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1.
Trends and Developments for the Future of Language Education in Higher Education ; : 187-207, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068209

ABSTRACT

This chapter considers how practitioners at a Sino-British institution have developed English language learning pathways and courses for students enrolled on industry-themed programmes to support a new syntegrative educational model. The chapter considers some of the challenges these educators have faced, not only because of the need to create offerings from the ground up, but also because of the difficulties COVID-19 and broader institutional provisional evolutions have presented. With this in mind, how the staff overcame the challenges they faced in responding to the foundation year developments, creating year two modules and business courses, whilst also providing ongoing continuing language and study skills support for students, along with administrative support, will be presented in the form of solutions and recommendations. It is hoped that others can learn from these experiences and reflections.

2.
Economic Change and Restructuring ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1982218

ABSTRACT

Carbon pricing is one of the key policy tools in the green recovery of the post-COVID-19 era. As linkages among ETSs worldwide are future trend, the carbon price spillover effects among markets are needed to be explored. This study examines the spillover effects and dynamic linkages of carbon prices using the example of China’s pilot carbon markets during 2015–2019, which are seemingly independent carbon markets. A structural vector error correction model and an improved directed acyclic graph approach are applied. The main results are as follows. First, the linkages among the five pilots demonstrate features of “two small-world networks.” Specifically, these are the Guangdong and Hubei network and the Beijing, Shenzhen and Shanghai network. Second, Shenzhen, Beijing and Hubei ranked as the top three pilots in terms of external spillover effect, accounting for 36.25%, 29.76%, and 25.59%, respectively. Second, Guangdong pilot has increasing influence on the Hubei, Shenzhen and Beijing pilots. Third, trading activities are positive contributors to the spillover, while the allowance illiquidity ratio and volatility are negative factors. The findings imply that to retain an expectable abatement costs in achieving the climate goals in green recovery, carbon prices in other potentially related markets should be considered by the policy maker in addition to its own policy design. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

3.
China Tropical Medicine ; 22(3):240-245, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1879662

ABSTRACT

Objective To construct SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, optimize its preparation protocol, and apply it to the evaluation of antibody neutralization activity. Methods The optimized sequence of spike (S) gene of SARS-CoV-2 was synthesized, the pseudovirus titers were measured, and the expressed S protein was then detected by Western blot. Finally, quantitative ELISA was used to measure the serum IgG antibody titers in recipients who had received either one or two doses of COVID-19 inactivated vaccine. Meanwhile, the sera were tested for their reactivity with the pseudovirus using neutralization tests. Results S gene was confirmed to have been successfully cloned into the vector, generating the pcDNA3.1-S plasmid. Co-transfection of pNL4-3.Luc.R-E- and pcDNA3.1-S at a ratio of 2∶1 could lead to higher packing efficacy and pseudovirus titers. Expression of the S protein was verified by Western blot. Moreover, this SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus showed a broad host infectivity in Vero, Huh7.5, A549-hACE2 and 293T-hACE2 cells, with the highest relative luciferase unit (RLU) in 293T-hACE2. Comparing the IgG levels measured by ELISA in sera collected from COVID-19 vaccine recipients, we observed a higher titer in those who received two doses of inactivated vaccine (S/CO=10.27±3.33), measured one week after the second shot. However, the IgG level significantly dropped(S/CO=2.36±2.25)half year post-vaccination. Amongst the serum samples tested, one with an S/CO of 10.32 could successfully inhibit the infection of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in 293T-hACE2 cells at a dilution of 1/1 066. Conclusion We have established a method for preparing the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, which can be used for detection of the neutralizing antibodies and the evaluation of humoral immune response post-vaccination. © 2022 Editorial Office of Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control. All Rights Reserved.

