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1.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 33, 2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multi-types COVID-19 vaccines have shown safety and efficacy against COVID-19 in adults. Although current guidelines encourage people living with HIV (PLWH) to take COVID-19 vaccines, whether their immune response to COVID-19 vaccines is distinct from HIV-free individuals is still unclear. METHODS: Between March to June 2021, 48 PLWH and 40 HNC, aged 18 to 59 years, were enrolled in the study in Wuchang district of Wuhan city. All of them received inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (Sinopharm, WIBP-CorV, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd) at day 0 and the second dose at day 28. The primary safety outcome was the combined adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection. The primary immunogenicity outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) responses by chemiluminescence and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies responses by ELISA and colloidal gold at baseline (day 0), day 14, day 28, day 42, and day 70. RESULTS: In total, the study included 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who finished 70 days' follow-up. The frequency of adverse reactions to the first and second dose was not different between PLWH (30% and 11%) vs. HNC (32% and 24%). NAbs responses among PLWH peaked at day 70, while among HNC peaked at day 42. At day 42, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) and seroconversion rate of nAbs among PLWH were 4.46 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (95% CI 3.18-5.87) and 26% (95% CI 14-41), which were lower than that among HNC [GMC (18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33), seroconversion rate (63%, 95% CI 44-79)]. IgG responses among both PLWH and HNC peaked at day 70. At day 70, the geometric mean ELISA units (GMEU) and seroconversion rate of IgG among PLWH were 0.193 ELISA units (EU)/mL (95% CI 0.119-0.313) and 51% (95% CI 34-69), which was lower than that among HNC [GMEU (0.379 EU/mL, 95% CI 0.224-0.653), seroconversion rate (86%, 95% CI 64-97)]. There were no serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Early humoral immune response to the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was weaker and delayed among the PLWH population than that among HNC. This observation remained consistent regardless of a high CD4 count with effective antiretroviral therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 883453, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865474

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is essential to controlling the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). People living with HIV (PLWH) were considered more vulnerable to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection compared with the general population. Therefore, it is urgent to protect PLWH from SARS-CoV-2 infection. For PLWH, vaccine hesitancy could be more common and may compromise vaccine coverage. Our study aimed to investigate the willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccination among PLWH and associated factors. A cross-sectional online survey was performed among PLWH and the general population from 4 April to 18 April 2021 in Wuhan, China. The multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze associated factors for COVID-19 vaccination willingness among PLWH. A total of 556 PLWH and 570 individuals from the general population were enrolled. The COVID-19 vaccine willingness among PLWH was 60.8%, which was relatively lower than that in the general population (80.9%) (P < 0.001). The results of multivariable analysis indicated that PLWH with comorbidities (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.25-3.45), those who had idea about PLWH would be more serious if they were infected with SARS-CoV-2 (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) and those who thought their antiretroviral therapy (ART) would be affected by COVID-19 epidemic (OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.22-3.42) had higher willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. PLWH who had a monthly income over 5,000 RMB (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.92) and had a sex orientation as non-homosexual (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47-0.96) were associated with lower willingness for COVID-19 vaccination. Our findings showed that the PLWH had a lower willingness for COVID-19 vaccination compared with the general population in Wuhan. Targeted interventions such as health education should be conducted to increase the willingness for COVID-19 vaccination among PLWH, thus enhancing COVID-19 vaccine uptake among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 833783, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847235

