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1.
Matter ; 6(6): 2094, 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244510

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.matt.2021.09.022.].

2.
Bioorg Chem ; 129: 106185, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268978

ABSTRACT

The evolving SARS-CoV-2 epidemic buffets the world, and the concerted efforts are needed to explore effective drugs. Mpro is an intriguing antiviral target for interfering with viral RNA replication and transcription. In order to get potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents, we established an enzymatic assay using a fluorogenic substrate to screen the inhibitors of Mpro. Fortunately, Acriflavine (ACF) and Proflavine Hemisulfate (PRF) with the same acridine scaffold were picked out for their good inhibitory activity against Mpro with IC50 of 5.60 ± 0.29 µM and 2.07 ± 0.01 µM, respectively. Further evaluation of MST assay and enzymatic kinetics experiment in vitro showed that they had a certain affinity to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and were both non-competitive inhibitors. In addition, they inhibited about 90 % HCoV-OC43 replication in BHK-21 cells at 1 µM. Both compounds showed nano-molar activities against SARS-CoV-2 virus, which were superior to GC376 for anti-HCoV-43, and equivalent to the standard molecule remdesivir. Our study demonstrated that ACF and PRF were inhibitors of Mpro, and ACF has been previously reported as a PLpro inhibitor. Taken together, ACF and PRF might be dual-targeted inhibitors to provide protection against infections of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Acriflavine , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors , Proflavine , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Protease Inhibitors , Acriflavine/pharmacology , Proflavine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mesocricetus , Animals , Cricetinae , Cell Line , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 2023 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262158

ABSTRACT

Developing a rapid antibody-based detection method is of great importance for preventing and controlling the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Among the antibody-based methods for point-of-care (POC) detection, lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is the most widely used. However, LFIA still has the disadvantage of low sensitivity. In this work, an ReSe2 nanosheet with a thickness of 10-20 nm was prepared by liquid exfoliation and applied as the label in a photothermal LFIA due to its high photothermal conversion efficiency and high photothermal stability. An integrated detection device was introduced for rapid, on-site, and highly sensitive assay of the human antisevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike (S) protein IgG antibodies. The device mainly included a rhenium diselenide (ReSe2) nanosheet-based photothermal LFIA, a portable laser, and a smartphone with a portable thermal imager, which was used to record and analyze the thermal signal of the LFIA test zone. The human anti-SARS-COV-2 S protein IgG antibodies in buffer solution can be detected in a portable box within 10 min, with a thermal signal detection limit of 0.86 ng mL-1, which was 108-fold lower than that of the colorimetric signal. The integrated device can detect values as low as 2.76 ng mL-1 of the human anti-SARS-COV-2 S protein IgG antibodies in 50% serum. The integrated device showed great potential for rapid and home self-testing diagnosis of COVID-19.

4.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 18(7): 1835-1844, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201875

ABSTRACT

The human gut microbiota represents a complex ecosystem that is composed of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and archaea. It affects many physiological functions including metabolism, inflammation, and the immune response. The gut microbiota also plays a role in preventing infection. Chemotherapy disrupts an organism's microbiome, increasing the risk of microbial invasive infection; therefore, restoring the gut microbiota composition is one potential strategy to reduce this risk. The gut microbiome can develop colonization resistance, in which pathogenic bacteria and other competing microorganisms are destroyed through attacks on bacterial cell walls by bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides, and other proteins produced by symbiotic bacteria. There is also a direct way. For example, Escherichia coli colonized in the human body competes with pathogenic Escherichia coli 0157 for proline, which shows that symbiotic bacteria compete with pathogens for resources and niches, thus improving the host's ability to resist pathogenic bacteria. Increased attention has been given to the impact of microecological changes in the digestive tract on tumor treatment. After 2019, the global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the development of novel tumor-targeting drugs, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and the increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance have posed serious challenges and threats to public health. Currently, it is becoming increasingly important to manage the adverse effects and complications after chemotherapy. Gastrointestinal reactions are a common clinical presentation in patients with solid and hematologic tumors after chemotherapy, which increases the treatment risks of patients and affects treatment efficacy and prognosis. Gastrointestinal symptoms after chemotherapy range from nausea, vomiting, and anorexia to severe oral and intestinal mucositis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation, which are often closely associated with the dose and toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. It is particularly important to profile the gastrointestinal microecological flora and monitor the impact of antibiotics in older patients, low immune function, neutropenia, and bone marrow suppression, especially in complex clinical situations involving special pathogenic microbial infections (such as clostridioides difficile, multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli, carbapenem-resistant bacteria, and norovirus).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Neoplasms , Aged , Humans , Bacteria , Consensus , Escherichia coli , Gastrointestinal Tract , Neoplasms/drug therapy , China
5.
Future Foods ; 6: 100198, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068999

