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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875645

ABSTRACT

Actinidia latifolia is one of the very few kiwifruit genotypes with extremely high ascorbic acid (AsA) content. However, a transcriptome atlas of this species is lacking. The accumulation of AsA during fruit development and ripening and the associated molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Herein, dynamic changes in AsA content at six different stages of A. latifolia fruit development and ripening were determined. AsA content of A. latifolia fruit reached 1108.76 ± 35.26 mg 100 g-1 FW at full maturity. A high-quality, full-length (FL) transcriptome of A. latifolia was successfully constructed for the first time using third-generation sequencing technology. The transcriptome comprises 326,926 FL non-chimeric reads, 15,505 coding sequences, 2882 transcription factors, 18,797 simple sequence repeats, 3328 long noncoding RNAs, and 231 alternative splicing events. The genes involved in AsA biosynthesis and recycling pathways were identified and compared with those in different kiwifruit genotypes. The correlation between the AsA content and expression levels of key genes in AsA biosynthesis and recycling pathways was revealed. LncRNAs that participate in AsA-related gene expression regulation were also identified. Gene expression patterns in AsA biosynthesis and metabolism exhibited a trend similar to that of AsA accumulation. Overall, this study paves the way for genetic engineering to develop kiwifruits with super-high AsA content.


Subject(s)
Actinidia , Actinidia/genetics , Actinidia/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Fruit/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Transcriptome
2.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(6)2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869735

ABSTRACT

MPI8, a peptidyl aldehyde, is a potent antiviral agent against coronavirus. Due to unique tri-peptide bonds and the formyl functional group, the bioassay of MPI8 in plasma was challenged by a strong interference from water MPI8. Using QTOF LC-MS/MS, we identified MPI8•H2O as the major interference form that co-existed with MPI8 in aqueous and biological media. To avoid the resolution of MPI8 and MPI8•H2O observed on reverse phase columns, we found that a Kinetex hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column provided co-elution of both MPI8 and MPI8•H2O with a good single chromatographic peak and column retention of MPI8 which is suitable for quantification. Thus, a sensitive, specific, and reproducible LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of MPI8 in rat plasma was developed and validated using a triple QUAD LC-MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kinetex HILIC column with a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min under gradient elution. The calibration curves were linear (r2 > 0.99) over MPI8 concentrations from 0.5-500 ng/mL. The accuracy and precision are within acceptable guidance levels. The mean matrix effect and recovery were 139% and 73%, respectively. No significant degradation of MPI8 occurred under the experimental conditions. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of MPI8 after administration of MPI8 sulfonate in rats.

3.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 49(8): 2994-3004, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844354

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Distinct physiological states arise from complex interactions among the various organs present in the human body. PET is a non-invasive modality with numerous successful applications in oncology, neurology, and cardiology. However, while PET imaging has been applied extensively in detecting focal lesions or diseases, its potential in detecting systemic abnormalities is seldom explored, mostly because total-body imaging was not possible until recently. METHODS: In this context, the present study proposes a framework capable of constructing an individual metabolic abnormality network using a subject's whole-body 18F-FDG SUV image and a normal control database. The developed framework was evaluated in the patients with lung cancer, the one discharged after suffering from Covid-19 disease, and the one that had gastrointestinal bleeding with the underlying cause unknown. RESULTS: The framework could successfully capture the deviation of these patients from healthy subjects at the level of both system and organ. The strength of the altered network edges revealed the abnormal metabolic connection between organs. The overall deviation of the network nodes was observed to be highly correlated to the organ SUV measures. Therefore, the molecular connectivity of glucose metabolism was characterized at a single subject level. CONCLUSION: The proposed framework represents a significant step toward the use of PET imaging for identifying metabolic dysfunction from a systemic perspective. A better understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms and the physiological interpretation of the interregional connections identified in the present study warrant further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Whole Body Imaging
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324496

