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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100332
2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(8): 1210-1220, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Western (WEEV), eastern (EEEV), and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses are mosquito-borne pathogens classified as potential biological warfare agents for which there are currently no approved human vaccines or therapies. We aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational trivalent virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (WEVEE) VLP, composed of WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV VLPs. METHODS: The WEVEE VLP vaccine was evaluated in a phase 1, randomised, open-label, dose-escalation trial at the Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center at Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Eligible participants were healthy adults aged 18-50 years with no previous vaccination history with an investigational alphavirus vaccine. Participants were assigned to a dose group of 6 µg, 30 µg, or 60 µg vaccine product and were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive the WEVEE VLP vaccine with or without aluminium hydroxide suspension (alum) adjuvant by intramuscular injection at study day 0 and at week 8. The primary outcomes were the safety and tolerability of the vaccine (assessed in all participants who received at least one administration of study product) and the secondary outcome was immune response measured as neutralising titres by plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) 4 weeks after the second vaccination. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03879603. FINDINGS: Between April 2, 2019, and June 13, 2019, 30 trial participants were enrolled (mean age 32 years, range 21-48; 16 [53%] female participants and 14 [47%] male participants). Six groups of five participants each received 6 µg, 30 µg, or 60 µg vaccine doses with or without adjuvant, and all 30 participants completed study follow-up. Vaccinations were safe and well tolerated. The most frequently reported symptoms were mild injection-site pain and tenderness (22 [73%] of 30) and malaise (15 [50%] of 30). Dose-dependent differences in the frequency of pain and tenderness were found between the 6 µg, 30 µg, and 60 µg groups (p=0·0217). No significant differences were observed between dosing groups for any other reactogenicity symptom. Two adverse events (mild elevated blood pressure and moderate asymptomatic neutropenia) were assessed as possibly related to the study product in one trial participant (60 µg dose with alum); both resolved without clinical sequelae. 4 weeks after second vaccine administration, neutralising antibodies were induced in all study groups with the highest response seen against all three vaccine antigens in the 30 µg plus alum group (PRNT80 geometric mean titre for EEEV 60·8, 95% CI 29·9-124·0; for VEEV 111·5, 49·8-249·8; and for WEEV 187·9, 90·0-392·2). Finally, 4 weeks after second vaccine administration, for all doses, the majority of trial participants developed an immune response to all three vaccine components (24 [83%] of 29 for EEEV; 26 [90%] of 29 for VEEV; 27 [93%] of 29 for WEEV; and 22 [76%] of 29 for EEEV, VEEV, and WEEV combined). INTERPRETATION: The favourable safety profile and neutralising antibody responses, along with pressing public health need, support further evaluation of the WEVEE VLP vaccine in advanced-phase clinical trials. FUNDING: The Vaccine Research Center of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health funded the clinical trial. The US Department of Defense contributed funding for manufacturing of the study product.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus , Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Double-Blind Method , Female , Horses , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , Pain , Young Adult
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(7): 969-979, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of persons who develop COVID-19 report persistent symptoms after acute illness. Various pathophysiologic mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). OBJECTIVE: To characterize medical sequelae and persistent symptoms after recovery from COVID-19 in a cohort of disease survivors and controls. DESIGN: Cohort study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04411147). SETTING: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: Self-referred adults with laboratory-documented SARS-CoV-2 infection who were at least 6 weeks from symptom onset were enrolled regardless of presence of PASC. A control group comprised persons with no history of COVID-19 or serologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, recruited regardless of their current health status. Both groups were enrolled over the same period and from the same geographic area. MEASUREMENTS: All participants had the same evaluations regardless of presence of symptoms, including physical examination, laboratory tests and questionnaires, cognitive function testing, and cardiopulmonary evaluation. A subset also underwent exploratory immunologic and virologic evaluations. RESULTS: 189 persons with laboratory-documented COVID-19 (12% of whom were hospitalized during acute illness) and 120 antibody-negative control participants were enrolled. At enrollment, symptoms consistent with PASC were reported by 55% of the COVID-19 cohort and 13% of control participants. Increased risk for PASC was noted in women and those with a history of anxiety disorder. Participants with findings meeting the definition of PASC reported lower quality of life on standardized testing. Abnormal findings on physical examination and diagnostic testing were uncommon. Neutralizing antibody levels to spike protein were negative in 27% of the unvaccinated COVID-19 cohort and none of the vaccinated COVID-19 cohort. Exploratory studies found no evidence of persistent viral infection, autoimmunity, or abnormal immune activation in participants with PASC. LIMITATIONS: Most participants with COVID-19 had mild to moderate acute illness that did not require hospitalization. The prevalence of reported PASC was likely overestimated in this cohort because persons with PASC may have been more motivated to enroll. The study did not capture PASC that resolved before enrollment. CONCLUSION: A high burden of persistent symptoms was observed in persons after COVID-19. Extensive diagnostic evaluation revealed no specific cause of reported symptoms in most cases. Antibody levels were highly variable after COVID-19. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(1): 34-44, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) accounts for a large burden of illness in Indonesia. However, epidemiology of SARI in tertiary hospitals in Indonesia is unknown. This study sought to assess the burden, clinical characteristics, and etiologies of SARI and concordance of clinical diagnosis with confirmed etiology. METHODS: Data and samples were collected from subjects presenting with SARI as part of the acute febrile Illness requiring hospitalization study (AFIRE). In tertiary hospitals, clinical diagnosis was ascertained from chart review. Samples were analyzed to determine the "true" etiology of SARI at hospitals and Indonesia Research Partnership on Infectious Diseases (INA-RESPOND) laboratory. Distribution and characteristics of SARI by true etiology and accuracy of clinical diagnosis were assessed. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty of 1464 AFIRE subjects presented with SARI; etiology was identified in 242 (57.6%), including 121 (28.8%) viruses and bacteria associated with systemic infections, 70 (16.7%) respiratory bacteria and viruses other than influenza virus, and 51 (12.1%) influenza virus cases. None of these influenza patients were accurately diagnosed as having influenza during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza was misdiagnosed among all patients presenting with SARI to Indonesian tertiary hospitals in the AFIRE study. Diagnostic approaches and empiric management should be guided by known epidemiology. Public health strategies to address the high burden of influenza should include broad implementation of SARI screening, vaccination programs, clinician education and awareness campaigns, improved diagnostic capacity, and support for effective point-of-care tests.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Tract Infections , Diagnostic Errors , Hospitalization , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Infant , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
5.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(7): e0474, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313893

