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1.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 20(3):359-364, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067155

ABSTRACT

Objectives To estimate the basic reproduction number of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and to provide support to epidemic preparedness and response. Methods Based on the susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) compartment model and the assumption that the infection cases with symptoms occurred before January 26, 2020 were resulted from free propagation without intervention, we estimated the basic reproduction number of 2019-nCoV according to the reported confirmed cases and suspected cases, as well as theoretical estimated number of infected cases by other research teams, together with some epidemiological determinants learned from the severe acute respiratory syndrome. Results The basic reproduction number fall between 2.8 to 3.3 by using the real-time reports on the number of 2019-nCoV infected cases from People's Daily in China, and fall between 3.2 and 3.9 on the basis of the predicted number of infected cases from international colleagues. Conclusions The early transmission capability of 2019-nCoV is close to or slightly higher than SARS. It is a controllable disease with moderate-high transmissibility. Timely and effective control measures are capable to quickly reduce further transmission. Copyright © 2020 West China University of Medical Science. All rights reserved.

2.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046003

ABSTRACT

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for remote computer connection has drastically increased. This need is also anticipated to increase in the future as many institutes allow working remotely. This paper reports on a development of a software called “iCtrl”, which started in late 2020. iCtrl is a desktop remote-control application that allows remote connection to an institute's computer facilities. iCtrl application supports Virtual Network Computing (VNC) connection on both Windows and macOS operating systems. It offers a user-friendly interface to eliminate complicated setup processes. iCtrl has been used for over two years and received positive ratings from undergraduate students in a first-year programming language course and a third-year computer network course. Feedback provided by students suggested a few potential improvements such as cross-platform support and Secure Shell (SSH) connections. This motivated us to design a web-based version for iCtrl in summer 2021 that supported cross-OS platform access, SSH and VNC connection, while providing an industry-leading file management interface design with reference to Google Drive and Microsoft OneDrive. This allowed not only to transfer responsibilities of platform support to the browser developers but also to design a more intuitive interface for the students to upload, retrieve and manage files using the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). The latest survey noted an 86.2% approval of our application over the traditional methods, and the download count of the application is now 10 times of the old version after we applied engineering practices. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

4.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 44(7):1568-1572, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1912083

ABSTRACT

With the development of science and technology, electronic information technology has penetrated into many aspects of society now. Electronic informed consent is an effective way to adapt to development clinical trial. China is still at an early stage in this field. Affected by the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020, the demand for electronic informed consent in clinical trial has become more urgent. Based on my own work experience, the author wants to analyze the problems in the traditional informed consent process and the current situations of electronic informed consent in China and explores the feasibility of electronic informed consent in clinical trials. © 2021 Drug Evaluation Research. All rights reserved.

5.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 26(2):238-243, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847861

ABSTRACT

Objective This study is conducted against a case of positive nucleic acid detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) of environmental samples in a medical institution in Chengdu. Epidemiological investigation methods and laboratory tests are used to investigate the source and analyze the cause of the case, to explore the nucleic acid monitoring mode and the disposal scheme of abnormal conditions of SARS-CoV-2 in the medical institution environment. Methods Chengdu and Shuangliu district CDC jointly investigate A Medical Institution (A refers to a specific anonymous medical institute). Epidemiological surveys were conducted though related influencing factors of the medical institution. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection kits were used for detection. Sequencing was carried out on a second-generation sequencing platform. Results From Jan.18th 2021 to Jan.20th 2021, a total of 62 smear samples of environment and articles were collected, among which 30 samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. 30 positive samples were divided into Gongwei building (9) and Zhonghe building (21) according to the sampling location. The samples' Ct values of ORF1ab gene in Gongwei building were lower than that in Zhonghe building, and the difference was statistically significant (t=2.452, P=0.036). According to the nature of the specimens, they were divided into external environment smear samples (24 samples) and cleaning tool smear samples (6 samples). The N gene Ct values of external environment smear samples were lower than that of cleaning tools, and the difference was statistically significant (Z=-2.204, P=0.028). Through gene sequencing analysis, the sequence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive environmental samples detected this time is highly homologous with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (> 99.9%). Conclusions The positive environmental samples of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in the medical institution are caused by the damage and leakage of COVID-19 vaccine ampoules in the process of vaccination, which led to the contamination of the vaccination room of public health building, and then transmit to the hospital environment of fever clinic and complex building through cleaning tools by cleaning workers. With the progress of COVID-19 vaccine vaccination, there is a high probability of environmental pollution of vaccine liquid in the vaccination area of medical institutions. Therefore, it is necessary in combination with the current normalization monitoring requirements of domestic COVID-19 epidemic situation to refine the specific implementation plan, conduct vaccination in a scientific and orderly manner, and reduce the social impact. © 2022, Publication Centre of Anhui Medical University. All rights reserved.

