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Front Public Health ; 10: 773271, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731865


BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions were implemented in most countries to reduce the transmission of COVID-19. We aimed to describe the incidence of influenza in four countries in the 2019-2020 season and examined the effect of these non-pharmaceutical interventions on the incidence of influenza. METHODS: We used the network surveillance data from 2015 to 2020 to estimate the percentage increase in influenza cases to explore the effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions implemented to control the COVID-19 on the incidence of influenza in China, the United States, Japan, and Singapore. RESULTS: We found that the incidence of influenza has been almost zero and reached a persistent near-zero level for a continuous period of six months since epidemiologic week 14 of 2020 in the four countries. Influenza incidence decreased by 77.71% and 60.50% in the early days of COVID-19 in the 2019-2020 season compared to the same period in preceding years in Japan and Singapore, respectively. Furthermore, influenza incidence decreased by 60.50-99.48% during the period of compulsory interventions in the 2019-2020 season compared to the same period in preceding years in the four countries. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the application of non-pharmaceutical interventions, even everyday preventive action, was associated with a reduction of influenza incidence, which highlights that more traditional public health interventions need to be reasserted and universalized to reduce influenza incidence.

COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(1): 58-65, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605425


Rationale: Both genetic variants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute to the risk of incident severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Whether genetic risk of incident severe COVID-19 is the same regardless of preexisting COPD is unknown. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential interaction between genetic risk and COPD in relation to severe COVID-19. Methods: We constructed a polygenic risk score for severe COVID-19 by using 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 430,582 participants from the UK Biobank study. We examined the associations of genetic risk and COPD with severe COVID-19 by using logistic regression models. Results: Of 430,582 participants, 712 developed severe COVID-19 as of February 22, 2021, of whom 19.8% had preexisting COPD. Compared with participants at low genetic risk, those at intermediate genetic risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.66) and high genetic risk (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.92) had higher risk of severe COVID-19 (P for trend = 0.001), and the association was independent of COPD (P for interaction = 0.76). COPD was associated with a higher risk of incident severe COVID-19 (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.67; P = 0.002). Participants at high genetic risk and with COPD had a higher risk of severe COVID-19 (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.35-3.04; P < 0.001) than those at low genetic risk and without COPD. Conclusions: The polygenic risk score, which combines multiple risk alleles, can be effectively used in screening for high-risk populations of severe COVID-19. High genetic risk correlates with a higher risk of severe COVID-19, regardless of preexisting COPD.

COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2