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1.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705312

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) lose potency against variants of concern. In this study, we developed 2 strategies to produce mutation-resistant antibodies. First, a yeast library expressing mutant receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the spike protein was utilized to screen for potent nAbs that are least susceptible to viral escape. Among the candidate antibodies, P5-22 displayed ultrahigh potency for virus neutralization as well as an outstanding mutation resistance profile. Additionally, P14-44 and P15-16 were recognized as mutation-resistant antibodies with broad betacoronavirus neutralization properties. P15-16 has only 1 binding hotspot, which is K378 in the RBD of SARS-CoV-2. The crystal structure of the P5-22, P14-44, and RBD ternary complex clarified the unique mechanisms that underlie the excellent mutation resistance profiles of these antibodies. Secondly, polymeric IgG enhanced antibody avidity by eliminating P5-22's only hotspot, residue F486 in the RBD, thereby potently blocking cell entry by mutant viruses. Structural and functional analyses of antibodies screened using both potency assays and the yeast RBD library revealed rare, ultrapotent, mutation-resistant nAbs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody Affinity , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 801946, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690426

ABSTRACT

China implemented stringent non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) in spring 2020, which has effectively suppressed SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we utilized data from routine respiratory virus testing requests from physicians and examined circulation of 11 other respiratory viruses in Southern China, from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2020. A total of 58,169 throat swabs from patients with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) were collected and tested. We found that while the overall activity of respiratory viruses was lower during the period with stringent NPIs, virus activity rebounded shortly after the NPIs were relaxed and social activities resumed. Only influenza was effectively suppressed with very low circulation which extended to the end of 2020. Circulation of other respiratory viruses in the community was maintained even during the period of stringent interventions, especially for rhinovirus. Our study shows that NPIs against COVID-19 have different impacts on respiratory viruses.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325261

ABSTRACT

Background: Reduction of solid organ transplant (SOT) became notable while limited data are available regarding its resumption during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.Methods: Based on the SOT and COVID-19 diagnosis data collected from open-access official organizations, we studied the trend changes of SOT in the U.S.A. since the COVID-19 outbreak, and made the validation using the U.K. dataset. Trend curves were divided into virus-free, restrictive, and/or recovery phases. Kruskal-Wallis H test was performed to assess the differences among those phases with significance set at adjusted P < 0.05 (two-sided).Findings: In a 30-week (January 5 to August 1, 2020) observing period for the U.S.A. dataset, there was an obvious association between the trends of SOT and COVID-19 diagnosis (both overall and death cases) in the 10-week restrictive phase;significant reduction of overall SOTs per day were found in the restrictive phase (median 78.0, IQR 64.6-91.4) compared with the virus-free phase (median 115.0, IQR 97.5-132.5;P < 0.001);The most affected organ transplants were kidney (35.5% reduction) and lung (35.4% reduction), and the most affected U.S. region was Northeast (62.2% reduction). Resumption occurred with no significant difference found between the comparison of recovery (median 118.5, IQR 99.3-137.8) versus virus-free phases (P = 1.000) in overall SOTs per day, as well as those stratified by donor type (deceased and living), organ, and region. The SOT reduction and resumption were validated by the U.K. dataset.Interpretation: Using the U.S.A. and U.K. datasets, our study thoroughly presented the reduction and resumption patterns of SOT during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is essential that transplant units, based on the gained experience, make adequate preparations for any further possible COVID-19 attack.Funding Statement: This study received no external funding.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: Exemptions of ethics approval, institutional review board, and informed consent were granted as data used in this study were publicly available.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320694