ABSTRACT

Background: In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) face more challenges. However, it is unclear if PLWH is more susceptible to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than HIV-negative individuals. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the associated risk factors among PLWH. Methods: From 1 to 30 May 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 857 PLWH and 1,048 HIV-negative individuals from the Wuchang district in Wuhan, China. Our data analysis compared the rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH and HIV-negative participants, and the proportions of symptomatic patients and asymptomatic infectors between the two groups. We also assessed the risk factors associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Results: Overall, 14/857 (1.6%) PLWH and 68/1,048 (6.5%) HIV-negative participants were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Among the SARS-CoV-2-infected PLWH participants, 6/14 (42.8%) were symptomatic patients, 4/14 (28.6%) were SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive asymptomatic infectors, and 4/14 (28.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. Among the infected HIV-negative participants, 5/68 (7.4%) patients were symptomatic and 63/68 (92.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. The rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among the PLWH than in the HIV-negative group (1.96% vs. 5.74%, p = 0.001) and the rate of morbidity among the symptomatic patients was similar between the two groups (p = 0.107). However, there were more serology-positive asymptomatic infectors among the infected HIV-negative participants than among the infected PLWH (0.54% vs. 5.46%, p = 0.001). Furthermore, being 50 years or older (aOR = 4.50, 95% CI: 1.34-15.13, p = 0.015) and having opportunistic infections (aOR = 9.59, 95% CI: 1.54-59.92, p = 0.016) were associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Conclusions: PLWH has more varied forms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection than the HIV-negative population and should, therefore, undertake routine screening to avoid late diagnosis. Also, older age (≥50 years) and having opportunistic infections increase the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Opportunistic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although people living with HIV (PLWH) were considered to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the driving force among this group of individuals is still not clear. METHODS: We investigated 1,709 PLWH through a telephone interview and identified 11 COVID-19 patients in four districts of Wuhan, China. The demographic features and major clinical characteristics of these patients were retrieved from the information management systems for COVID-19 patients of the four districts' CDC. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the driving force of COVID-19 among PLWH. RESULTS: The prevalence of COVID-19 in PLWH is 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2% - 1.0%), which is comparable to the overall population prevalence in Wuhan city (0.6%). Nine out of the 11 COVID-19 patients had relatively high CD4+ T lymphocyte count (>200/µl) and undetectable HIV viral load (<20 copies/ml), and ten of them were on antiretroviral therapy. Older PLWH with low CD4 + count, got HIV infected through homosexual activity, and had been diagnosed with HIV for a long time, were more likely to develop COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 related morbidity rates were comparable between PLWH and the general population. Older age with low CD4 count, an extended period of HIV diagnosis, and treatment-naivety were potential driving forces of COVID-19 prevalence among PLWH. Strategies for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH with weak immune responses are required.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311709

ABSTRACT

Background: The limited knowledge on the diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the early stage of the pandemic may lead to misdiagnoses, especially when the nucleic acid inspection cannot meet the mass requirement. This condition is even actual for people who are living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), for the latter is vulnerable to variable infections. Case Presentation : In this short communication, we introduced two HIV infected individuals who had PCP but was misdiagnosed as COVID-19 initially, and finally infected with SARS-CoV-2 in hospital in Wuhan, China. Eventually, both patients improved soon after they were switched to the treatment of SMZ/TMP. Conclusions: We suggested that the hospitalized COVID-19 cases should be screened with HIV and other pathogens, to prevent that PLWHA who have PCP from being misdiagnosed as COVID-19.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311708

ABSTRACT

Background: Even people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were considered to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the driving force among this group of individuals is still not clear. Methods: We investigated 1,701 PLWHA through a telephone interview and found 11 COVID-19 patients in four districts of Wuhan, China. The demographic features and major clinical characteristics of these patients were retrieved from the information management systems for COVID-19 patients of four districts’ CDC. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the driving force of COVID-19 among PLWHA. Results: The incidence proportion of COVID-19 in PLWHA is 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2% - 1.0%), which is comparable to the overall population incidence rate in Wuhan city (0.6%). Nine out of the 11 COVID-19/AIDS patients had relatively high CD4+ T lymphocyte count (>200/μl) and undetectable HIV viral load (<20 copies/ml), and ten of them were on antiretroviral therapy. PLWHA who were old, had low CD4+ T lymphocyte count, infected HIV through homosexual activity, and had been diagnosed for HIV for a long time, were more likely to develop COVID-19. Conclusions: : PLWHA has comparable COVID-19 morbidity rates as the general population, and older age, low CD4 count, long length since HIV diagnosis, and treatment-naive were potential driving forces of COVID-19 occurrence among PLWHA. Strategies in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA with worse immune responses are needed. Article Summary Line: As COVID-19 continues to spread around the world, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are also at risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA in Wuhan, China.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309351

