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2.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 153(11): 1070-1077.e1, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dental health care personnel (DHCP) may be at increased risk of exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus that causes COVID-19, as well as other clinically important pathogens. Proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) reduces occupational exposure to pathogens. The authors performed an assessment of PPE donning and doffing practices among DHCP, using a fluorescent marker as a surrogate for pathogen transmission. METHODS: Participants donned PPE (that is, disposable gown, gloves, face mask, and eye protection) and the fluorescent marker was applied to their palms and abdomen. DHCP then doffed PPE according to their usual practices. The donning and doffing processes were video recorded, areas of fluorescence were noted, and protocol deviations were assessed. Statistical analyses included frequency, type, and descriptions of protocol deviations and factors associated with fluorescence. RESULTS: Seventy DHCP were enrolled. The donning and doffing steps with the highest frequency of protocol deviations were hand hygiene (66% of donning and 78% of doffing observations involved a deviation) and disposable gown use (63% of donning and 60% of doffing observations involved a deviation). Fluorescence was detected on 69% of DHCP after doffing, most frequently on hands. An increasing number of protocol deviations was significantly associated with increased risk of fluorescence. DHCP with a gown doffing deviation, excluding doffing out of order, were more likely to have fluorescence detected. CONCLUSIONS: DHCP self-contamination was common with both donning and doffing PPE. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Proper use of PPE is an important component of occupational health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Delivery of Health Care
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its emergence in late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 continues to pose a risk to healthcare personnel (HCP) and patients in healthcare settings. Although all clinical interactions likely carry some risk of transmission, human actions like coughing and care activities like aerosol-generating procedures likely have a higher risk of transmission. The rapid emergence and global spread of SARS-CoV-2 continues to create significant challenges in healthcare facilities, particularly with shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) used by HCP. Evidence-based recommendations for what PPE to use in conventional, contingency, and crisis standards of care continue to be needed. Where evidence is lacking, the development of specific research questions can help direct funders and investigators. OBJECTIVE: Develop evidence-based rapid guidelines intended to support HCP in their decisions about infection prevention when caring for patients with suspected or known COVID-19. METHODS: IDSA formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel including frontline clinicians, infectious disease specialists, experts in infection control, and guideline methodologists with representation from the disciplines of public health, medical microbiology, pediatrics, critical care medicine and gastroenterology. The process followed a rapid recommendation checklist. The panel prioritized questions and outcomes. Then a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the certainty of evidence and make recommendations. RESULTS: The IDSA guideline panel agreed on eight recommendations, including two updated recommendations and one new recommendation added since the first version of the guideline. Narrative summaries of other interventions undergoing evaluations are also included. CONCLUSIONS: Using a combination of direct and indirect evidence, the panel was able to provide recommendations for eight specific questions on the use of PPE for HCP providing care for patients with suspected or known COVID-19. Where evidence was lacking, attempts were made to provide potential avenues for investigation. There remain significant gaps in the understanding of the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and PPE recommendations may need to be modified in response to new evidence. These recommendations should serve as a minimum for PPE use in healthcare facilities and do not preclude decisions based on local risk assessments or requirements of local health jurisdictions or other regulatory bodies.

4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 58: 43-51, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850556

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in millions of cases worldwide. As the pandemic has progressed, the understanding of this disease has evolved. OBJECTIVE: This narrative review provides emergency clinicians with a focused update of the resuscitation and airway management of COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Patients with COVID-19 and septic shock should be resuscitated with buffered/balanced crystalloids. If hypotension is present despite intravenous fluids, vasopressors including norepinephrine should be initiated. Stress dose steroids are recommended for patients with severe or refractory septic shock. Airway management is the mainstay of initial resuscitation in patients with COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 and ARDS should be managed similarly to those ARDS patients without COVID-19. Clinicians should not delay intubation if indicated. In patients who are more clinically stable, physicians can consider a step-wise approach as patients' oxygenation needs escalate. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) are recommended over elective intubation. Prone positioning, even in awake patients, has been shown to lower intubation rates and improve oxygenation. Strategies consistent with ARDSnet can be implemented in this patient population, with a goal tidal volume of 4-8 mL/kg of predicted body weight and targeted plateau pressures <30 cm H2O. Limited data support the use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NBMA), recruitment maneuvers, inhaled pulmonary vasodilators, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). CONCLUSION: This review presents a concise update of the resuscitation strategies and airway management techniques in patients with COVID-19 for emergency medicine clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Shock, Septic , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-6, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805485