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the clinical correlates, prognosis and determinants of AKI in patients with Covid-19 remain largely unclear, we perform a retrospective study to evaluate the incidence, risk factors and prognosis of AKI in severe and critically ill patients with Covid-19. Methods: : We reviewed medical records of all adult patients (>18 years) with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between January 23 rd 2020 and April 6 th 2020 at Wuhan JinYinTan Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. The clinical data, including patient demographics, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory findings, treatment [including respiratory supports, use of medications and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)] and clinical outcomes, were extracted from the electronic records, and we access the incidence of AKI and the use of CRRT, risk factors for AKI, the outcomes of renal diseases, and the impact of AKI on the clinical outcomes. Results: : Among 210 subjects, 131 were males (62.4%). The median age was 64 years (IQR: 56-71). Of 92 (43.8%) patients who developed AKI during hospitalization, 13 (14.1%), 15 (16.3%) and 64 (69.6%) patients were classified as stage 1, 2 and 3, respectively. 54 cases (58.7%) received CRRT. Age, sepsis, Nephrotoxic drug, IMV and elevated baseline Scr were associated with AKI occurrence. The renal recover during hospitalization among 16 AKI patients (17.4%), who had a significantly shorter time from admission to AKI diagnosis, lower incidence of right heart failure and higher P/F ratio. Of 210 patients, 93 patients deceased within 28 days of ICU admission. AKI stage 3, critical disease, greater age and minimum P/F <150mmHg independently associated with it. Conclusions: : Among patients with Covid-19, the incidence of AKI was high. age , sepsis, nephrotoxic drug, IMV and baseline Scr were strongly associated with the development of AKI. Time from admission to AKI diagnosis, right heart failure and P/F ratio were independently associated with the potential of renal recovery. Finally, AKI KIDGO stage 3 independently predicted the risk of death within 28 days of ICU admission.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312183

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is a heated debate on whether the cancer survivors have worse outcomes in corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-2019). This study showed that both cancer survivors and cancer patients have decreased lymphocytes, partially explaining why these patients were associated with poorer prognosis in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (SARS-CoV-2) in principle. Therefore, patients with cancer history, whether they are going active treatment or not, deserve special attention.

6.
Eur Radiol ; 32(4): 2235-2245, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Main challenges for COVID-19 include the lack of a rapid diagnostic test, a suitable tool to monitor and predict a patient's clinical course and an efficient way for data sharing among multicenters. We thus developed a novel artificial intelligence system based on deep learning (DL) and federated learning (FL) for the diagnosis, monitoring, and prediction of a patient's clinical course. METHODS: CT imaging derived from 6 different multicenter cohorts were used for stepwise diagnostic algorithm to diagnose COVID-19, with or without clinical data. Patients with more than 3 consecutive CT images were trained for the monitoring algorithm. FL has been applied for decentralized refinement of independently built DL models. RESULTS: A total of 1,552,988 CT slices from 4804 patients were used. The model can diagnose COVID-19 based on CT alone with the AUC being 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99), and outperforms the radiologist's assessment. We have also successfully tested the incorporation of the DL diagnostic model with the FL framework. Its auto-segmentation analyses co-related well with those by radiologists and achieved a high Dice's coefficient of 0.77. It can produce a predictive curve of a patient's clinical course if serial CT assessments are available. INTERPRETATION: The system has high consistency in diagnosing COVID-19 based on CT, with or without clinical data. Alternatively, it can be implemented on a FL platform, which would potentially encourage the data sharing in the future. It also can produce an objective predictive curve of a patient's clinical course for visualization. KEY POINTS: • CoviDet could diagnose COVID-19 based on chest CT with high consistency; this outperformed the radiologist's assessment. Its auto-segmentation analyses co-related well with those by radiologists and could potentially monitor and predict a patient's clinical course if serial CT assessments are available. It can be integrated into the federated learning framework. • CoviDet can be used as an adjunct to aid clinicians with the CT diagnosis of COVID-19 and can potentially be used for disease monitoring; federated learning can potentially open opportunities for global collaboration.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Algorithms , Humans , Radiologists , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
7.
Value in Health ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1559519

