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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325171

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis and disease course monitoring of COVID-19 are mainly based on RT-PCR analysis of RNAs extracted from pharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs with potential live virus, posing a high risk to medical practitioners. Here, we investigated the feasibility of applying serum proteomics to classify COVID-19 patients in the nucleic acid positive (NCP) and negative (NCN) stages. We analyzed the proteome of 320 inactivated serum samples from 144 COVID-19 patients, and 45 controls and shortlisted 42 regulated proteins in the severe group and 12 regulated proteins in the non-severe group. Together with several key clinical indexes including days after symptom onset, platelet counts and magnesium, we developed machine learning models to classify NCP and NCN with an AUC of 0.94 for the severe cases and 0.89 for the non-severe cases. This study suggests the feasibility of utilizing quantitative serum proteomics for NCP-NCN classification.Funding: This work was supported by grants from the National Key R&D Program of China(No. 2020YFE0202200), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81672086), Zhejiang Province Analysis Test Project (2018C37032), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81972492, 21904107), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars (LR19C050001), Zhejiang Medical and Health Science and Technology Plan (2021KY394), Hangzhou Agriculture andSociety Advancement Program (20190101A04), and Westlake Education Foundation, Tencent Foundation.Conflict of Interest: Tiannan Guo is shareholder of Westlake Omics Inc. W.G. and N.X. are employees of Westlake Omics Inc. The remaining authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: This study has been approved by both the Ethical/Institutional Review Boards of Taizhou Hospital and Westlake University. Informed contents from patients were waived by the boards.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324155

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection in China had quickly spread worldwide. Recent reports showed that conjunctivitis symptoms were found in a small number of adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19. But rare children diagnosed with COVID-19 were reported to have eye symptoms. Our case showed a 2 years and 10 months old child confirmed COVID-19 had no symptoms other than conjunctivitis and eyelid dermatitis, suggesting that doctors shouldn’t forget to conduct COVID-19 screening when children come to hospital for ocular surface symptoms during this epidemic period.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322245

ABSTRACT

Background: Much remains unknown about COVID-19 onset and rehabilitation's symptomatic features, especially the long-term health consequences of patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from the hospital. Methods: In this cohort study, we collected the first pandemic data of hospitalized patients in Wuhan from February 20 to March 31, 2020. All patients completed a 3-month follow-up after discharge. We carefully analyzed the detailed symptomatic characteristics of severe COVID-19 at illness onset and three months after discharge, compared it with non-severe patients, and used multiple logistic regression to determine potential symptomatic risk factors for severe COVID-19. Results: A total of 932 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were enrolled, including 52 severe cases and 880 non-severe cases. Fever (60%), cough (50.8%), and fatigue (36.4%) were the most common symptoms, followed by anorexia (21.8%) and dyspnea (19.2%). The median duration of fever was seven days, which was characterized by persistent low fever. The median duration of cough was 17 days, characterized by dry cough without sputum. Most dyspnea occurred on the fourth day after symptom onset, with a median duration of 16 days. The incidences of taste loss and olfactory disturbance were only 6.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age over 65 years old (OR 6.52, 95% CI 3.27-13.02, P <0.0001), male sex (3.71, 1.90-7.26, P = 0.0001), fever lasting for more than five days (1.90, 1.00-3.62, P =0.0498), anorexia at onset (2.61, 1.26-5.40, P =0.0096), and modified Medical Research Council level above grade 2 when dyspnea occurred (14.19,7.01-28.71, P <0.0001) were symptomatic risk factors for severe COVID-19. Three months after discharge from the hospital, 6.2% of patients still cough, 7.2% of patients still dyspnea, and 1.8% still fatigue, and 1.5% of patients had olfactory or taste disorders. Conclusions: COVID-19 caused clusters of symptoms, with multiple systems involved. Specific symptomatic features at the onset of illness have predictive value for severe COVID-19. Persistent legacy symptoms are more frequent in severe COVID-19 patients.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313808