4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(4): 474-478, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834947

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the course of disease and epidemiological parameters of COVID-19 and provide evidence for making prevention and control strategies. Methods: To display the distribution of course of disease of the infectors who had close contacts with COVID-19 cases from January 1 to March 15, 2020 in Guangdong Provincial, the models of Lognormal, Weibull and gamma distribution were applied. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the basic characteristics and epidemiological parameters of course of disease. Results: In total, 515 of 11 580 close contacts were infected, with an attack rate about 4.4%, including 449 confirmed cases and 66 asymptomatic cases. Lognormal distribution was fitting best for latent period, incubation period, pre-symptomatic infection period of confirmed cases and infection period of asymptomatic cases; Gamma distribution was fitting best for infectious period and clinical symptom period of confirmed cases; Weibull distribution was fitting best for latent period of asymptomatic cases. The latent period, incubation period, pre-symptomatic infection period, infectious period and clinical symptoms period of confirmed cases were 4.50 (95%CI:3.86-5.13) days, 5.12 (95%CI:4.63-5.62) days, 0.87 (95%CI:0.67-1.07) days, 11.89 (95%CI:9.81-13.98) days and 22.00 (95%CI:21.24-22.77) days, respectively. The latent period and infectious period of asymptomatic cases were 8.88 (95%CI:6.89-10.86) days and 6.18 (95%CI:1.89-10.47) days, respectively. Conclusion: The estimated course of COVID-19 and related epidemiological parameters are similar to the existing data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies
5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(4): 239-242, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649049

ABSTRACT

Since April 2020, the epidemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic (COVID-19 epidemic) in China has entered the phase of normalized prevention and control. After the exploration phase of normalized prevention and control, China's epidemic prevention and control has entered the "dynamic COVID-zero" phase of whole-chain precise prevention and control. The dynamic COVID-zero strategy is to follow the premise of "external prevention of import, internal prevention of rebound" prevention and control strategy, when the emergence of local COVID-19 cases, to take effective comprehensive prevention and control measures, and to "find one, extinguish one", to quickly cut off the chain of epidemic transmission, so that each epidemic is terminated in a timely manner, achieving maximum effectiveness with minimum cost. With the application of new technologies such as large-scale nucleic acid detection and big data tracking, the dynamic COVID-zero strategy was developed, which is China's novel experience in the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic. The dynamic COVID-zero strategy is an innovative prevention and control strategy proposed and implemented in China during the normalized prevention and control phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, whose prevention and control objectives, technical means, and work focus are different from the traditional "containment" strategy and "mitigation" strategy on ending the epidemic. This paper analyzes and summarizes the three phases of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control in China, the dynamic COVID-zero strategy and its scientific connotation, evolutionary process, theoretical basis, implementation phases and effects, and provides a scientific basis for epidemic prevention and control in winter and spring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Data Collection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
6.
Chinese General Practice ; 25(1):14-19, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1622840

ABSTRACT

Since the first case of the Omicron(B.1.1.529) variant discovered in South Africa was reported to the WHO on November 24, 2021, a total of 57 countries(regions) had reported Omicron cases as of December 8, 2021. Omicron has become the dominant strain in some African countries and is spreading rapidly. Although Omicron causes mild symptoms, with most cases being asymptomatic and mild, the rapid increase in the number of cases could put a heavy strain on global health systems. In addition, its source, transmission characteristics and vaccine resistance remain unclear, which brings great challenges to pandemic prevention and control in all countries(regions). We reviewed the latest developments in etiological characteristics, mutation sources, transmission characteristics and possible mechanisms, pandemic status, vaccine protection effect and containment measures regarding Omicron, providing a reference for scientific containment of Omicron mutant. Copyright © 2022 by the Chinese General Practice.

7.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293451

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to analyse clinical characteristics and find potential factors predicting poor prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We analyzed the demographic and clinical data of COVID-19 patients and detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in urine sediments collected from 53 COVID-19 patients enrolled in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 31, 2020 to February 18, 2020 with qRT-PCR analysis, and then classified those patients based on clinical conditions (severe or non-severe syndrome) and urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA (U RNA - or U RNA + ). Results: We found that COVID-19 patients with severe syndrome (severe patients) showed significantly higher positive rate (11 of 23, 47.8%) of urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA than non-severe patients (4 of 30, 13.3%, p = 0.006). U RNA + patients or severe U RNA + subgroup exhibited higher prevalence of inflammation and immune discord, cardiovascular diseases, liver damage and renal disfunction, and higher risk of death than U RNA - patients. To understand the potential mechanisms underlying the viral urine shedding, we performed renal histopathological analysis on postmortems of patients with COVID-19 and found that severe renal vascular endothelium lesion characterized by increase of the expression of thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor, markers to assess the endothelium dysfunction. We proposed a theoretical and mathematic model to depict the potential factors determining the urine shedding of SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: This study indicated that urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in urine specimens can be used to predict the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 severity.