ABSTRACT

Background: Following the emergence of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and its spread outside of Wuhan, China, the human society has experienced a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While the development of vaccine and pharmaceutical treatment have been undergoing, government authorities in China implemented unprecedented non-pharmaceutical interventions as primary barriers to curb the spread of the deadly SARS-CoV-2. Although the decline of COVID-19 cases coincided with this implementation of interventions, evidence is needed to demonstrate the efficacy of these interventions since artifactual factors, such as the environment, the pathogen itself, and the phases of epidemic, may also alter the pattern of case development.Methods: We surveyed common viral respiratory infections that have a similar pattern of transmission, tropism, and clinical manifestation as COVID-19 under such interventions during this season with pandemic, and compared it with historical data in previous seasons without the interventions.Finding: Our survey shows that the rates for common respiratory infections, such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections, decreased dramatically from previous 13.7% and 4.64% to 0.73% and 0.00%, respectively, in this season.Interpretation: This surveillance provides compelling evidence that the interventions are cost-effective ways to curb the spread of contagious agents, and may be the only practical approach to limiting the evolving of epidemic until vaccine and pharmaceutical treatment are available.Funding Statement: This study was supported by West China Hospital (HX-2019-nCoV-17), Sichuan Science and Technology Program (2020YFS0008), and National Natural Science Foundation (81671551). Declaration of Interests: CapitalBio Technology is the manufacture of Respiratory Virus Nucleic Acid Detection Kit and RTisochip™ –W Isothermal Microfluidic Chip Analyzer. XX and DL are employees of CapitalBio Technology. All others declare no competing interest.Ethics Approval Statement: Clinical trial (device) 2020, No. 4;Clinical Trial Committee, West China Hospital of Sichuan University. The Institutional Review Board of the West China Hospitalapproved the study.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323628

ABSTRACT

Background: With the current worldwide spreading of the coronary virus (COVID-19) pandemic, accurately predicting the rate of spread of the virus has become an urgent need. Methods: : In this article we propose a universal COVID-19 prediction model that is independent of country-specific factors in this paper. By analyzing the pandemic data in China, we combined the advantages of Gaussian function with that of chi-square distribution function, to render an innovative mathematical model named the H-Gaussian with five parameters to be learned, and solved the parameters by a gradient descent algorithm. Results: : We trained the model with partial historical pandemic data to predict subsequent pandemic trends in several regions, and validated the predictions with real data. The H-Gaussian model was experimentally shown to correctly predict the pandemic trends, and the parameters had good interpretability. Conclusions: : On this basis, the global trends of the pandemic are given based on the data currently available, as well as suggestions for subsequent prevention strategies.

6.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4401-4410, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224977

ABSTRACT

Xiyanping (XYP) is a Chinese herbal medicine used in the clinic to treat respiratory infection and pneumonia. Recent evidence identified XYP as a potential inhibitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, implying XYP as a possible treatment for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we conducted a prospective, multicenter, open-label and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of XYP injection in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. We consecutively recruited 130 COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate symptoms from five study sites, and randomized them in 1:1 ratio to receive XYP injection in combination with standard therapy or receive standard supportive therapy alone. We found that XYP injection significantly reduced the time to cough relief, fever resolution and virus clearance. Less patients receiving XYP injection experienced disease progression to the severe stage during the treatment process. No severe adverse events were reported during the study. Taken together, XYP injection is safe and effective in improving the recovery of patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate the efficacy of XYP in an expanded cohort comprising COVID-19 patients at different disease stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adult , Female , Humans , Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 442-447, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The emergence of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and its subsequent spread outside of Wuhan, China, led to the human society experiencing a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While the development of vaccines and pharmaceutical treatments are ongoing, government authorities in China have implemented unprecedented non-pharmaceutical interventions as primary barriers to curb the spread of the deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus. Although the decline of COVID-19 cases coincided with the implementation of such interventions, we searched for evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of these interventions, since artifactual factors, such as the environment, the pathogen itself, and the phases of epidemic, may also alter the patterns of case development. METHODS: We surveyed common viral respiratory infections that have a similar pattern of transmission, tropism, and clinical manifestation, as COVID-19 under a series of non-pharmaceutical interventions during the current pandemic season. We then compared this data with historical data from previous seasons without such interventions. RESULTS: Our survey showed that the rates of common respiratory infections, such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections, decreased dramatically from 13.7% (95% CI, 10.82-16.58) and 4.64% (95% CI, 2.88-7.64) in previous years to 0.73% (95% CI, 0.02-1.44) and 0.0%, respectively, in the current season. CONCLUSIONS: Our surveillance provides compelling evidence that non-pharmaceutical interventions are cost-effective ways to curb the spread of contagious agents, and may represent the only practical approach to limit the evolving epidemic until specific vaccines and pharmaceutical treatments are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20248874

