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1.
17th IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference (A-SSCC) - Integrated Circuits and Systems for the Connection of Intelligent Things ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1769541
2.
2021 IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference, A-SSCC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1685047

ABSTRACT

Temperature sensing is an important means for the early detection of COVID-19 infection. Thus, it is important to supply a 0.95V(\pm 0.5\%) to the wearable temperature sensor (top left in Fig. 1) by a fully integrated switched-capacitor (SC) converter with small on-chip capacitors CFLY and COUT. For small chip area, the value of CTOT (=CFLY+COUT, where CFLY and COUT are flying capacitor and output capacitor, respectively) needs to be less than 250pF to ensure the temperature sensor is small enough. The required temperature detection accuracy of 0.1°C limits the output voltage ripple ΔVOUT of the SC to less than 15mV, where ΔVOUT is inversely proportional to the switching frequency FCLK and COUT. If CTOT <250pF and ΔVOUT< 15mV, then FCLK is tens of GHz. In [1], a digital 2-/3-Phase SC is used to decrease ΔVOUT and to improve efficiency, but the required off-chip capacitor is not suitable for wearable devices. In [2], an SC Resistance low-dropout (SCR-DLDO) regulator uses a small on-chip capacitor of 0.365nF, but FCLK of 1.55GHz causes a larger switching loss. In [3], since FCLK is determined by (LC)1/2=47.5MHz, the large on-chip inductor will cause higher conduction power loss due to its worse quality factor. Moreover, a pulse skipping technique is required to decrease FCLK and enhance light-load efficiency at the cost of large ΔVOUT. Although [4] attempts to have many voltage conversion ratios (VCR) to maintain high efficiency, there are still problems with reduced drive capability and reduced efficiency on some VCRs. In [5], switching frequency can be reduced to 95 MHz, using a capacitor-dithering method with 41 interleaved phases. However, the peak efficiency degrades to 70.8% due to the charge sharing loss from the 41 interleaving cells. © 2021 IEEE.

3.
European Journal of Integrative Medicine ; 48, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1587783

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chinese patent medicine (CPM) is an indispensable part of traditional Chinese medicine. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifests is an acute respiratory infectious disease. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects and safety of oral CPM for COVID-19. Methods: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that tested oral CPM for the treatment of COVID-19 identified from publications in CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, Web of Science, SinoMed, PubMed, Embase, BioRxiv, MedRxiv and arXiv before November 2nd, 2020. The risk of bias for each trial was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool 2.0. RevMan 5.4 software was used for data analyses. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the online GRADEpro tool. Results: Seven RCTs including 1079 participants were identified. The overall bias was assessed as “some concerns” for all included trials. Oral CPM investigated were: Lianhua Qingwen capsule/granules (连花清瘟胶囊/颗粒, LHQW), Jinhua Qinggan granules (金花清感颗粒, JHQG), Huoxiang Zhengqidripping pills (藿香正气滴丸, HXZQ), Toujie Quwen granules (透解祛瘟颗粒, TJQW) and Lianhua Qingke granules (连花清咳颗粒, LHQK). Compared with conventional western therapy alone for people with COVID-19: regarding the main outcomes, the results showed that oral CPM combined with conventional western therapy improved cure rate (RR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38, involving LHQW and TJQW), reduced aggravation rate (RR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.85, involving LHQW, JHQG, LHQK and TJQW);with regard to additional outcomes, the results showed that add-on oral CPM shortened the duration of fever, cough and fatigue, improved the recovery rate of cough and fatigue, and increased the improvement and recovery rate of chest CT manifestations. There were some differences in therapeutic effects among various CPMs for the same COVID-19 outcome. The use of TJQW and LHQG appeared not to increase the risk of adverse events, but JHQG may cause mild diarrhea. Conclusions: Low-certainty or very low-certainty evidence demonstrated that oral CPM may have add-on potential therapeutic effects for patients with non-serious COVID-19. There are some differences in therapeutic effects between different oral CPMs for the same outcome of COVID-19. The use of TJQW and LHQG probably does not increase the risk of adverse events, but JHQG may cause mild diarrhea in patients. The conclusion of this review needs to be further confirmed by well-designed clinical trials with adequate sample sizes. Keywords: Coronavirus Disease 2019;COVID-19;Chinese patent medicine;Chinese herbal medicine;Systematic review;Meta-analysis