ABSTRACT

Objectives Most countries have adopted public activity intervention policies to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nevertheless, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of different interventions on the containment of the epidemic was inconsistent. Methods We retrieved time-series intervention policy data for 145 countries from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker from December 31, 2019, to July 1, 2020, which included 8 containment and closure policies. We investigated the association of timeliness, stringency, and duration of intervention with cumulative infections per million population on July 1, 2020. We introduced a novel counterfactual estimator to estimate the effects of these interventions on COVID-19 time-varying reproduction number (Rt). Results There is some evidence that earlier implementation, longer durations, and more strictness of intervention policies at the early but not middle stage were associated with reduced infections of COVID-19. The counterfactual model proved to have controlled for unobserved time-varying confounders and established a valid causal relationship between policy intervention and Rt reduction. The average intervention effect revealed that all interventions significantly decrease Rt after their implementation. Rt decreased by 30% (22%-41%) in 25 to 32 days after policy intervention. Among the 8 interventions, school closing, workplace closing, and public events cancellation demonstrated the strongest and most consistent evidence of associations. Conclusions Our study provides more reliable evidence of the quantitative effects of policy interventions on the COVID-19 epidemic and suggested that stricter public activity interventions should be implemented at the early stage of the epidemic for improved containment.

8.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 89, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440469

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has been declared by World Health Organization as a worldwide pandemic. However, there are many unknowns about the antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we present both single-cell TCR-seq and RNA-seq to analyze the dynamics of TCR repertoire and immune metabolic functions of blood T cells collected from recently discharged COVID-19 patients. We found that while the diversity of TCR repertoire was increased in discharged patients, it returned to basal level ~1 week after becoming virus-free. The dynamics of T cell repertoire correlated with a profound shift of gene signatures from antiviral response to metabolism adaptation. We also demonstrated that the top expanded T cell clones (~10% of total T cells) display the key anti-viral features in CD8+ T cells, confirming a critical role of antigen-specific T cells in fighting against SARS-CoV-2. Our work provides a basis for further analysis of adaptive immunity in COVID-19 patients, and also has implications in developing a T-cell-based vaccine for SARS-CoV-2.

9.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(12): 7034-7053, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438958

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a large-scale global epidemic, impacting international politics and the economy. At present, there is no particularly effective medicine and treatment plan. Therefore, it is urgent and significant to find new technologies to diagnose early, isolate early, and treat early. Multimodal data drove artificial intelligence (AI) can potentially be the option. During the COVID-19 Pandemic, AI provided cutting-edge applications in disease, medicine, treatment, and target recognition. This paper reviewed the literature on the intersection of AI and medicine to analyze and compare different AI model applications in the COVID-19 Pandemic, evaluate their effectiveness, show their advantages and differences, and introduce the main models and their characteristics. Methods: We searched PubMed, arXiv, medRxiv, and Google Scholar through February 2020 to identify studies on AI applications in the medical areas for the COVID-19 Pandemic. Results: We summarize the main AI applications in six areas: (I) epidemiology, (II) diagnosis, (III) progression, (IV) treatment, (V) psychological health impact, and (VI) data security. The ongoing development in AI has significantly improved prediction, contact tracing, screening, diagnosis, treatment, medication, and vaccine development for the COVID-19 Pandemic and reducing human intervention in medical practice. Discussion: This paper provides strong advice for using AI-based auxiliary tools for related applications of human diseases. We also discuss the clinicians' role in the further development of AI. They and AI researchers can integrate AI technology with current clinical processes and information systems into applications. In the future, AI personnel and medical workers will further cooperate closely.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 382(18): 1708-1720, 2020 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(11): 941, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients by stratifying by the time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis status is still uncertain. METHODS: We included 1,590 hospitalized COVID-19 patients confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay or high-throughput sequencing of pharyngeal and nasal swab specimens from 575 hospitals across China between 11 December 2019 and 31 January 2020. Times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, from symptom onset to first medical visit and from first medical visit to confirmed diagnosis were described and turned into binary variables by the maximally selected rank statistics method. Then, survival analysis, including a log-rank test, Cox regression, and conditional inference tree (CTREE) was conducted, regarding whether patients progressed to a severe disease level during the observational period (assessed as severe pneumonia according to the Chinese Expert Consensus on Clinical Practice for Emergency Severe Pneumonia, admission to an intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation, or death) as the prognosis outcome, the dependent variable. Independent factors included whether the time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis was longer than 5 days (the exposure) and other demographic and clinical factors as multivariate adjustments. The clinical characteristics of the patients with different times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis were also compared. RESULTS: The medians of the times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, from symptom onset to first medical visit, and from first medical visit to confirmed diagnosis were 6, 3, and 2 days. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and comorbidity status, age [hazard ratio (HR): 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04], comorbidity (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.23-2.73), and a duration from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis of >5 days (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.10-2.60) were independent predictors of COVID-19 prognosis, which echoed the CTREE models, with significant nodes such as time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, age, and comorbidities. Males, older patients with symptoms such as dry cough/productive cough/shortness of breath, and prior COPD were observed more often in the patients who procrastinated before initiating the first medical consultation. CONCLUSIONS: A longer time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis yielded a worse COVID-19 prognosis.