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), mainly transmitted by droplets and close contact, has caused a pandemic worldwide as of November 2020. According to the current case reports and cohort studies, the symptoms of pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 were similar to normal adults and may cause a series of adverse consequences of pregnancy (placental abruption, fetal distress, epilepsy during pregnancy, etc.). However, whether SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted to the fetus through the placental barrier is still a focus of debate. MethodsIn this study, in order to find out whether SARS-CoV-2 infect fetus through placental barrier, we performed qualitative detection of virus structural protein (spike protein and nucleoprotein) and targeted receptor protein (ACE2, CD147 and GRP78) expression on the placental tissue of seven pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 through immunohistochemistry. Amniotic fluid, neonatal throat, anal swab and breastmilk samples were collected immediately in the operating room for verification after delivery, which were all tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ResultsThe result showed that CD147 was expressed on the basal side of the chorionic trophoblast cell membrane and ACE2 was expressed on the maternal side, while GRP78 was strongly expressed in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. The RT-PCR results of Amniotic fluid, neonatal throat, anal swab and breastmilk samples were all negative. ConclusionsWe believed that despite the detection of viral structural proteins in the placenta, SARS-CoV-2 cannot be transmitted to infants due to the presence of the placental barrier. SummaryOur results showed that, excluding environmental pollution after birth and vaginal infection during childbirth, SARS-CoV-2 was less likely to be transmitted vertically in utero.

9.
Appl Intell (Dordr) ; : 1-12, 2020 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935300

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia has become a serious health challenge in countries worldwide. Many radiological findings have shown that X-ray and CT imaging scans are an effective solution to assess disease severity during the early stage of COVID-19. Many artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted diagnosis works have rapidly been proposed to focus on solving this classification problem and determine whether a patient is infected with COVID-19. Most of these works have designed networks and applied a single CT image to perform classification; however, this approach ignores prior information such as the patient's clinical symptoms. Second, making a more specific diagnosis of clinical severity, such as slight or severe, is worthy of attention and is conducive to determining better follow-up treatments. In this paper, we propose a deep learning (DL) based dual-tasks network, named FaNet, that can perform rapid both diagnosis and severity assessments for COVID-19 based on the combination of 3D CT imaging and clinical symptoms. Generally, 3D CT image sequences provide more spatial information than do single CT images. In addition, the clinical symptoms can be considered as prior information to improve the assessment accuracy; these symptoms are typically quickly and easily accessible to radiologists. Therefore, we designed a network that considers both CT image information and existing clinical symptom information and conducted experiments on 416 patient data, including 207 normal chest CT cases and 209 COVID-19 confirmed ones. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the additional symptom prior information as well as the network architecture designing. The proposed FaNet achieved an accuracy of 98.28% on diagnosis assessment and 94.83% on severity assessment for test datasets. In the future, we will collect more covid-CT patient data and seek further improvement.

10.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 30(17):2588-2591, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-923169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes of clinical symptoms, imaging features and related infection indexes of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and reveal its relationship with the change of viral nucleic acid load. METHODS: A 31-year-old male patient who had a history of staying in the epidemic-affected area and a history of fever, cough, and sore throat was enrolled in the study, and the clinical symptoms, CT imaging features and laboratory test indexes of the patient were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The patient was tested twice for the nucleic acid at the onset, the symptoms disappeared quickly after treatment. The lung CT was re-checked 14 days after the onset, the viral nucleic acid test showed positive after the re-test, and the patient was conformed as COVID-19 and was cured successfully. During the course of the disease, the clinical symptoms and laboratory indicators were not parallel with the imaging findings. CONCLUSION: Combined with the characteristics of the case whose symptoms and test indicators are not parallel with the imaging findings and the existing studies, it does not rule out that the COVID-19 has a growth and decline process during the in vivo replication process, and the difference in nucleic acid load at different stages in the course of the disease determines the result of nucleic acid test. It is suggested that in the process of diagnosis and treatment, attention should be paid to the need for repeated test of nucleic acid, and when the symptoms improve and the virus nucleic acid re-test is positive, you should be highly vigilant of the possibility of aggravation of the symptom and the image.

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