6.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S380, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746443

ABSTRACT

Background. As remdesivir (GS-5734) has become a leading treatment for COVID-19, we sought to assess remdesivir utilization patterns, including utilization of concomitant and supportive therapies, and heterogeneity in treatment approaches. Methods. Our retrospective cohort study included hospitalized Veterans with positive COVID-19 PCR tests treated with remdesivir, from 03/2020 through 4/2021. Using exposure mapping of barcode medication administration records and medication dispensings, we assessed other medications received by each patient on each day of remdesivir treatment. Heterogeneity was defined as patterns of treatment (drug & duration) not shared by any other patient. Results. Our study included 13,665 patients with COVID-19 receiving remdesivir. The median time to remdesivir initiation from either positive test or hospital admission was 1 day (interquartile range [IQR] 0-4 and 0-1, respectively). The median duration of remdesivir treatment was 5 days (IQR 4-5 days). Median length of hospital stay was 7 days (IQR 4-13). Inpatient mortality was 13.9% and an additional 6.2% of patients died within 90 days of discharge. The most common concomitant and supportive therapies were anticoagulants/antiplatelets (94.8%;enoxaparin 72.6%, heparin 18.4%, apixaban 10.8%, clopidogrel 6.3%), corticosteroids (90.8%;dexamethasone 87.3%, prednisone 2.9%, methylprednisolone 5.5%), statins (55.8%;atorvastatin 38.2%, simvastatin 7.1%, rosuvastatin 6.0%), antibiotics (41.9%;azithromycin 25.6%, ceftriaxone 13.2%, doxycycline 6.0%, vancomycin 4.9%), angiotensin receptor blockers (11.9%) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (20.4%), melatonin (29.7%), and aspirin (35.6%). Concomitant utilization of Janus kinase inhibitors (0.5%), interleukin-6 inhibitors (2.4%), and hydroxychloroquine (0.5%) was low. Heterogeneity in concomitant and supportive therapies during remdesivir treatment was 84.6% (68.3% when assessed as drug class/category). Conclusion. Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the national VA Healthcare system receiving remdesivir, remdesivir was initiated early in the admission and substantial heterogeneity was observed in concomitant and supportive therapies during remdesivir treatment.

7.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S380-S381, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746441