ABSTRACT

Background: Our understanding of the association of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and preterm or early term birth among racially and ethnically diverse populations and those with chronic medical conditions is limited. Methods: We examined the relationship between COVID-19 and preterm (PTB) birth among live births documented by California Vital Statistics birth certificates between July 2020 and January 2021 (n=240,147). We used best obstetric estimate of gestational age to classify births as very preterm (VPTB, <32 weeks), PTB (< 37 weeks), early term (37 and 38 weeks), and term (39-44 weeks), as each confer independent risks to infant health and development. Separately, we calculated the joint effects of COVID-19 diagnosis, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity on preterm and early term birth. Findings: COVID-19 diagnoses on birth certificates increased for all racial/ethnic groups between July 2020 and January 2021, and was highest for American Indian/Alaska Native (12.9%), Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (11.4%), and Latinx (10.3%) birthing people. COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of VPTB (aRR 1.6, 95% CI [1.4, 1.9]), PTB (aRR 1.4, 95% CI [1.3, 1.4]), and early term birth (aRR 1.1, 95% CI [1.1, 1.2]). There was no effect modification of the overall association by race/ethnicity or insurance status. COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with elevated risk of PTB in people with comorbidities. Interpretation: In a large population-based study, COVID-19 diagnosis increased the risk of VPTB, PTB, and early term birth, particularly among those with medical comorbidities. Prevention measures, including vaccination, should be prioritized for birthing persons. Funding Information: UCSF-Kaiser Department of Research Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health Program (BIRCWH) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH) [K12 HD052163] and the California Preterm Birth Initiative, funded by Marc and Lynn Benioff.Declaration of Interests: The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.Ethics Approval Statement: The Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects (CPHS) within the Health and Human Services Agency of the State of California approved study protocols.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312698

ABSTRACT

Background: No specific therapeutic agents or vaccines are available for the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) yet. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of high dose ulinastatin for patients with Covid-19. Methods: Twelve patients hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were treated with high dose of ulinastatin beyond standard care. The changes of clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and 2 patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0 ± 11.9 years, ranging from 48 to 87 years. Nine of 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12), and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70 ± 77.70 mg/L). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP decreased significantly and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12;mean, 6.87 ± 6.63 mg/L) on the seventh day after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not need further oxygen therapy seven days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. No obvious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data revealed that high dose of ulinastatin treatment was safe and showed a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19.

6.
Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine ; 23(2):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1678877

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no specific therapeutic agents available for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of high-dose ulinastatin for the treatment of patients with Covid-19. A total of 12 patients hospitalized with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were treated with a high dose of ulinastatin alongside standard care. Changes in clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and two patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0±11.9 years (age range, 48-87 years). In total, nine of the 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12) and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70±77.70 mg/l). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP was significantly decreased and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12;mean, 6.87±6.63 mg/l) on day 7 after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not require further oxygen therapy 7 days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. Compared with the standard care group, ulinastatin treatment significantly prevented illness deterioration. In conclusion, these preliminary data revealed that high-dose ulinastatin treatment was safe and exhibited a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine is the property of Spandidos Publications UK Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(2): 121, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594196

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no specific therapeutic agents available for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of high-dose ulinastatin for the treatment of patients with Covid-19. A total of 12 patients hospitalized with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were treated with a high dose of ulinastatin alongside standard care. Changes in clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and two patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0±11.9 years (age range, 48-87 years). In total, nine of the 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12) and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70±77.70 mg/l). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP was significantly decreased and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12; mean, 6.87±6.63 mg/l) on day 7 after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not require further oxygen therapy 7 days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. Compared with the standard care group, ulinastatin treatment significantly prevented illness deterioration. In conclusion, these preliminary data revealed that high-dose ulinastatin treatment was safe and exhibited a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19.