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic COVID-19 has led to an increase in the number of people purchasing food online, which has brought to a higher demand on the food supply chain. Such as the need to collect more information related to food safety and quality in real-time. Strengthening management of food logistics information flow can reduce food loss and waste and bring better quality and safety of food to consumers. In this review, the importance and applicability of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology to smart food packaging are described. This study emphasizes the recent advancement of the RFID tags in humidity, temperature, gas, pH, integrity, and traceability sensor applications in connection with food packaging. RFID sensors are more suitable for smart packaging both in terms of sensing ability and data transmission. A simpler, low-cost, more robust and less power-demanding sensors network is the development direction of smart packaging in the future. Chipless RFID sensors have the potential to achieve these functions. But it still faces many challenges to be overcome. For example, biocompatible, cost, reading range, multi-tag collision, multi-parameter sensors, recycling issues, security and privacy of RFID system should be solved.

6.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(9): e39360, 2022 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), also known as the broken heart syndrome or stress cardiomyopathy, is increasing worldwide. The understanding of its prognosis has been progressively evolving and currently appears to be poorer than previously thought, which has attracted the attention of researchers. An attempt to recognize the awareness of this condition among the general population drove us to analyze the dissemination of this topic on TikTok, a popular short-video-based social media platform. We found a considerable number of videos on TTS on TikTok; however, the quality of the presented information remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the quality and audience engagement of TTS-related videos on TikTok. METHODS: Videos on the TikTok platform were explored on August 2, 2021 to identify those related to TTS by using 6 Chinese keywords. A total of 2549 videos were found, of which 80 met our inclusion criteria and were evaluated for their characteristics, content, quality, and reliability. The quality and reliability were rated using the DISCERN instrument and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) criteria by 2 reviewers independently, and a score was assigned. Descriptive statistics were generated, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. Multiple linear regression was performed to evaluate the association between audience engagement and other factors such as video content, video quality, and author types. RESULTS: The scores assigned to the selected video content were low with regard to the diagnosis (0.66/2) and management (0.34/2) of TTS. The evaluated videos were found to have an average score of 36.93 out of 80 on the DISCERN instrument and 1.51 out of 4 per the JAMA criteria. None of the evaluated videos met all the JAMA criteria. The quality of the relayed information varied by source (All P<.05). TTS-related videos made by health care professionals accounted for 28% (22/80) of all the evaluated videos and had the highest DISCERN scores with an average of 40.59 out of 80. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that author types that identified as health professionals (exponentiated regression coefficient 17.48, 95% CI 2.29-133.52; P=.006) and individual science communicators (exponentiated regression coefficient 13.38, 95% CI 1.83-97.88; P=.01) were significant and independent determinants of audience engagement (in terms of the number of likes). Other author types of videos, video content, and DISCERN document scores were not associated with higher likes. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the quality of videos regarding TTS for patient education on TikTok is poor. Patients should be cautious about health-related information on TikTok. The formulation of a measure for video quality review is necessary, especially when the purpose of the published content is to educate and increase awareness on a health-related topic.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Humans , Information Dissemination , Reproducibility of Results , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Video Recording
7.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 3153-3161, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a threat to global health. Increasing studies have shown that the mental health status of health professionals is very poor during the COVID-19 epidemic. At present, the relationship between somatic symptoms and symptoms of anxiety of health professionals during the COVID-19 has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequency of somatic symptoms and its related factors in health professionals with symptoms of anxiety during COVID-19 in China. METHODS: A total of 606 health professionals were assessed online with the Chinese version of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, 7-item Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). RESULTS: The percentage of symptoms of anxiety, somatic symptoms and insomnia in all health professionals was 45.4%, 12.0%, and 32%, respectively. The frequency of somatic symptoms in health professionals with symptoms of anxiety was 22.9%. The SCL-90 somatization subscale score was significantly positively correlated with history of somatic diseases, GAD-7 score and ISI score in participants with symptoms of anxiety. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19, symptoms of anxiety, insomnia, and somatic symptoms are commonly observed in health professionals. Insomnia and symptoms of anxiety are independently associated with somatic symptoms of health professionals with symptoms of anxiety.