ABSTRACT

Background. Remdesivir is approved for use in the United States for treatment of COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Real-world data on trends in remdesivir use may elucidate its benefits and place in therapy. Methods. Hospitalized Veterans with a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test that were treated with remdesivir at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center from May 2020 to April 2021 were included. Monthly trends in remdesivir treatment, as well as patient characteristics and clinical outcomes among patients treated with remdesivir, were assessed with joinpoint regression to calculate average monthly percent change and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results. A total of 30,333 Veterans were hospitalized with a positive PCR test over the study period, and 13,639 were treated with remdesivir (45%). Throughout the study period, the proportion of Veterans treated with remdesivir increased significantly (4.5% per month, 95% CI 0.5%-8.6%) and median time to remdesivir initiation decreased significantly (12% per month, 95% CI -15.8% to -8.0%). Though demographic characteristics of Veterans treated with remdesivir remained stable, including age, race, and obesity, improvement in clinical outcomes were observed, including median length of hospital stay which decreased by 6.5% per month (95% CI -9.1% to -3.8%), intensive care admissions which decreased by 4.6% per month (95% CI -6.3% to -2.8%) and inpatient mortality which decreased by 6.3% per month (95% CI -9.4% to -3.1%). By April 2021, most patients initiated remdesivir on the day of admission, and the inpatient mortality rate decreased to 7.9% from 19.2% in May 2020. Conclusion. Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, utilization of remdesivir increased while initiation of remdesivir occurred earlier in the hospital admission, with concurrent reductions in length of hospital stay, intensive care admissions, and inpatient mortality.

8.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S380-S381, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602643

ABSTRACT

Background Remdesivir is approved for use in the United States for treatment of COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Real-world data on trends in remdesivir use may elucidate its benefits and place in therapy. Methods Hospitalized Veterans with a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test that were treated with remdesivir at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center from May 2020 to April 2021 were included. Monthly trends in remdesivir treatment, as well as patient characteristics and clinical outcomes among patients treated with remdesivir, were assessed with joinpoint regression to calculate average monthly percent change and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 30,333 Veterans were hospitalized with a positive PCR test over the study period, and 13,639 were treated with remdesivir (45%). Throughout the study period, the proportion of Veterans treated with remdesivir increased significantly (4.5% per month, 95% CI 0.5%-8.6%) and median time to remdesivir initiation decreased significantly (12% per month, 95% CI -15.8% to -8.0%). Though demographic characteristics of Veterans treated with remdesivir remained stable, including age, race, and obesity, improvement in clinical outcomes were observed, including median length of hospital stay which decreased by 6.5% per month (95% CI -9.1% to -3.8%), intensive care admissions which decreased by 4.6% per month (95% CI -6.3% to -2.8%) and inpatient mortality which decreased by 6.3% per month (95% CI -9.4% to -3.1%). By April 2021, most patients initiated remdesivir on the day of admission, and the inpatient mortality rate decreased to 7.9% from 19.2% in May 2020. Conclusion Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, utilization of remdesivir increased while initiation of remdesivir occurred earlier in the hospital admission, with concurrent reductions in length of hospital stay, intensive care admissions, and inpatient mortality. Disclosures Aisling Caffrey, PhD, Merck (Research Grant or Support)Pfizer (Research Grant or Support)Shionogi, Inc (Research Grant or Support)

9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S380-S380, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601813

ABSTRACT

Background As remdesivir (GS-5734) has become a leading treatment for COVID-19, we sought to assess remdesivir utilization patterns, including utilization of concomitant and supportive therapies, and heterogeneity in treatment approaches. Methods Our retrospective cohort study included hospitalized Veterans with positive COVID-19 PCR tests treated with remdesivir, from 03/2020 through 4/2021. Using exposure mapping of barcode medication administration records and medication dispensings, we assessed other medications received by each patient on each day of remdesivir treatment. Heterogeneity was defined as patterns of treatment (drug & duration) not shared by any other patient. Results Our study included 13,665 patients with COVID-19 receiving remdesivir. The median time to remdesivir initiation from either positive test or hospital admission was 1 day (interquartile range [IQR] 0-4 and 0-1, respectively). The median duration of remdesivir treatment was 5 days (IQR 4-5 days). Median length of hospital stay was 7 days (IQR 4-13). Inpatient mortality was 13.9% and an additional 6.2% of patients died within 90 days of discharge. The most common concomitant and supportive therapies were anticoagulants/antiplatelets (94.8%;enoxaparin 72.6%, heparin 18.4%, apixaban 10.8%, clopidogrel 6.3%), corticosteroids (90.8%;dexamethasone 87.3%, prednisone 2.9%, methylprednisolone 5.5%), statins (55.8%;atorvastatin 38.2%, simvastatin 7.1%, rosuvastatin 6.0%), antibiotics (41.9%;azithromycin 25.6%, ceftriaxone 13.2%, doxycycline 6.0%, vancomycin 4.9%), angiotensin receptor blockers (11.9%) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (20.4%), melatonin (29.7%), and aspirin (35.6%). Concomitant utilization of Janus kinase inhibitors (0.5%), interleukin-6 inhibitors (2.4%), and hydroxychloroquine (0.5%) was low. Heterogeneity in concomitant and supportive therapies during remdesivir treatment was 84.6% (68.3% when assessed as drug class/category). Conclusion Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the national VA Healthcare system receiving remdesivir, remdesivir was initiated early in the admission and substantial heterogeneity was observed in concomitant and supportive therapies during remdesivir treatment. Disclosures Aisling Caffrey, PhD, Merck (Research Grant or Support)Pfizer (Research Grant or Support)Shionogi, Inc (Research Grant or Support)