8.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 2: 100027, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331027

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Our understanding of the association between coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and preterm or early term birth among racially and ethnically diverse populations and people with chronic medical conditions is limited. METHODS: We determined the association between COVID-19 and preterm (PTB) birth among live births documented by California Vital Statistics birth certificates between July 2020 and January 2021 (n=240,147). We used best obstetric estimate of gestational age to classify births as very preterm (VPTB, <32 weeks), PTB (< 37 weeks), early term (37 and 38 weeks), and term (39-44 weeks), as each confer independent risks to infant health and development. Separately, we calculated the joint effects of COVID-19 diagnosis, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity on PTB and VPTB. FINDINGS: COVID-19 diagnoses on birth certificates increased for all racial/ethnic groups between July 2020 and January 2021 and were highest for American Indian/Alaska Native (12.9%), Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (11.4%), and Latinx (10.3%) birthing people. COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of VPTB (aRR 1.6, 95% CI [1.4, 1.9]), PTB (aRR 1.4, 95% CI [1.3, 1.4]), and early term birth (aRR 1.1, 95% CI [1.1, 1.2]). There was no effect modification of the overall association by race/ethnicity or insurance status. COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with elevated risk of PTB in people with hypertension, diabetes, and/or obesity. INTERPRETATION: In a large population-based study, COVID-19 diagnosis increased the risk of VPTB, PTB, and early term birth, particularly among people with medical comorbidities. Considering increased circulation of COVID-19 variants, preventative measures, including vaccination, should be prioritized for birthing persons. FUNDING: UCSF-Kaiser Department of Research Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health Program (BIRCWH) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) [K12 HD052163] and the California Preterm Birth Initiative, funded by Marc and Lynn Benioff.

9.
J Dig Dis ; 22(5): 271-281, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To discern the symptomatic features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate the severity and prognosis of the disease. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 932 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan were enrolled, including 52 severe and 880 non-severe cases. All patients were followed up for 3 months after discharge. The symptomatic features and follow-up data of the patients in both groups were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Of the 932 patients, fever (60.0%), cough (50.8%) and fatigue (36.4%) were the most common symptoms. In total, 32.7% of the severe cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms at disease onset, including anorexia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, which was significantly higher than that of the non-severe group (P = 0.0015). The incidence of olfactory disturbance and dysgeusia was only 3.1% and 6.2%, respectively. After adjusting for age and sex, multivariate regression analysis showed that fever lasting for over 5 days (odds ratio [OR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-3.62, P = 0.0498), anorexia at onset (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.26-5.40, P = 0.0096), and modified Medical Research Council level above grade 2 when dyspnea occurred (OR 14.19, 95% CI 7.01-28.71, P < 0.0001) were symptomatic risk factors for severe COVID-19. During the follow-up, cough (6.2%), dyspnea (7.2%), fatigue (1.8%), olfactory disturbance and dysgeusia (1.5%) were the significant remaining symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 causes clusters of symptoms with multiple systems involved. Certain symptomatic characteristics have predictive value for severe COVID-19. Short-term follow-up data reveal that most patients have a good prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(6): 917-927, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop a sensitive and clinically applicable risk assessment tool identifying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a high risk of mortality at hospital admission. This model would assist frontline clinicians in optimizing medical treatment with limited resources. METHODS: 6415 patients from seven hospitals in Wuhan city were assigned to the training and testing cohorts. A total of 6351 patients from another three hospitals in Wuhan, 2169 patients from outside of Wuhan, and 553 patients from Milan, Italy were assigned to three independent validation cohorts. A total of 64 candidate clinical variables at hospital admission were analyzed by random forest and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses. RESULTS: Eight factors, namely, Oxygen saturation, blood Urea nitrogen, Respiratory rate, admission before the date the national Maximum number of daily new cases was reached, Age, Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and absolute Neutrophil counts, were identified as having significant associations with mortality in COVID-19 patients. A composite score based on these eight risk factors, termed the OURMAPCN-score, predicted the risk of mortality among the COVID-19 patients, with a C-statistic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.93). The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality between patients with OURMAPCN-score >11 compared with those with scores ≤ 11 was 18.18 (95% CI 13.93-23.71; p < .0001). The predictive performance, specificity, and sensitivity of the score were validated in three independent cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The OURMAPCN score is a risk assessment tool to determine the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients based on a limited number of baseline parameters. This tool can assist physicians in optimizing the clinical management of COVID-19 patients with limited hospital resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Risk Assessment/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , China , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Risk Factors
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24544, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082613