8.
6th International Conference on Information Management and Technology, CIMTECH 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1394242

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of wireless Internet technology has a profound impact on the life and study of college students, an important user base of mobile Internet terminals. During the covid-19 epidemic, colleges all over the country responded to the call of the Ministry of Education to "Suspended classes, ongoing learning", and "Internet plus education"was in hot demand, setting off a wave of "online courses". How is college students' satisfaction with online courses? These have become important questions. This study constructs a structural equation model of the relationship between perceived quality of online courses, students' expectation, perceived value of online courses and students' satisfaction. By issuing online questionnaires, the model is empirically tested with the university students in Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, and the empirical results support most research hypotheses. Perceived quality of online courses, students' expectation and perceived value of online courses all work together to establish the model of students' satisfaction. We found that with the exception of "students' expectation"to "perceived value of online courses"that there is no obvious correlation, other cause variables and outcome variables were all significantly correlated, and we further discuss the overall quality of online courses and students. © 2021 ACM.

9.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series ; 1969(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1327330

ABSTRACT

The world is enduring difficulties in numerous fields because of this Coronavirus pandemic flare-up. All government had played it safe to forestall the infection transmission, for example, rehearsing social distancing and temperature checking before entering any preface just as declaring a lockdown. Notwithstanding, the 1-meter distance is not straightforward to estimate by unaided eyes, and it is difficult to carry along a meter rule regularly. Subsequently, inadvertently connect with others. Therefore, this would build our danger of getting contaminated by the COVID-19 infection. Moreover, the thermometer put at each person’s passageway has the threat of causing disease since numerous individuals share it. Regardless of whether a specialist is appointed to quantify guests’ temperature, the person does not have the option to keep up the guest’s social distance when taking temperature. In this research, a sensing bracelet proposed to determine physical distancing and temperature. The bracelet has two fundamental capacities. It can continually screen distance among client and others utilising a sensor. It will warn the client to keep up social distancing and avoid swarmed places when it distinguishes individuals under 1 meter. Second, it has a temperature sensor to determine the client’s internal heat level and will ring to caution the client if the internal heat level is more than 37.5°C. The experiment conducted able to achieve the requirement for a physical distancing.

10.
Physical Activity and Health ; 5(1):71-75, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1229421

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity continues to be a serious problem. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to great life-changing challenges amongst schoolchildren, which might subsequently aggravate existing childhood obesity issues. We suggest that educators and schools need to provide solutions to the problem. © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

11.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-8060

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to analyse clinical characteristics and find potential factors predicting poor prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We analyzed the demographic and clinical data of COVID-19 patients and detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in urine sediments collected from 53 COVID-19 patients enrolled in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 31, 2020 to February 18, 2020 with qRT-PCR analysis, and then classified those patients based on clinical conditions (severe or non-severe syndrome) and urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA (U <sub>RNA</sub> <sup>-</sup> or U <sub>RNA</sub> <sup>+</sup> ). Results: We found that COVID-19 patients with severe syndrome (severe patients) showed significantly higher positive rate (11 of 23, 47.8%) of urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA than non-severe patients (4 of 30, 13.3%, p = 0.006). U <sub>RNA</sub> <sup>+</sup> patients or severe U <sub>RNA</sub> <sup>+</sup> subgroup exhibited higher prevalence of inflammation and immune discord, cardiovascular diseases, liver damage and renal disfunction, and higher risk of death than U <sub>RNA</sub> <sup>-</sup> patients. To understand the potential mechanisms underlying the viral urine shedding, we performed renal histopathological analysis on postmortems of patients with COVID-19 and found that severe renal vascular endothelium lesion characterized by increase of the expression of thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor, markers to assess the endothelium dysfunction. We proposed a theoretical and mathematic model to depict the potential factors determining the urine shedding of SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: This study indicated that urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in urine specimens can be used to predict the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 severity.