13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5069-5083, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for poor prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is necessary to enable the risk stratification and modify the patient's management. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the in-hospital mortality and risk factors of death in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: All studies were searched via the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang databases. The in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients was pooled. Odds ratios (ORs) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for evaluation of risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 80 studies were included with a pooled in-hospital mortality of 14% (95% CI: 12.2-15.9%). Older age (MD =13.32, 95% CI: 10.87-15.77; P<0.00001), male (OR =1.66, 95% CI: 1.37-2.01; P<0.00001), hypertension (OR =2.67, 95% CI: 2.08-3.43; P<0.00001), diabetes (OR =2.14, 95% CI: 1.76-2.6; P<0.00001), chronic respiratory disease (OR =3.55, 95% CI: 2.65-4.76; P<0.00001), chronic heart disease/cardiovascular disease (OR =3.15, 95% CI: 2.43-4.09; P<0.00001), elevated levels of high-sensitive cardiac troponin I (MD =66.65, 95% CI: 16.94-116.36; P=0.009), D-dimer (MD =4.33, 95% CI: 2.97-5.68; P<0.00001), C-reactive protein (MD =48.03, 95% CI: 27.79-68.27; P<0.00001), and a decreased level of albumin at admission (MD =-3.98, 95% CI: -5.75 to -2.22; P<0.0001) are associated with higher risk of death. Patients who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR =62.85, 95% CI: 29.45-134.15; P<0.00001), acute cardiac injury (OR =25.16, 95% CI: 6.56-96.44; P<0.00001), acute kidney injury (OR =22.86, 95% CI: 4.60-113.66; P=0.0001), and septic shock (OR =24.09, 95% CI: 4.26-136.35; P=0.0003) might have a higher in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced age, male, comorbidities, increased levels of acute inflammation or organ damage indicators, and complications are associated with the risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients, and should be integrated into the risk stratification system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(6): 509-521, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189229

ABSTRACT

Common lung diseases are first diagnosed using chest X-rays. Here, we show that a fully automated deep-learning pipeline for the standardization of chest X-ray images, for the visualization of lesions and for disease diagnosis can identify viral pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and assess its severity, and can also discriminate between viral pneumonia caused by COVID-19 and other types of pneumonia. The deep-learning system was developed using a heterogeneous multicentre dataset of 145,202 images, and tested retrospectively and prospectively with thousands of additional images across four patient cohorts and multiple countries. The system generalized across settings, discriminating between viral pneumonia, other types of pneumonia and the absence of disease with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of 0.94-0.98; between severe and non-severe COVID-19 with an AUC of 0.87; and between COVID-19 pneumonia and other viral or non-viral pneumonia with AUCs of 0.87-0.97. In an independent set of 440 chest X-rays, the system performed comparably to senior radiologists and improved the performance of junior radiologists. Automated deep-learning systems for the assessment of pneumonia could facilitate early intervention and provide support for clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Databases, Factual , Deep Learning , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index
15.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(3): 1507-1516, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several articles have been published about the reorganization of surgical activity during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic but little is known about the operative volume, distribution of cases, or capacity of The Department of Thoracic Surgery to deliver surgical services in the time of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective operative logbook review was completed in department of thoracic in a designated COVID-19 hospital. We reviewed and analyzed the operative logbook and discussed our countermeasures during the outbreak. A prediction model was established to discuss the time consuming about delayed surgeries during the pandemic. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred and seventy-five operation records were collected. The thoracic surgeries of this year has decreased (43.4%) during the Wuhan lockdown. From Jan 23rd to Apr 8th in 2020, there were 461 surgeries performed in The Department of Thoracic in our hospital with 0 cases of nosocomial COVID-19 infection. Prediction model showed that it will take 6 weeks to solve the backlog if department can reach the 85% of maximum of operations per week. CONCLUSIONS: An understanding of operative case volume and distribution is essential in facilitating targeted interventions to strengthen surgical capacity in the time of COVID-19. A proper guideline is imperative to ensure access to safe, timely surgical care. By developing a scientific and effective management of hospital, it is possible to ensure optimal surgical safety during this crisis. Regular updates and a further study include multicenter is required. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER: ChiCTR2000034346.