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To clarify the effect of aspirin on mortality and viral duration in adults infected with respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2).After propensity score-matched (PSM) case-control analyses 24 pairs of patients were enrolled and followed up for 2 months. Both 30-day and 60-day mortality in the aspirin group were significantly lower than that in the non-aspirin group (P = .021 and P = .030, respectively). The viral duration time between the 2 groups was not significantly different (P = .942).Among adults (with hypertension, cardiovascular diseases) infected with SARS-Cov-2, low-dose aspirin medication (100 mg/day) was associated with lower risk of mortality compared with non-aspirin users.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Embolism/prevention & control , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Embolism/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4704

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to isolate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from nasal/throat swabs from coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients. Three nasal/throat swab samples from COVID-19 patients in Shanghai were treated with TPCK trypsin and inoculated Vero E6 cells in 96-well plates. When most of the cells showed obvious cytopathic effect, the supernatants of cell culture were collected and used to detect the viral nucleic acid by fluorescent quant. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplify the gene fragment of the virus receptor binding domain (RBD) using reverse transcription-PCR. The replicated virus was inoculated into Vero E6 cells seeded in 96-well plates, the cytopathic effect was recorded by photograph and the viral proteins were detected by immunofluorescence method. The Vero E6 cells inoculated with two of three nasal/pharyngeal swab samples showed obvious cytopathic effect and newly synthesized viral nucleic acid was detected in the supernatants of cell culture. The amplified receptor binding domain (RBD) sequence was completely consistent with the corresponding fragment of SARS-CoV-2 isolated earlier. Virus-infected Vero E6 cells showed rapid cytopathy and can react with the monoclonal antibody against nucleocapsid protein (N protein) and spike protein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-2, and convalescence sera of COVID-19 patients. Two SARS-CoV-2 strains were isolated from nasal/throat swab samples of COVID-19 patients in Shanghai, providing the basis for the mechanism research on the infection and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the development of drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

13.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(2): 255-256, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995819
15.
Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University ; 41(5):474-480, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-743064

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the efficacy of neutralizing antibodies induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor-binding domain (RBD) and spike (S) protein S1 subunit. Methods The SARS-CoV-2 RBD and mouse immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) Fc fragment (mFc) fusion protein expression plasmid pVRCRBD- mFc was constructed and transfected into human embryonic kidney 293T cells. The RBD-mFc fusion protein in the cell supernatants was detected by Western blotting. The effect of RBD-mFc in cell supernatants and CHO recombinant S1-human IgG1 Fc (S1-hFc) fusion protein on SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected by microneutralization test. BALB/c mice were immunized with plasmid pVRC-RBD-mFc and S1-hFc fusion protein via intramuscular injection. Anti-S1 IgG antibodies in mouse sera were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the virus neutralization activity of mouse sera was detected by microneutralization test. Results The RBD-mFc fusion protein could be detected in the culture supernatants of 293T cells transfected with the plasmid pVRC-RBD-mFc, the concentrated supernatants and the S1- hFc fusion protein could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection on Vero E6 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Anti-S1 IgG antibodies could be detected in the sera of mice immunized with plasmid pVRC-RBD-mFc and S1-hFc fusion protein, and the sera of both groups could neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection. The serum antibody titers and virus neutralization activity of S1- hFc fusion protein immunized mice were significantly higher than those of plasmid pVRC-RBD-mFc immunized mice (both P<0.01). Conclusion Both SARS-CoV-2 RBD and S1 subunit may be used as effective vaccine antigens. Compared with DNA vaccine, recombinant subunit vaccine can induce neutralizing antibody more effectively..