12.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(10): 695-699, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049073

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an important public health issue of great concern at home and abroad, and it is still in the state of global pandemic. During the normalization stage of prevention and control of the epidemic of COVID-19, China effectively controlled the outbreak and spread of the epidemic by adopting the strategy of "import of external prevention and rebound of internal prevention", and effectively reduced the occurrence of death cases. The social economy recovered quickly, and various measures were highly recognized by the public, and the positive trend of the epidemic continued to consolidate. At present, although the spread of the local epidemic has been basically stopped, the international epidemic continues to rise rapidly, and the pressure of "imported prevention and control" in China continues to increase. Considering the characteristics of the normalization of epidemic prevention and control and the particularity of the virus, the connotation of the normalization of epidemic prevention and control should be understood scientifically. The prevention and control goal of the epidemic in the normalization stage should be to maximize early detection, early treatment and early disposal, and resolutely prevent the continuous spread of the epidemic in communities, that is, to prevent the infection as much as possible, and resolutely prevent the rebound (sustained spread in communities), rather than "zero infection". The prevention and control policy of "timely detection, rapid disposal, precise management and control, and effective treatment" has been implemented in various localities, and a series of effective and regular experience in prevention and control has been formed in the practice of prevention and control. Winter and spring are the key periods for the prevention and control of the epidemic. We should continue to work together to prevent and control the epidemic, fulfill the responsibilities of all parties, and prevent and control the epidemic in a scientific and effective way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Chest ; 158(6):2700-2701, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1046919
14.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; 53(11):923-927, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-995252

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate epidemiological features of skin damage among front-line healthcare workers fighting against COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was released on an online survey website "wenjuan.com", and sent to the front-line medical staff caring for patients with confirmed COVID-19 in 6 infectious disease wards of the General Hospital of Central Theater Command of PLA via WeChat from March 10th to 20th, 2020. Then, the questionnaires were collected, a database was established, and statistical analysis was performed on the incidence, types and epidemiological characteristics of skin damage among the medical staff. Results: A total of about 550 medical staff were surveyed, 404 questionnaires were collected, of which 391 were valid, and 303 cases had skin damage. The survey showed that females, hand cleaning frequency >10 times per day, wearing three-level protective equipment for more than 6 hours per week were risk factors for skin damage, and frequent use of a hand cream could reduce skin problems. Among the respondents, the incidence of skin damage was significantly higher in the females (79.81%, 249/312) than in the males (38.35%, 54/79;χ2 = 4.741, P = 0.029), and higher in the groups with hand cleaning frequency of 10-20 times per day (79.73%, 118/148) and >20 times per day (85.71%, 84/98) than in the group with hand cleaning frequency of 1-10 times per day (69.66%, 101/145;χ2 = 9.330, P = 0.009). The incidence of skin damage was significantly lower in the group wearing protective equipment for 1-5 hours per week (64.04%, 73/114) than in the groups wearing protective equipment for 6-10 hours per week (81.48%, 66/81), 11-15 hours per week (95.24%, 20/21), 16-20 hours per week (81.82%, 36/44), 21-25 hours per week (86.49%, 32/37), and >25 hours per week (80.85%, 76/94;χ2 = 19.164, P = 0.002). Among the 391 respondents, the skin damage related to disinfection and protective equipment mainly manifested as dry skin (72.89%), desquamation (56.78%), skin pressure injury (54.48%), skin maceration (45.01%), and sensitive skin (33.50%);acne (27.11%) was the related skin disease with the highest incidence, followed by facial dermatitis (23.27%), eczematous dermatitis (21.48%), folliculitis (18.92%), dermatomycosis (11.00%), urticaria (9.21%), etc. Conclusion: There was a high incidence of skin damage related to protective equipment among the front-line healthcare workers fighting against COVID-19, and strengthening skin protection could markedly reduce the incidence of skin damage. Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