ABSTRACT

We sought to validate prognostic scores in coronavirus disease 2019 including National Early Warning Score, Modified Early Warning Score, and age-based modifications, and define their performance characteristics. DESIGN: We analyzed prospectively collected data from the Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial. National Early Warning Score was collected daily during the trial, Modified Early Warning Score was calculated, and age applied to both scores. We assessed prognostic value for the end points of recovery, mechanical ventilation, and death for score at enrollment, average, and slope of score over the first 48 hours. SETTING: A multisite international inpatient trial. PATIENTS: A total of 1,062 adult nonpregnant inpatients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS: Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial 1 randomized participants to receive remdesivir or placebo. The prognostic value of predictive scores was evaluated in both groups separately to assess for differential performance in the setting of remdesivir treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: For mortality, baseline National Early Warning Score and Modified Early Warning Score were weakly to moderately prognostic (c-index, 0.60-0.68), and improved with addition of age (c-index, 0.66-0.74). For recovery, baseline National Early Warning Score and Modified Early Warning Score demonstrated somewhat better prognostic ability (c-index, 0.65-0.69); however, National Early Warning Score+age and Modified Early Warning Score+age further improved performance (c-index, 0.68-0.71). For deterioration, baseline National Early Warning Score and Modified Early Warning Score were weakly to moderately prognostic (c-index, 0.59-0.69) and improved with addition of age (c-index, 0.63-0.70). All prognostic performance improvements due to addition of age were significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial 1 cohort, National Early Warning Score and Modified Early Warning Score demonstrated moderate prognostic performance in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019, with improvement in predictive ability for National Early Warning Score+age and Modified Early Warning Score+age. Area under receiver operating curve for National Early Warning Score and Modified Early Warning Score improved in patients receiving remdesivir versus placebo early in the pandemic for recovery and mortality. Although these scores are simple and readily obtainable in myriad settings, in our data set, they were insufficiently predictive to completely replace clinical judgment in coronavirus disease 2019 and may serve best as an adjunct to triage, disposition, and resourcing decisions.

6.
Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 131(5):1-15, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1172782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. To understand the features of a replicating vaccine that might drive potent and durable immune responses to transgene-encoded antigens, we tested a replication-competent adenovirus type 4 encoding influenza virus H5 HA (Ad4-H5Vtn) administered as an oral capsule or via tonsillar swab or nasal spray. METHODS. Viral shedding from the nose, mouth, and rectum was measured by PCR and culturing. H5-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were measured by bead array binding assays. Serum antibodies were measured by a pseudovirus entry inhibition, microneutralization, and HA inhibition assays. RESULTS. Ad4-H5-Vtn DNA was shed from most upper respiratory tract-immunized (URT-immunized) volunteers for 2 to 4 weeks, but cultured from only 60% of participants, with a median duration of 1 day. Ad4-H5-Vtn vaccination induced increases in H5-specific CD4· and CD8· T cells in the peripheral blood as well as increases in IgG and IgA in nasal, cervical, and rectal secretions. URT immunizations induced high levels of serum neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against H5 that remained stable out to week 26. The duration of viral shedding correlated with the magnitude of the NAb response at week 26. Adverse events (AEs) were mild, and peak NAb titers were associated with overall AE frequency and duration. Serum NAb titers could be boosted to very high levels 2 to 5 years after Ad4-H5-Vtn vaccination with recombinant H5 or inactivated split H5N1 vaccine. CONCLUSION. Replicating Ad4 delivered to the URT caused prolonged exposure to antigen, drove durable systemic and mucosal immunity, and proved to be a promising platform for the induction of immunity against viral surface glycoprotein targets. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01443936 and NCT01806909. FUNDING. Intramural and Extramural Research Programs of the NIAID, NIH (U19 AI109946) and the Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS), NIAID, NIH (contract HHSN272201400008C).

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