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 still become a common threat to public health.In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effects and safety of darunavir/cobicisitat (DRV/c) in patients with confirmed COVID-19. Patients and Methods: Totally 66 patients with COVID-19 infection who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between February 3 and March 11, 2020 were collected. The patients were divided into the DRV/c group and the control group. The Primary endpoints was the time of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid conversion detected in respiratory specimens. Results: A total of 66 subjects with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in this study, 32 subjects were enrolled in the DRV/c group and 34 in the control group. The mean time to nucleic acid conversion (NAC) was shorter in DRV/c group. The cumulative nucleic acid conversion rate (CNACR) in the DRV/C group was higher during the first 2 weeks, but the difference was not statistically significant. The proportion of fever during hospitalization in the DRV/C group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P value 0.01). It was found that in DRV/c group NAC of patients with duration from symptom onset to admission within 3 days was significantly shorter (7.9 ± 6.7 days) than that of and above 3 days (15.9 ± 7.1 days)( P = 0.01). Conclusion: Although the combination of DRV/c and routine treatment for patients with non-severe COVID-19 can significantly reduce the proportion of fever after admission, but no significant differences were observed between the DRV/c group and the conventional therapy group, including overall time to nucleic acid conversion, safety and tolerability.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325515

ABSTRACT

Background: Multi-types COVID-19 vaccines have shown safety and efficacy against COVID-19 in healthy adults. Although current guidelines encourage people living with HIV(PLWH) to take COVID-19 vaccines, whether their immune response to COVID-19 vaccines is distinct from HIV-free individuals is still unclear.Methods: Between March to June 2021, 48 PLWH and 40 HNC, aged 18 to 59 years, were enrolled in the study. All of them received inactivated COVID-19 vaccine at day 0 and the second dose at day 28. The primary safety outcome was the combined adverse reactions within 7days after each injection. The primary immunogenicity outcomes were neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) responses by chemiluminescence and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies responses by ELISA and colloidal gold at baseline (day 0), day 14, day 28, day 42, and day 70.Findings: In total, the study included 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who finished 70 days’ follow-up. The frequency of adverse reactions to the first and second dose was not different between PLWH (30% and 11%) vs HNC (32% and 24%). NAbs responses among PLWH peaked at day 70, while among HNC peaked at day 42. At day 42, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) and seroconversion rate of nAbs among PLWH were 4.46 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (95% CI, 3.18-5.87) and 26% (95% CI, 14-41), which were lower than that among HNC [GMC (18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI, 10.33-32.33), seroconversion rate (63%, 95% CI, 44-79)]. IgG responses among both PLWH and HNC peaked at day 70. At day 70, the geometric mean ELISA units (GMEU) and seroconversion rate of IgG among PLWH were 0.193 ELISA units (EU)/mL (95% CI, 0.119-0.313) and 51% (95% CI, 34-69), which was lower than that among HNC [GMEU (0.379 BAU/mL, 95% CI, 0.224-0.653), seroconversion rate (86%, 95% CI, 64-97)].Interpretation: Early humoral immune response to the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was weaker and delayed among the PLWH population than that among HNC. This observation remained consistent regardless of a high CD4 count and a low HIV viral load suppressed by ART.Funding: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFE0103800), the National Nature Science Foundation of China (81903371), NIMH (R34MH119963), the National Science and Technology Major Project (2018ZX10101-001-001-003), and Special Found on Prevention and Control of New Coronary Pneumonia in Guangdong Universities (2020KZDZX1047), Medical Science and Technology Innovation Platform Support Project of Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University (PTXM2020008), Science and Technology Innovation Cultivation Fund of Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University (cxpy2017043). Medical Science Advancement Program (Basic Medical Sciences) of Wuhan University (TFJC2018004).Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Research and Ethics Committee of Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, P. R. China (2020079K-1). Informed consent was obtained from all individuals enrolled in this study.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324159

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate the safety of inactivated COVID-19 vaccineamong adult people living with HIV (PLWH). In total, 259 PLWH who received at least one dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine were enrolled, and post-vaccination adverse events (AEs) were evaluated seven days following each vaccination dose. The overall AE frequency was 22.8% after dose one, which was higher than after dose two(10.2%)(P<0.001). No severe side event or vaccine safety concern was observed. Our finding was essential in reducing vaccine hesitancy among PLWH.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324152