8.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(16): 854, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1998118

ABSTRACT

Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) has been extensively applied in the individualized diagnosis and treatment of critical illness, and numerous studies have been published on this topic. Therefore, a bibliometric analysis of these publications should be performed to provide a direction of hot topics and future research trends. Methods: A bibliometric analysis was performed on the research articles to identify the hot topics and any unsolved issues regarding the use of AI in individualized diagnosis and treatment of critical illness. Articles published from January 2011 to December 2021 were retrieved from the Web of Science (WOS) core collection database for bibliometric analysis, and a cross-sectional analysis of the relevant studies that had been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov was also conducted. Results: The number of articles published showed an annually increasing trend, with a worldwide geographic distribution over the past decade. Ultimately, 427 research articles were included in the bibliometric analysis. The relevant articles were divided into four separate clusters that focused on AI application aspects, prediction model establishment, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment and outcome assessments, respectively. "Machine learning" was the most frequent keyword (147 occurrences, 165 links, and 395 total link strengths) followed by "risk", "models", and "mortality". With 205 articles, the United States of America (USA) had interacted the most with other countries (20 links, and 94 total link strength), while the domestic research institutes in China had infrequently collaborated with others. Approximately 130 trials focusing on the application of AI in the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department (ED) had been registered at ClinicalTrial.gov, and most of them (n=71, 54.6%) were interventional. The main research objectives of these trials were to provide decision making assistance and establish prediction models. However, only 3.8% (5 trials) of them had reached exact conclusions which favored the application of AI. Conclusions: The application of AI has raised great interest in critical illness and has mainly been focused on decision making assistance and prediction model establishment. Cooperation between agencies engaged in AI research needs to be strengthened. An increasing number of trials have been registered at ClinicalTrial.gov, and the results of them are promising. Keywords: Bibliometric analysis; artificial intelligence (AI); individualized diagnosis; critical care medicine; emergency department (ED).

9.
European heart journal open ; 2(2), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970635

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a rare cardiovascular condition characterized by reversible ventricular dysfunction and a presentation resembling that of acute myocardial infarction. An increasing number of studies has shown the association of respiratory diseases with TTS. Here, we comprehensively reviewed the literature and examined the available evidence for this association. After searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, two investigators independently reviewed 3117 studies published through May 2021. Of these studies, 99 met the inclusion criteria (n = 108 patients). In patients with coexisting respiratory disease and TTS, the most common TTS symptom was dyspnoea (70.48%), followed by chest pain (24.76%) and syncope (2.86%). The most common type of TTS was apical, accounting for 81.13% of cases, followed by the midventricular (8.49%), basal (8.49%), and biventricular (1.89%) types. Among the TTS cases, 39.82% were associated with obstructive lung disease and 38.89% were associated with pneumonia. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has been increasingly reported in patients with TTS, was identified in 29 of 42 (69.05%) patients with pneumonia. The overall mortality rate for patients admitted for respiratory disease complicated by TTS was 12.50%. Obstructive lung disease and pneumonia are the most frequently identified respiratory triggers of TTS. Medications and invasive procedures utilized in managing respiratory diseases may also contribute to the development of TTS. Furthermore, the diagnosis of TTS triggered by these conditions can be challenging due to its atypical presentation. Future prospective studies are needed to establish appropriate guidelines for managing respiratory disease with concurrent TTS. Graphical Graphical

