referrals and their training needs. Conditional multi-variate logistic models were used to investigate the relationships between GPs' preparedness, situational confidence and anxiety. RESULTS: GPs' clinical practice was significantly affected. GPs endeavoured to answer a flood of COVID-19-related enquiries, while undertaking community preventive tasks. In addition to in-person consultations, GP promoted COVID-19 awareness and education through telephone consultations, physical posters and social media. Overall GPs in Shenzhen felt well supported with adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and resources from secondary care services. Higher levels of self-perceived preparedness (OR = 2.19; 95%CI, 1.04-4.61), lower level of anxiety (OR = 0.56; 95%CI, 0.29-1.09) and fewer perceived family worries (OR = 0.37; 95%CI, 0.12-1.12) were associated with better confidence in coping at work. CONCLUSIONS: Training and supporting GPs while reducing their (and their families') anxiety increase their confidence in delivering the important roles of gatekeeping in face of major disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/organization & administration , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , China , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Humans , Information Dissemination , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Public Health
18.
IEEE Design & Test ; 37(6):99-101, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-949425

ABSTRACT

The 57th Design Automation Conference (DAC) was the first virtual DAC in its 57th year history. It was originally planned to be held at the Moscone West Conference Center from July 19 to July 23, 2020, but due to COVID-19, the DAC executive committee and sponsors, ACM/IEEE, jointly decided to go for a virtual event. DAC 2020 was held virtually from July 21 to July 24, and the virtual content was extended for one additional week for the registered participants. It is a great honor to serve as the Chair of the first virtual DAC.

19.
Kidney Med ; 2(3): 354-358, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832003

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infective disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2). Previous studies of the COVID-19 pneumonia outbreak were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. This report describes the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in an in-center hemodialysis patient, as well as our experience in implementing steps to prevent the spread of COVID-19 pneumonia among in-center hemodialysis patients. The diagnosis, infection control, and treatment of COVID-19 in hemodialysis patients are discussed in this report, and we conclude with recommendations for how a dialysis facility can respond to COVID-19 based on our experiences.

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