4.
European Journal of Integrative Medicine ; 48, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1587782

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease. At present, there is no specific and effective therapy for the treatment and prevention of this disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated thousands of years of experience on the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) to prevent and treat infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to present the evidence on the therapeutic effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used with or without conventional western therapy for COVID-19. Methods: Clinical studies on the therapeutic effects and safety of CHM for COVID-19 were included. We summarized the general characteristics of included studies, evaluated methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, analyzed the use of CHM, used Revman 5.4 software to present the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) and their 95% confidence interval (CI) to estimate the therapeutic effects and safety of CHM. Results: A total of 58 clinical studies were identified including RCTs (17.24%, 10), non-randomized controlled trials (1.72%, 1), retrospective studies with a control group (18.97%, 11), case-series (20.69%, 12) and case-reports (41.38%, 24). Fig.1 shows the flow diagram for the searching and screening of published articles. No RCTs of high methodological quality were identified. The most frequently tested oral Chinese patent medicine, Chinese herbal medicine injection or prescribed herbal decoction were: Lianhua Qingwen granule/capsule, Xuebijing injection and Maxing Shigan Tang. Table 1 lists the CHM used at least twice. In terms of aggravation rate, pooled analyses showed that there were statistical differences between the intervention group and the comparator group (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.82, six RCTs;RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.64, five retrospective studies with a control group), that is, CHM plus conventional western therapy appeared better than conventional western therapy alone in reducing aggravation rate. In addition, compared with conventional western therapy, CHM plus conventional western therapy had potential advantages in increasing the recovery rate and shortening the duration of fever, cough and fatigue, improving the negative conversion rate of nucleic acid test, and increasing the improvement rate of chest CT manifestations and shortening the time from receiving the treatment to the beginning of chest CT manifestations improvement. For adverse events, pooled data showed that there were no statistical differences between the CHM and the control groups. Conclusion: Current low certainty evidence suggests that there may be a tendency that CHM plus conventional western therapy is superior to conventional western therapy alone. The use of CHM did not increase the risk of adverse events. Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese herbal medicine, novel coronavirus pneumonia, coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, review, clinical study

6.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 30:331-332, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381712
9.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine ; 10:24-25, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1234517

ABSTRACT

Objective: To present the evidence of the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used with or without conventional western therapy on COVID-19. Methods: Clinical studies on effectiveness and safety of CHM for COVID-19 were included. We summarized general characteristics of included studies, evaluated methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), analyzed the use of CHM, estimated the effectiveness and safety of CHM. Results: A total of 58 clinical studies were identified including RCTs (17.24%, 10), non-randomized controlled trials (1.72%, 1), retrospective studies with a control group (18.97%, 11), case-series (20.69%, 12) and case-reports (41.38%, 24). No high methodological quality RCTs were identified. The most frequently tested Chinese patent medicine, Chinese herbal medicine injection or prescribed herbal decoction were: Lianhua Qingwen granule/capsule, Xuebijing injection and Maxing Shigan Tang. In terms of aggravation rate, pooled analyses showed that there had statistical differences between the intervention group and the comparator group (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.82, 6 RCTs;RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.64, 4 retrospective studies with control group), that is, CHM plus conventional western therapy appeared better than conventional western therapy in reducing aggravation rate. In addition, compared with conventional western therapy, CHM plus conventional western therapy had potential advantages in increasing the resolution rate and shortening the duration of fever, cough and fatigue, improving the negative conversion rate of nucleic acid test, and increasing the number of patients with inflammatory disappearance or shortening the time from receiving treatment to beginning of inflammation disappearance. For adverse events, pooled data showed that there was no statistical difference between the CHM and the control groups. Conclusion: Current low certainty evidence suggests that there may be a tendency that CHM plus conventional western therapy is superior to conventional western therapy alone. The use of CHM did not increase the risk of adverse events.

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