10.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 4052-4059, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966471

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Two years into the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, populations with less built-up immunity continued to devise ways to optimize social distancing measures (SDMs) relaxation levels for outbreaks triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants to resume minimal economics activities while avoiding hospital system collapse. Method: An age-stratified compartmental model featuring social mixing patterns was first fitted the incidence data in second wave in Hong Kong. Hypothetical scenario analysis was conducted by varying population mobility and vaccination coverages (VCs) to predict the number of hospital and intensive-care unit admissions in outbreaks initiated by ancestral strain and its variants (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron). Scenarios were "unsustainable" if either of admissions was larger than the maximum of its occupancy. Results: At VC of 65%, scenarios of full SDMs relaxation (mean daily social encounters prior to COVID-19 pandemic = 14.1 contacts) for outbreaks triggered by ancestral strain, Alpha and Beta were sustainable. Restricting levels of SDMs was required such that the optimal population mobility had to be reduced to 0.9, 0.65 and 0.37 for Gamma, Delta and Omicron associated outbreaks respectively. VC improvement from 65% to 75% and 95% allowed complete SDMs relaxation in Gamma-, and Delta-driven epidemic respectively. However, this was not supported for Omicron-triggered epidemic. Discussion: To seek a path to normality, speedy vaccine and booster distribution to the majority across all age groups is the first step. Gradual or complete SDMs lift could be considered if the hybrid immunity could be achieved due to high vaccination coverage and natural infection rate among vaccinated or the COVID-19 case fatality rate could be reduced similar to that for seasonal influenza to secure hospital system sustainability.

11.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 9152201, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927683

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The possible mechanism of Xiyanping injection treatment COVID-19 is discussed through the network pharmacology. Methods: Obtaining the chemical structure of Xiyanping injection through the patent application and obtaining control compounds I, II, III, IV, V, Yanhuning injection (VI, VII), Chuanhuning injection (VIII, IX), 10 compounds were analyzed by D3Targets-2019-nCoV. The human anti-COVID-19 gene in COVID-19 DisGeNET was intersected with the CTD Andrographolide target gene and then combined with D3Targets-2019-nCoV, resulting in 93 genes, using the Venny 2.1 platform. The PPI network was constructed by the String platform and Cytoscape 3.8.2 platform. The GO, KEGG, and tissue of the target were analyzed using the Metascape platform and DAVID platform. The gene expression in the respiratory system was analyzed using the ePlant platform. The CB-Dock is used for the docking verification and degree values of the first 20 genes. Results: Finally, 1599 GO and 291 KEGG results were obtained. GO is mostly associated with the cell stress response to chemicals, the cell response to oxidative stress, and the cell response to reactive oxygen species. In total, 218 KEGG pathway concentrations were related to infection and other diseases and 73 signaling pathways mostly related to inflammation and immune pathways, such as TNF signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway. The molecular docking results show that Xiyanping injection, compound III, has a good docking relationship with 20 target proteins such as HSP90AA1. Tissue has 22 genes that are pooled in the lungs. Conclusion: Xiyanping injection may inhibit the release of various inflammatory factors by inhibiting intracellular pathways such as MAPK and TNF. It acts on protein targets such as HSP90AA1 and plays a potential therapeutic role in COVID-19. Thus, compound III may be treated as a potential new drug for the treatment of COVID-19 and the Xiyanping injection may treat patients with COVID-19 infection.

12.
J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5553-5559, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925951