15.
AHURI Final Report ; 346, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-967704

ABSTRACT

Key points • Predictions about the impact to Australian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2020 suggest a range approximately 5 per cent to 25 per cent lower than in late 2019. There is a broad consensus that GDP growth in 2021 will deliver a total level of output approximately 4 per cent to 5 per cent lower than in late 2019. • There are 956,000 households living in Housing Affordability Stress (HAS) in Australia. Commonwealth Rent Assistance (CRA) reduces this number to 758,000. There is a heavy concentration in the private rental sector (69%) but this is reduced to 61 per cent after CRA is taken into account. • Nearly 50,000 households that face high housing cost burdens themselves also own a private investment property – this is cause for concern given that private renters have been disproportionately affected by the downturn. • It is estimated that the number of households living with HAS would have risen to 1,336,000 (from the 758,000 baseline) without the JobKeeper and JobSeeker interventions. • The JobKeeper and JobSeeker interventions reduced the incidence of housing affordability stress by a considerable amount: 861,500 household compared to 1,336,000 without the intervention. • As JobKeeper moves through its later phases, HAS gradually rises by a further 124,000 compared to phase one, and 73 per cent of these households are private renters. • A combination of CRA and a 25 per cent rent relief scenario have the most powerful impacts on simulated numbers in HAS of all the interventions modelled. • The 2021 scenario modelling shows that CRA is not sufficient to fully mitigate the impacts of an economic downturn in any of the scenarios examined. • Finally, households living with HAS and owning an investment property themselves are predicted to more than double. All interventions modelled have a mild effect on these additional numbers. © 2020 Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. All rights reserved.

16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1406-1410, 2020 Sep 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-881371

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the cases firstly reported as "asymptomatic infection of COVID-19" in Guangdong province. Methods: The follow-up observation method was used to continuously track and observe the cases firstly reported as "asymptomatic patients with COVID-19" in Guangdong province from January 14 to March 31, 2020. The epidemiological data of the cases were collected to analyze their epidemiological characteristics, outcome and influencing factors. Results: From January 14 to March 31, 2020, a total of 325 cases were firstly reported as "asymptomatic infections of COVID-19" in Guangdong province. The epidemic curve of asymptomatic infection cases was similar to that of confirmed cases, and it had two peaks. The first peak was from January 27 to February 5, and the second peak was from March 17 to March 26. Of the 325 cases, 184 (56.6%) were subsequently converted to confirmed cases. These cases were defined as incubation period asymptomatic infection cases. The age median of the cases was 40 years, and 93.5% (172/184) of the cases showed symptoms within 3 days after the first positive nucleic acid tests were conducted, and 141 (43.4%) of the 325 cases remained asymptomatic status until they were cured and discharged. They were inapparent infection cases, accounting for 8.6% (141/1 642) of those diagnosed with COVID-19 in Guangdong province during the same period. The age median of inapparent infection cases was 27 years. The median of the interval between the first positive nucleic acid test and discharge was 14 days. Up to 90.8% (138/141) of the inapparent infection cases were discharged for centralized medical observation within 28 days. The longest interval between the first positive nucleic acid test and the last positive nucleic acid test was 73 days. The positive rate of nucleic acid test was 0.3% in close contacts of inapparent infection cases and 2.2% in close contacts of incubation period asymptomatic infection cases. There were significant differences in age distribution and source of infection between incubation period asymptomatic infection cases and inapparent infection cases (P<0.05). Old age was the risk factor for the conversion of firstly reported asymptomatic infection cases to confirmed cases. Compared with the 0-19-year-old group, The patients aged 40-59 years and 60 years and above were more likely to become confirmed cases. The OR (95%CI) values were 2.730 (1.380-5.402) and 5.302 (2.199-12.783), and P values were 0.004 and 0.000, respectively. People being infected in China were more likely to become confirmed cases (OR=7.121, P=0.000). Conclusions: There were asymptomatic infection cases among patients diagnosed with COVID-19. The infectiousness of incubation period asymptomatic infection cases might be stronger than that of inapparent infection cases. The proportion of younger cases among asymptomatic infection cases was higher than that of the confirmed cases. Old age and domestic infection were the risk factors for the conversion of asymptomatic infection cases to confirmed cases, to which more attention should be paid. Further serological investigations are needed to provide a basis for the development of COVID-19 prevention and control strategies.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
17.
Research of Environmental Sciences ; 33(7):1596-1603, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-832742