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of various aerosol mitigation interventions and to establish duration of aerosol persistence in a variety of dental clinic configurations. METHODS: We performed aerosol measurement studies in endodontic, orthodontic, periodontic, pediatric, and general dentistry clinics. We used an optical aerosol spectrometer and wearable particulate matter sensors to measure real-time aerosol concentration from the vantage point of the dentist during routine care in a variety of clinic configurations (eg, open bay, single room, partitioned operatories). We compared the impact of aerosol mitigation strategies (eg, ventilation and high-volume evacuation (HVE), and prevalence of particulate matter) in the dental clinic environment before, during, and after high-speed drilling, slow-speed drilling, and ultrasonic scaling procedures. RESULTS: Conical and ISOVAC HVE were superior to standard-tip evacuation for aerosol-generating procedures. When aerosols were detected in the environment, they were rapidly dispersed within minutes of completing the aerosol-generating procedure. Few aerosols were detected in dental clinics, regardless of configuration, when conical and ISOVAC HVE were used. CONCLUSIONS: Dentists should consider using conical or ISOVAC HVE rather than standard-tip evacuators to reduce aerosols generated during routine clinical practice. Furthermore, when such effective aerosol mitigation strategies are employed, dentists need not leave dental chairs fallow between patients because aerosols are rapidly dispersed.

6.
Am J Emerg Med ; 57: 114-123, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803389

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in millions of cases worldwide. As the pandemic has progressed, the understanding of this disease has evolved. Its impact on the health and welfare of the human population is significant; its impact on the delivery of healthcare is also considerable. OBJECTIVE: This article is another paper in a series addressing COVID-19-related updates to emergency clinicians on the management of COVID-19 patients with cardiac arrest. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. From a global perspective, as of February 23, 2022, 435 million infections have been noted with 5.9 million deaths (1.4%). Current data suggest an increase in the occurrence of cardiac arrest, both in the outpatient and inpatient settings, with corresponding reductions in most survival metrics. The frequency of out-of-hospital lay provider initial care has decreased while non-shockable initial cardiac arrest rhythms have increased. While many interventions, including chest compressions, are aerosol-generating procedures, the risk of contagion to healthcare personnel is low, assuming appropriate personal protective equipment is used; vaccination with boosting provides further protection against contagion for the healthcare personnel involved in cardiac arrest resuscitation. The burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on the delivery of cardiac arrest care is considerable and, despite multiple efforts, has adversely impacted the chain of survival. CONCLUSION: This review provides a focused update of cardiac arrest in the setting of COVID-19 for emergency clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hospitals , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 56: 158-170, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757043

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in millions of cases worldwide. As the pandemic has progressed, the understanding of this disease has evolved. OBJECTIVE: This is the second part in a series on COVID-19 updates providing a focused overview of the medical management of COVID-19 for emergency and critical care clinicians. DISCUSSION: COVID-19, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A variety of medical therapies have been introduced for use, including steroids, antivirals, interleukin-6 antagonists, monoclonal antibodies, and kinase inhibitors. These agents have each demonstrated utility in certain patient subsets. Prophylactic anticoagulation in admitted patients demonstrates improved outcomes. Further randomized data concerning aspirin in outpatients with COVID-19 are needed. Any beneficial impact of other therapies, such as colchicine, convalescent plasma, famotidine, ivermectin, and vitamins and minerals is not present in reliable medical literature. In addition, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are not recommended. CONCLUSION: This review provides a focused update of the medical management of COVID-19 for emergency and critical care clinicians to help improve care for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 54: 46-57, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653950