ABSTRACT

Data on safety and immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are limited. In this multicenter prospective study, HCC patients received two doses of inactivated whole-virion COVID-19 vaccines. The safety and neutralizing antibody were monitored. Totally, 74 patients were enrolled from 10 centers in China, and 37 (50.0%), 25 (33.8%), and 12 (16.2%) received the CoronaVac, BBIBP-CorV, and WIBP-CorV, respectively. The vaccines were well tolerated, where pain at the injection site (6.8% [5/74]) and anorexia (2.7% [2/74]) were the most frequent local and systemic adverse events. The median level of neutralizing antibody was 13.5 (interquartile range [IQR]: 6.9-23.2) AU/ml at 45 (IQR: 19-72) days after the second dose of vaccinations, and 60.8% (45/74) of patients had positive neutralizing antibody. Additionally, lower γ-glutamyl transpeptidase level was related to positive neutralizing antibody (odds ratio = 1.022 [1.003-1.049], p = 0.049). In conclusion, this study found that inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations are safe and the immunogenicity is acceptable or hyporesponsive in patients with HCC. Given that the potential benefits may outweigh the risks and the continuing emergences of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants, we suggest HCC patients to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Future validation studies are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(23): 489-493, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893718

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic?: Aerosol transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) via sanitary pipelines in high-rise buildings is possible, however, there is a lack of experimental evidence. What is added by this report?: The field simulation experiment confirmed the existence of a vertical aerosol transmission pathway from toilet flush-soil stack-floor drains without water seal. This report provided experimental evidence for vertical aerosol transmission of clustered outbreaks on 18 floors of a 33-story residential building. What are the implications for public health practice?: The water seal on floor drains is a necessary barrier to prevent the risk of vertical aerosol transmission of infectious disease pathogens in buildings. It is necessary not only to have a U-shaped trap in the drainage pipe, but also to be filled with water regularly.

14.
Hepatol Int ; 16(3): 691-701, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on safety and immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with compensated (C-cirrhosis) and decompensated cirrhosis (D-cirrhosis) are limited. METHODS: In this prospective multicenter study, adult participants with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis were enrolled and received two doses of inactivated whole-virion COVID-19 vaccines. Adverse events were recorded within 14 days after any dose of vaccination, and serum samples of enrolled patients were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies at least 14 days after the second dose. Risk factors for negative neutralizing antibody were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 553 patients were enrolled from 15 centers in China, including 388 and 165 patients with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis. The vaccines were well tolerated, most adverse reactions were mild and transient, and injection site pain (23/388 [5.9%] vs 9/165 [5.5%]) and fatigue (5/388 [1.3%] vs 3/165 [1.8%]) were the most frequently local and systemic adverse events in both the C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Overall, 4.4% (16/363) and 0.3% (1/363) of patients were reported Grades 2 and 3 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations (defined as ALT > 2 upper limit of normal [ULN] but ≤ 5 ULN, and ALT > 5 ULN, respectively). The positive rates of COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies were 71.6% (278/388) and 66.1% (109/165) in C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Notably, Child-Pugh score of B and C levels was an independent risk factor of negative neutralizing antibody. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations are safe with acceptable immunogenicity in cirrhotic patients, and Child-Pugh score of B and C levels is associated with hyporesponsive to COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Liver Cirrhosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265216, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779750