ABSTRACT

Background: Although people living with HIV (PLWH) are immunodeficient, it is not clear if they are more susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 infection than HIV-naïve individuals.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 857 PLWH (age≥18 years) who were in care in the Wuchang district and 1048 randomly selected HIV-naïve residents from the same district. We compared the rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the proportion of asymptomatic carriers, and the seroprevalence of antibodies in the two groups. The risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH were explored.Results: Fourteen out of 857 (1.63%) PLWH were infected with SARS-CoV-2, while 70 of 1048 (6.68%) HIV-naïve individuals were infected (P=0.001). The morbidity of COVID-19 was similar between the two groups, which were 0.70% and 0.38%, respectively (P=0.360). PLWH had more asymptomatic carriers (0.47%) than the HIV-naïve group (0.00%) (P=0.041). The proportion of unapparent patients in PLWH is lower in the HIV-naïve group (0.47% vs 6.30%, P=0.001). HIV and SARS-CoV-2 co-infected individuals were elder than HIV alone infected individuals (51.29±14.6 years vs 39.57±14.1years, P=0.020), and a higher proportion of chronic comorbidities was also observed among the co-infected group (5.81% vs 21.43%, P=0.048). Besides, PLWH with opportunistic infections (OIs) were easier to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 than those without OIs (P=0.005). Older age (aOR=4.50, 95%CI:1.34-15.13, P=0.015) and OIs (aOR=9.59, 95%CI:1.54-59.92, P=0.016) were risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH by multivariable regression analysis.Conclusion: PLWH have different infection forms and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 than the general population, while opportunistic infections were considered to be a driving cause of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HIV infected individuals.Funding Statement: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFE0103800), the National Nature Science Foundation of China (81903371), NIMH (R34MH119963), the National Science and Technology Major Project (2018ZX10101-001-001-003), and Special Found on Prevention and Control of New Coronary Pneumonia in Guangdong Universities (2020KZDZX1047), Medical Science and Technology Innovation Platform Support Project of Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University (PTXM2020008), Science and Technology Innovation Cultivation Fund of Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University (cxpy2017043). Medical Science Advancement Program (Basic Medical Sciences) of Wuhan University (TFJC2018004).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhongnan Hospital affiliated with Wuhan University (2020062), and informed consent was obtained.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307728

ABSTRACT

Background: Elderliness is known risk factor for severe progression of COVID-19 due to compromised immunity, however aberrant hyperactive immune response including autoimmunity might be responsible for younger patients. Methods: 162 patients tested with autoimmunological detections were enrolled, and study of “Severe” cases and “Non-severe” controls was retrospectively analyzed. Results: Multivariable analysis involving antinuclear autoimmunity manifests correlation of disease severity with middle age and attenuates the risk of age older than 65. Middle age (45≤age≤65) and female turn out to be the risk factors after hierarchical cluster analysis, before which however sex was not correlated. We find antinuclear autoimmunity to be strongly correlated with severity for the middle-aged (OR= 21.000, 95% CI 4.893- 90.126, p< 0.001) and female (OR= 16.044, 95% CI 4.717- 54.568, p< 0.001), especially for the middle-aged female (Pearson R= 0.770, p< 0.001). Incidence of symptoms fever and chest distress, and complication myocardial injury are statistically more frequent in patients with positive antinuclear antibody, compared with those negative. Severe patients with positive antinuclear antibody possess significantly shorter onset of symptoms to severity time (p= 0.021), indicating quicker progression, and interestingly, present more incidence (21%) of post-remission aggravation, compared with those negative (6%). Conclusions: The presence of antinuclear autoimmunity potentially makes COVID-19 prone to severe progression, especially for the middle-aged and female, probably even quicker.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4208-e4213, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe adult respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of patients with refractory COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, we included 155 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 1 January to 5 February. The cases were divided into general and refractory COVID-19 groups according to the clinical efficacy of treatment after hospitalization, and the differences between groups were compared. RESULTS: Compared with patients with general COVID-19 (45.2%), those with refractory disease were older, were more likely to be male, and had more underlying comorbid conditions, a lower incidence of fever, higher maximum temperatures among patients with fever, higher incidences of shortness of breath and anorexia, more severe disease assessment at admission, higher neutrophil, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels, lower platelet counts and albumin levels, and higher incidences of bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion (P < .05). Patients with refractory COVID-19 were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, and adjunctive treatment, including corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, and immune enhancers (P < .05). Considering the factors of disease severity at admission, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit transfer, patients with refractory COVID-19 were also more likely to be male, have manifestations of anorexia on admission, and receive oxygen, expectorant, and adjunctive agents (P < .05). CONCLUSION: In nearly 50% of patients with COVID-19 obvious clinical and radiological remission was not achieved within 10 days after hospitalization. Male, anorexia, and no fever at admission was predictive of poor treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295327