ABSTRACT

Up to now, 2019-nCoV has spread all over the world. The detection of 2019-nCoV in feces and wastewater suggests the possibility of water-borne transmission. It is significant for the prevention and control of water-borne infections and the risk assessment of viruses to understand the impact of various environmental factors on the survival and transmission of water-borne viruses in the aqueous environment. These factors are investigated by studying the international related researches. It has been suggested that the survival and transmission of pathogenic viruses in the aqueous environment are closely related to the ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, pH, salinity, microorganisms and suspended particles in water. The main influences include: (1) The low temperature in water can greatly prolong the survival time of viruses and facilitate the spread of viruses, while the high temperature can accelerate the inactivation of viruses and reduce the transmission of viruses. (2) Ultraviolet irradiation can remove and inactivate viruses effectively by destroying the viral nucleic acids. (3) Microbes in water inactivate viruses by producing detrimental metabolites, or using the viral capsid as a source of nutrients. (4) The adsorption of viruses on a large number of suspended particles can significantly prolong the survival time of viruses, therefore enhancing viral transmission in water;In addition, suspended particles can also promote or hinder the transmission and retention of viruses in porous media. (5) Water pH affects the aggregation of viruses by changing their surface charges, thereby affecting their persistence in the aqueous environment. (6) Inorganic ions change the activity of viruses by affecting their aggregation and adsorption properties. The impacts of environmental factors on the survival of viruses may vary with different viral characteristics. Therefore, the studies on 2019-nCoV should be further explored, such as the survival variability in the aqueous environment, the occurrence and fate in wastewater and drinking water treatment process, as well as the long-term monitoring and quantitative risk assessment in wastewater, recreational water and drinking water. © 2020, Editorial Board, Research of Environmental Sciences. All right reserved.

18.
Research of Environmental Sciences ; 33(7):1589-1595, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-829318

ABSTRACT

The contagion of the new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) not only seriously endangers the safety of human, but also affects the development of the national economy. There are few reports on factors influencing the transmission of 2019-nCoV, such as environmental conditions (humidity and temperature), air pollution, and human activities. It is difficult to sample and research 2019-nCoV directly. Therefore, it is significant to investigate the factors influencing the spread and survival of other similar viruses, which is instructional for the prevention of epidemics and the control of 2019-nCoV transmission. The results show that: (1) Low temperature and low humidity could prolong the lifetime and increase the transmission of coronavirus, especially on dry surfaces. For example, coronavirus can survive on a smooth surface at a temperature of 22-25 ℃ and a relative humidity (RH) of 40%-45% for more than 5 days. (2) Similarly, the survival rates of the aerosolized coronavirus is also high in a closed environment at low temperature and low humidity, 2019-nCoV may hold high survival rates at a temperature of 20-25 ℃ and a relative humidity of 30%-50%. (3) The higher the particle concentration, the risk of 2019-nCoV transmission may increase. (4) The behavior of infected people also plays a important role in the transmission of 2019-nCoV. The transmission of virus can be reduced by avoiding sneezing and coughing in the crowd, and blocking the transmission of droplets using hands, elbows or other objects. Considering the above analysis, some suggestions for the prevention and control the epidemics are made, such as improving the indoor microenvironment, investigating the detection, inactivation, influence factors and propagation characteristics of 2019-nCoV. © 2020, Editorial Board, Research of Environmental Sciences. All right reserved.

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