ABSTRACT

A structural vector autoregressive model and spillover index analysis based on generalized prediction error variance decomposition were used to explore the impact of public health emergencies on the dry bulk shipping market and provide suggestions for addressing the impact of public health emergencies. Moreover, the risk fluctuation and spillover of the dry bulk shipping market during public health emergencies were analyzed to understand the ways in which public health emergencies impact the dry bulk shipping market and to quantify the impact intensity. In related studies, the influence of the international crude oil price index and dry bulk ship port berthing volume were also considered. The results show that considering the immediate impact, the increase of newly confirmed cases of COVID-19 has a significant impact on the dry bulk shipping market, which lasts for more than 3 weeks and is always a negative shock. Different types of public health emergencies have different effects on the dry bulk shipping segmented shipping market. Dry bulk shipping companies should fully understand the development of public health emergencies, make full use of risk aversion forecasting tools in financial markets and make deployments for different situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ships , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Forecasting , Humans , Public Health
16.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 813856, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Visual impairment (VI) is a growing public health concern among students as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the change in VI before and during the pandemic among students. METHODS: Data on 547,864 and 497,371 students were obtained from the Guangzhou Survey on Students' Constitution and Health (GSSCH) collected in October 2019 and October 2020, respectively. VI was defined as the unaided distance visual acuity lower than 20/25 Snellen equivalent (LogMAR 0.10) in the worse eye. Change in VI based on age and sociodemographic variables were evaluated by chi-square test for trend as appropriate. Comparisons of different categorical variables were tested by contingency tables-based chi-square test. We have further analysis of the students who went through both of the 2019 and 2020 examinations for evaluating the VI incidence during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: More than 1,045,235 students were involved in our study, among whom 271,790 (54.65%) out of 497,371 students in Guangzhou suffered from VI during the COVID-19 compared with 293,001(53.48%) visually impaired students (total tested participants = 547,864) before the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, the overall prevalence of VI actually showed an increased age tendency and reached the highest level in the 17 [80.04%, 95%Confidence interval (CI):79.53 to 80.54%] and the 18 (79.64, 95%CI: 79.06 to 80.23%) age groups. Rapid growth was detected among students aged between 9 and 16 years old (raised by 46.21) while older students were more likely to get moderate and severe VI than younger ones. Students involved in more screen-based activities [(64.83%, 2019); (66.59%, 2020)] appeared to have a higher prevalence of VI than those involved in less [(49.17%, 2019); (49.26%, 2020)]. CONCLUSION: A rising trend of VI among students was detected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the pandemic appeared to be associated with a rapid VI shift in younger and boy populations. Potential danger may arise when public health emergencies occur in the school, and more effort should be made to improve students' vision.

17.
Matter ; 5(1): 336-362, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638977

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic spread worldwide unabated. However, achieving protection from the virus in the whole respiratory tract, avoiding blood dissemination, and calming the subsequent cytokine storm remains a major challenge. Here, we develop an inhaled microfluidic microsphere using dual camouflaged methacrylate hyaluronic acid hydrogel microspheres with a genetically engineered membrane from angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor-overexpressing cells and macrophages. By timely competing with the virus for ACE2 binding, the inhaled microspheres significantly reduce SARS-CoV-2 infective effectiveness over the whole course of the respiratory system in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the inhaled microspheres efficiently neutralize proinflammatory cytokines, cause an alternative landscape of lung-infiltrated immune cells, and alleviate hyperinflammation of lymph nodes and spleen. In an acute pneumonia model, the inhaled microspheres show significant therapeutic efficacy by regulation of the multisystem inflammatory syndrome and reduce acute mortality, suggesting a powerful synergic strategy for the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19 via non-invasive administration.

18.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 2, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental illnesses in the U.S. and are estimated to consume one-third of the country's mental health treatment cost. Although anxiolytic therapies are available, many patients still exhibit treatment resistance, relapse, or substantial side effects. Further, due to the COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home order, social isolation, fear of the pandemic, and unprecedented times, the incidence of anxiety has dramatically increased. Previously, we have demonstrated dihydromyricetin (DHM), the major bioactive flavonoid extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata, exhibits anxiolytic properties in a mouse model of social isolation-induced anxiety. Because GABAergic transmission modulates the immune system in addition to the inhibitory signal transmission, we investigated the effects of short-term social isolation on the neuroimmune system. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were housed under absolute social isolation for 4 weeks. The anxiety-like behaviors after DHM treatment were examined using elevated plus-maze and open field behavioral tests. Gephyrin protein expression, microglial profile changes, NF-κB pathway activation, cytokine level, and serum corticosterone were measured. RESULTS: Socially isolated mice showed increased anxiety levels, reduced exploratory behaviors, and reduced gephyrin levels. Also, a dynamic alteration in hippocampal microglia were detected illustrated as a decline in microglia number and overactivation as determined by significant morphological changes including decreases in lacunarity, perimeter, and cell size and increase in cell density. Moreover, social isolation induced an increase in serum corticosterone level and activation in NF-κB pathway. Notably, DHM treatment counteracted these changes. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that social isolation contributes to neuroinflammation, while DHM has the ability to improve neuroinflammation induced by anxiety.