16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 129: 110500, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)2 has emerged as a global pandemic. However, as effective treatments for this disease are still unclear, safe and efficient therapies are urgently needed. Qingfei Paidu decoction (QPD)3 is strongly recommended in the Chinese Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan (Provisional 6th Edition). However, clinical research data on the effects of QPD on COVID-19 are scarce. Our study aimed to explore the effects of combined treatment with QPD and Western medicine on COVID-19. METHODS: In this study, 63 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. During the first 14 days of hospitalization, patients with deteriorating symptoms were administered QPD along with Western medicine therapy (the antiviral medicine selected from interferon, lopinavir, or arbidol). The clinical characteristics and blood laboratory indices (blood routine, inflammatory factors, and multi-organ biochemical indices) were examined, and the total lung severity scores were evaluated in each patient by reviewing chest computed tomography before treatment and at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Before QPD treatment, the combined treatment group showed higher blood C-reactive protein levels and more severe pulmonary inflammation and clinical symptoms than the Western medicine treatment group. Both groups met the discharge criteria after a similar length of hospitalization. At the end of treatment, circulating white blood cells, total lymphocyte count, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase levels improved dramatically in both groups (P <  0.05). In contrast, C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels were improved only in the combined treatment group (P <  0.05), and C-reactive protein and creatine kinase were the most pronounced (P <  0.01). Compared with baseline, at the end of treatment, the proportion of patients with normal values of C-reactive protein, total lymphocyte count, and lactate dehydrogenase were increased in the combined treatment group (P < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was observed in the Western medicine treatment group (P >  0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of QPD with Western medicine demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory effects compared with those of only Western medicine in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19; however, neither mortality nor length of hospitalization was affected. Moreover, the combined treatment tended to mitigate the extent of multi-organ impairment. Long-term randomized controlled trials with follow-up evaluations are required to confirm the results presented here.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Indoles/administration & dosage , Interferons/administration & dosage , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Cell ; 181(6): 1423-1433.e11, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116588

ABSTRACT

Many COVID-19 patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 virus develop pneumonia (called novel coronavirus pneumonia, NCP) and rapidly progress to respiratory failure. However, rapid diagnosis and identification of high-risk patients for early intervention are challenging. Using a large computed tomography (CT) database from 3,777 patients, we developed an AI system that can diagnose NCP and differentiate it from other common pneumonia and normal controls. The AI system can assist radiologists and physicians in performing a quick diagnosis especially when the health system is overloaded. Significantly, our AI system identified important clinical markers that correlated with the NCP lesion properties. Together with the clinical data, our AI system was able to provide accurate clinical prognosis that can aid clinicians to consider appropriate early clinical management and allocate resources appropriately. We have made this AI system available globally to assist the clinicians to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19 , China , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Datasets as Topic , Humans , Lung/pathology , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Radiologists , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis
20.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(5): 575-578, 2020 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20527

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: While the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in more than 100 000 infected individuals in China and worldwide, there are few reports on the association of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with ocular abnormalities. Understanding ocular manifestations of patients with COVID-19 by ophthalmologists and others may facilitate the diagnosis and prevention of transmission of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate ocular manifestations and viral prevalence in the conjunctiva of patients with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this case series, patients with COVID-19 treated from February 9 to 15, 2020, at a hospital center in Hubei province, China, were retrospectively reviewed for ocular manifestations. During the period of treatment, the ocular signs and symptoms as well as results of blood tests and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs for SARS-CoV-2 were noted and analyzed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Ocular signs and symptoms as well as results of blood tests and RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Of the 38 included patients with clinically confirmed COVID-19, 25 (65.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 65.8 (16.6) years. Among them, 28 patients (73.7%) had positive findings for COVID-19 on RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and of these, 2 patients (5.2%) yielded positive findings for SARS-CoV-2 in their conjunctival as well as nasopharyngeal specimens. A total of 12 of 38 patients (31.6%; 95% CI, 17.5-48.7) had ocular manifestations consistent with conjunctivitis, including conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, epiphora, or increased secretions. By univariate analysis, patients with ocular symptoms were more likely to have higher white blood cell and neutrophil counts and higher levels of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase than patients without ocular symptoms. In addition, 11 of 12 patients with ocular abnormalities (91.7%; 95% CI, 61.5-99.8) had positive results for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs. Of these, 2 (16.7%) had positive results for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR from both conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study, one-third of patients with COVID-19 had ocular abnormalities, which frequently occurred in patients with more severe COVID-19. Although there is a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in tears, it is possible to transmit via the eyes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Conjunctiva/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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