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in millions of cases worldwide. As the pandemic has progressed, the understanding of this disease has evolved. OBJECTIVE: This first in a two-part series on COVID-19 updates provides a focused overview of the presentation and evaluation of COVID-19 for emergency clinicians. DISCUSSION: COVID-19, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several variants exist, including a variant of concern known as Delta (B.1.617.2 lineage) and the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529 lineage). The Delta variant is associated with higher infectivity and poor patient outcomes, and the Omicron variant has resulted in a significant increase in infections. While over 80% of patients experience mild symptoms, a significant proportion can be critically ill, including those who are older and those with comorbidities. Upper respiratory symptoms, fever, and changes in taste/smell remain the most common presenting symptoms. Extrapulmonary complications are numerous and may be severe, including the cardiovascular, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and dermatologic systems. Emergency department evaluation includes focused testing for COVID-19 and assessment of end-organ injury. Imaging may include chest radiography, computed tomography, or ultrasound. Several risk scores may assist in prognostication, including the 4C (Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium) score, quick COVID Severity Index (qCSI), NEWS2, and the PRIEST score, but these should only supplement and not replace clinical judgment. CONCLUSION: This review provides a focused update of the presentation and evaluation of COVID-19 for emergency clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 352-359, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544688

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a noninvasive ventilation (NIV) system that has demonstrated promise in the emergency department (ED) setting. OBJECTIVE: This narrative review evaluates the utility of HFNC in adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in the ED setting. DISCUSSION: HFNC provides warm (37 °C), humidified (100% relative humidity) oxygen at high flows with a reliable fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). HFNC can improve oxygenation, reduce airway resistance, provide humidified flow that can flush anatomical dead space, and provide a low amount of positive end expiratory pressure. Recent literature has demonstrated efficacy in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), interstitial lung disease, immunocompromised states, the peri-intubation state, and palliative care, with reduced need for intubation, length of stay, and mortality in some of these conditions. Individual patient factors play an important role in infection control risks with respect to the use of HFNC in patients with COVID-19. Appropriate personal protective equipment, adherence to hand hygiene, surgical mask placement over the HFNC device, and environmental controls promoting adequate room ventilation are the foundation for protecting healthcare personnel. Frequent reassessment of the patient placed on HFNC is necessary; those with severe end organ dysfunction, thoracoabdominal asynchrony, significantly increased respiratory rate, poor oxygenation despite HFNC, and tachycardia are at increased risk of HFNC failure and need for further intervention. CONCLUSIONS: HFNC demonstrates promise in several conditions requiring respiratory support. Further randomized trials are needed in the ED setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Cannula , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045557, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated widespread shortages of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and the creation and sharing of proposed substitutes (novel designs, repurposed materials) with limited testing against regulatory standards. We aimed to categorically test the efficacy and fit of potential N95 respirator substitutes using protocols that can be replicated in university laboratories. SETTING: Academic medical centre with occupational health-supervised fit testing along with laboratory studies. PARTICIPANTS: Seven adult volunteers who passed quantitative fit testing for small-sized (n=2) and regular-sized (n=5) commercial N95 respirators. METHODS: Five open-source potential N95 respirator substitutes were evaluated and compared with commercial National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved N95 respirators as controls. Fit testing using the 7-minute standardised Occupational Safety and Health Administration fit test was performed. In addition, protocols that can be performed in university laboratories for materials testing (filtration efficiency, air resistance and fluid resistance) were developed to evaluate alternate filtration materials. RESULTS: Among five open-source, improvised substitutes evaluated in this study, only one (which included a commercial elastomeric mask and commercial HEPA filter) passed a standard quantitative fit test. The four alternative materials evaluated for filtration efficiency (67%-89%) failed to meet the 95% threshold at a face velocity (7.6 cm/s) equivalent to that of a NIOSH particle filtration test for the control N95 FFR. In addition, for all but one material, the small surface area of two 3D-printed substitutes resulted in air resistance that was above the maximum in the NIOSH standard. CONCLUSIONS: Testing protocols such as those described here are essential to evaluate proposed improvised respiratory protection substitutes, and our testing platform could be replicated by teams with similar cross-disciplinary research capacity. Healthcare professionals should be cautious of claims associated with improvised respirators when suggested as FFR substitutes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , Respiratory Protective Devices , Adult , Equipment Design , Humans , N95 Respirators , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Ventilators, Mechanical
12.
J Addict Med ; 16(2): e133-e136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the barriers to accessing health care and social services faced by people who inject drugs (PWID) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This report is a sub-analysis of a larger qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with PWID admitted to an academic medical center from 2017 to 2020 for an invasive injection-related infection. Standard qualitative analysis techniques, consisting of both inductive and deductive approaches, were used to identify and characterize the effects of COVID-19 on participants. RESULTS: Among the 30 PWID interview participants, 14 reported barriers to accessing health and addiction services due to COVID-19. As facilities decreased appointment availability or transitioned to telemedicine, PWID reported being unable to access services. Social distancing led to isolation or loneliness during hospital stays and in the community. Recovery meetings and support groups, critical to addiction recovery, were particularly affected. Other participants reported that uncertainty and fear of contracting the virus generated changes in behavior that led them to avoid seeking services. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has disrupted health systems and social services, leading PWID to experience unprecedented barriers to accessing and maintaining health and addiction services in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Opioid use disorder management must be understood as a holistic process, and a multidisciplinary approach to ensuring comprehensive care, even in the midst of this pandemic, is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology
14.
CJEM ; 22(5): 587-590, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834795