ABSTRACT

To unravel the source of SARS-CoV-2 introduction and the pattern of its spreading and evolution in the United Arab Emirates, we conducted meta-transcriptome sequencing of 1,067 nasopharyngeal swab samples collected between May 9th and Jun 29th, 2020 during the first peak of the local COVID-19 epidemic. We identified global clade distribution and eleven novel genetic variants that were almost absent in the rest of the world defined five subclades specific to the UAE viral population. Cross-settlement human-to-human transmission was related to the local business activity. Perhaps surprisingly, at least 5% of the population were co-infected by SARS-CoV-2 of multiple clades within the same host. We also discovered an enrichment of cytosine-to-uracil mutation among the viral population collected from the nasopharynx, that is different from the adenosine-to-inosine change previously reported in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and a previously unidentified upregulation of APOBEC4 expression in nasopharynx among infected patients, indicating the innate immune host response mediated by ADAR and APOBEC gene families could be tissue-specific. The genomic epidemiological and molecular biological knowledge reported here provides new insights for the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and transmission and points out future direction on host-pathogen interaction investigation.

15.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 92, 2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551214

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate the safety of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine among adult people living with HIV (PLWH). In total, 259 PLWH who received at least one dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine were enrolled, and post-vaccination adverse events (AEs) were evaluated seven days following each vaccination dose. The overall AE frequency was 22.8% after dose one, which was higher than after dose two (10.2%) (P < 0.001). No severe side event or vaccine safety concern was observed. Our finding was essential in reducing vaccine hesitancy among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1029, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, whether the immune response for SARS-CoV-2 infection among people living with HIV(PLWH) is different from HIV-naïve individuals is still not clear. METHODS: In this cohort study, COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan between January 15 and April 1, 2020, were enrolled. Patients were categorized into PLWH and HIV-naïve group. All patients were followed up regularly (every 15 days) until November 30, 2020, and the immune response towards SARS-CoV-2 was observed. RESULTS: Totally, 18 PLWH and 185 HIV-naïve individuals with COVID-19 were enrolled. The positive conversion rates of IgG were 56% in PLWH and 88% in HIV-naïve patients respectively, and the peak was on the 45th day after COVID-19 onset. However, the positive rate of IgG dropped to 12% in PLWH and 33% among HIV-naïve individuals by the end of the study. The positive conversion rate of IgG among asymptomatic carriers is significantly lower than that among patients with moderate disease (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.85). PLWH had a lower IgG seroconversion rate (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.39) and shorter IgG duration (AHR = 3.99, 95% CI 1.43-11.13) compared to HIV-naïve individuals. Patients with higher lymphocyte counts at onset had a lower positive conversion rate (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.10-0.87) and shorter duration for IgG (AHR = 4.01, 95% CI 1.78-9.02). CONCLUSIONS: The positive conversion rate of IgG for SARS-CoV-2 was relatively lower and quickly lost in PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13971, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301179

ABSTRACT

To unravel the source of SARS-CoV-2 introduction and the pattern of its spreading and evolution in the United Arab Emirates, we conducted meta-transcriptome sequencing of 1067 nasopharyngeal swab samples collected between May 9th and Jun 29th, 2020 during the first peak of the local COVID-19 epidemic. We identified global clade distribution and eleven novel genetic variants that were almost absent in the rest of the world and that defined five subclades specific to the UAE viral population. Cross-settlement human-to-human transmission was related to the local business activity. Perhaps surprisingly, at least 5% of the population were co-infected by SARS-CoV-2 of multiple clades within the same host. We also discovered an enrichment of cytosine-to-uracil mutation among the viral population collected from the nasopharynx, that is different from the adenosine-to-inosine change previously reported in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and a previously unidentified upregulation of APOBEC4 expression in nasopharynx among infected patients, indicating the innate immune host response mediated by ADAR and APOBEC gene families could be tissue-specific. The genomic epidemiological and molecular biological knowledge reported here provides new insights for the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and transmission and points out future direction on host-pathogen interaction investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Genomics , Immunity, Innate , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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