Subject(s)
Flavonols/pharmacology , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/metabolism , Social Isolation/psychology , Animals , Anxiety/metabolism , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , Flavonols/therapeutic use , Male , Maze Learning/drug effects , Maze Learning/physiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
19.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; - (5):330, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1567566

ABSTRACT

In the initial phase 3 clinical trial of the new coronavirus pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) vaccine, pregnant and lactating women were not included, resulting in the current effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnant and lactating women Data on sex and safety are extremely limited. Since the end of 2020, relevant domestic and foreign government departments and academic associations have issued some consensus or guidance on the vaccination of COVID-19, including those during pregnancy, lactation or planned pregnancy (naturally or with assisted reproductive technology). Females, but due to the timing of the release and other reasons, there are different opinions on women's vaccination against COVID-19 during the special period mentioned above. This expert consensus is based on the latest research progress at home and abroad, recommendations from relevant institutions, and relevant policies and regulations in my country, and was formed after discussions by experts. Its purpose is to provide guidance on the vaccination of COVID-19 vaccines for women in my country during pregnancy, pregnancy, and lactation.

20.
Chin Herb Med ; 13(4): 502-517, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the medication rules of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preventive oral prescriptions for COVID-19. METHODS: The preventive oral prescriptions for COVID-19 published by national and provincial health and wellness committees, administrations of TCM, medical institutions at all levels, medical masters and Chinese medicine experts were collected to establish a database, manual screening was carried out according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and frequency statistics, association rule analysis. The mutual information method, entropy hierarchical clustering and other methods were improved through Excel and the TCM inheritance auxiliary platform V2.5 to mine the rules and characteristics of medication. RESULTS: The selected 157 prescriptions contained a total of 130 TCMs. The top five TCMs with the highest use frequency were Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (86), Astragali Radix (80), Lonicerea Japonicae Flos (70), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (62), Saposhnikoviae Radix (60). In accordance with TCM efficacy classification, most of them were medicines for qi-tonifying (279), followed by medicines for clearing heat and drying dampness (163), dispelling pathogenic wind-cold (126), resolving dampness (111), as well as dispelling pathogenic wind-heat (99). The characteristics of four-natures of the selected medicines are as follows: most of them were cold (59), followed by warm (38) and mild (21). In terms of five-taste, most of them were sweet (26) and acrid-and-bitter (24), followed by sweet-and-bitter (20), bitter (20) and acrid (15). For the meridian attribution, the five-zang organs and six-fu organs were all involved, most of them attributed to lung meridian (80), followed by stomach meridian (57) and spleen meridian (40). Based on association rule analysis, 12 commonly used medicine combinations with two or three TCMs were found. The commonly used medicinal pairs included Astragali Radix and Saposhnikoviae Radix (51), Astragali Radix and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (46), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Saposhnikoviae Radix (43), Astragali Radix and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Saposhnikoviae Radix (38), Forsythiae Fructus and Astragali Radix (37), and so on. In addition, 14 core combinations of medicines were obtained by complex system entropy cluster analysis, on this basis, six new prescriptions were screened out based on unsupervised entropy hierarchical clustering analysis. According to The Catalogue of Edible Traditional Chinese Medicinal Materials, Traditional Chinese Medicinal Materials for Health Food, and New Resources of Food published by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, there are 35 species belonging to the group of edible traditional Chinese medicinal materials, 20 species belonging to the group of new resources of food, 31 species belonging to the group of traditional Chinese medicinal materials for health food, 19.11% of the preventive oral prescriptions for COVID-19 were composed of the medicines belonging to the above three groups. Besides, there are 11 toxic species, and 24.84% of the preventive oral prescriptions for COVID-19 contained toxic TCMs. CONCLUSION: We found that invigorating qi and resolving dampness were the main treatment used to prevent for COVID-19, combined with the methods for strengthening vital energy and eliminating pathogenic factors. Most of the preventive oral prescriptions for COVID-19 were treated in lung, spleen and stomach meridians. In the process of selecting prescriptions and using TCMs to prevent for COVID-19, the safety of preventive medicines was also emphasized. And the theory of "Preventive Treatment of Disease" was embodied in these preventive oral prescriptions for COVID-19. For the prescriptions containing toxic TCMs, special attention should be paid to their safety in clinical application.

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