16.
Chest ; 158(6): 2700-2701, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147177
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(7): 2645-2655.e14, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) are common among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the association between CRD (including disease overlap) and the clinical outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: Data of diagnoses, comorbidities, medications, laboratory results, and clinical outcomes were extracted from the national COVID-19 reporting system. CRD was diagnosed based on International Classification of Diseases-10 codes. The primary endpoint was the composite outcome of needing invasive ventilation, admission to intensive care unit, or death within 30 days after hospitalization. The secondary endpoint was death within 30 days after hospitalization. RESULTS: We included 39,420 laboratory-confirmed patients from the electronic medical records as of May 6, 2020. Any CRD and CRD overlap was present in 2.8% and 0.2% of patients, respectively. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was most common (56.6%), followed by bronchiectasis (27.9%) and asthma (21.7%). COPD-bronchiectasis overlap was the most common combination (50.7%), followed by COPD-asthma (36.2%) and asthma-bronchiectasis overlap (15.9%). After adjustment for age, sex, and other systemic comorbidities, patients with COPD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-2.03) and asthma (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.05-1.98), but not bronchiectasis, were more likely to reach to the composite endpoint compared with those without at day 30 after hospitalization. Patients with CRD were not associated with a greater likelihood of dying from COVID-19 compared with those without. Patients with CRD overlap did not have a greater risk of reaching the composite endpoint compared with those without. CONCLUSION: CRD was associated with the risk of reaching the composite endpoint, but not death, of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Asthma/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Chest ; 158(1): 97-105, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-980155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health emergency. The cumulative number of new confirmed cases and deaths are still increasing out of China. Independent predicted factors associated with fatal outcomes remain uncertain. RESEARCH QUESTION: The goal of the current study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with fatal outcomes from COVID-19 through a multivariate Cox regression analysis and a nomogram model. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 1,590 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 throughout China was established. The prognostic effects of variables, including clinical features and laboratory findings, were analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier methods and a Cox proportional hazards model. A prognostic nomogram was formulated to predict the survival of patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: In this nationwide cohort, nonsurvivors included a higher incidence of elderly people and subjects with coexisting chronic illness, dyspnea, and laboratory abnormalities on admission compared with survivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age ≥ 75 years (hazard ratio [HR], 7.86; 95% CI, 2.44-25.35), age between 65 and 74 years (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.24-9.5), coronary heart disease (HR, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.14-16.13), cerebrovascular disease (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.07-8.94), dyspnea (HR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.42-11), procalcitonin level > 0.5 ng/mL (HR, 8.72; 95% CI, 3.42-22.28), and aspartate aminotransferase level > 40 U/L (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-6.73) were independent risk factors associated with fatal outcome. A nomogram was established based on the results of multivariate analysis. The internal bootstrap resampling approach suggested the nomogram has sufficient discriminatory power with a C-index of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.85-0.97). The calibration plots also showed good consistency between the prediction and the observation. INTERPRETATION: The proposed nomogram accurately predicted clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 based on individual characteristics. Earlier identification, more intensive surveillance, and appropriate therapy should be considered in patients at high risk.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Dyspnea , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Procalcitonin/blood , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Nomograms , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
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