ABSTRACT

A 37-year-old female presents with cough, fever, dyspnea, and myalgias for five days after recent contact with a family member with confirmed 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Her vital signs include T 38.3° C, HR 108, BP 118/70 mm Hg, RR 26 breaths per minute, and oxygen saturation 67% on room air. She is not in respiratory distress currently and is protecting her airway. Her chest X-ray reveals bilateral airspace opacities. You plan to immediately intervene and address her hypoxia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Airway Management/methods , COVID-19 , Canada , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Role , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome , Vital Signs
15.
CJEM ; 22(5): 591-594, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326701

ABSTRACT

A 53-year-old male presents with cough, fever, and myalgias for 7 days. Vitals include temperature, 38.0°C; heart rate, 110; blood pressure, 118/70 mm Hg; respiration rate, 28; and oxygen saturation 83% on room air. His only past medical history is hypertension. Your community is in the midst of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The patient is hypoxic but responds to oxygen supplementation with nasal cannula and a face mask. His chest x-ray demonstrates multifocal infiltrates. Are there any therapeutic agents currently available for COVID-19?


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Alanine/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Steroids/administration & dosage , Steroids/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome
16.
J Am Coll Surg ; 231(2): 275-280, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125470

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment (PPE) has been an invaluable yet limited resource when it comes to protecting healthcare workers against infection during the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. In the US, N95 respirator supply chains are severely strained and conservation strategies are needed. A multidisciplinary team at the Washington University School of Medicine, Barnes Jewish Hospital, and BJC Healthcare was formed to implement a program to disinfect N95 respirators. The process described extends the life of N95 respirators using vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) disinfection and allows healthcare workers to retain their own N95 respirator across a large metropolitan healthcare system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Academic Medical Centers , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Missouri/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 44: 220-229, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-14054

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Rapid worldwide spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This review article provides emergency physicians with an overview of the most current understanding of COVID-19 and recommendations on the evaluation and management of patients with suspected COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for causing COVID-19, is primarily transmitted from person-to-person through close contact (approximately 6 ft) by respiratory droplets. Symptoms of COVID-19 are similar to other viral upper respiratory illnesses. Three major trajectories include mild disease with upper respiratory symptoms, non-severe pneumonia, and severe pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Emergency physicians should focus on identifying patients at risk, isolating suspected patients, and informing hospital infection prevention and public health authorities. Patients with suspected COVID-19 should be asked to wear a facemask. Respiratory etiquette, hand washing, and personal protective equipment are recommended for all healthcare personnel caring for suspected cases. Disposition depends on patient symptoms, hemodynamic status, and patient ability to self-quarantine. CONCLUSION: This narrative review provides clinicians with an updated approach to the evaluation and management of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infection Control/methods , Physicians , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Respiratory Protective Devices
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