10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(10): 1240-1244, 2021 Oct 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497388

ABSTRACT

An epidemiological investigation was carried out on a local cluster of outbreak caused by imported cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in rural areas of Chengdu in December 2020, to find out the source of infection and the chain of transmission. According to Prevention and Control Protocol for COVID-19 (Version 7), field epidemiological investigation was adopted, combined with big data technology, video image investigation, gene sequencing and other methods to carry out investigation into COVID-19 cases and infections source tracing, analyze the epidemiological association, and map the chain of transmission. From December 7 to 17, 2020, 13 local COVID-19 confirmed cases and 1 asymptomatic case were diagnosed in Chengdu, of which 12 cases (85.71%) had a history of residence and activity in the village courtyard of Taiping (TP), Pidu (P) District, Chengdu. From November 8, 2020 to November 28, 2020, a group of inbound people form Nepal were transferred to the designated entry personnel quarantine hotel of P District which was adjacent to the TP village. During quarantine, there were 5 cases who tested positive for COVID-19. Through gene sequencing alignment, genes of local cases and Nepalese imported cases from the same period are homologous, all belong to the lineage of L2.2.3 (B.1.36 according to Pangolin lineage typing method). According to the results of field epidemiological investigation and gene sequencing analysis, the index case was most likely infected by contact with household waste of quarantine site. Under the situation of normalization prevention and control of COVID-19, sentinel monitoring of fever clinics in primary medical institutions is the key to early detection of the epidemic. The multi-department joint epidemiological investigation and the application of gene technology are the core links of the investigation and traceability of modern infectious diseases. The allocation of public health resources in rural areas needs to be strengthened. We need to improve the capacity for early surveillance and early warning of the epidemic in rural areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 30:188-188, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381713
12.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 30:23-24, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381635
13.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 30:80-81, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381634
14.
International Review of Financial Analysis ; 77, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1303563

ABSTRACT

Extreme events have a systemic impact on global financial markets, leading to significant cross-market spillovers in the oil, gold, and stock markets and raising widespread concerns about market linkages and risk contagion. In this paper, with a focus on both return and volatility, a frontier spillover network analysis is used to examine the strength and scale characteristics of spillovers in the oil, gold and stock markets under major public health emergency shocks. In addition, the paper adopts a marginal spillover and network analysis to evaluate linkage relationships, risk sources and transmission paths in the oil, gold, and stock markets during such events. The results show that the return and volatility spillover effects generated across the oil, gold, and stock markets are significant, with return spillovers being more stable and volatility spillovers being highly sensitive to emergencies. Meanwhile, the COVID-19 pandemic has displayed the strongest return and volatility spillovers. The high intensity of the shocks during the COVID-19 period has changed the usual characteristics of the market, with the gold market becoming the risk receiver and the oil market becoming risk sources. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.

16.
Xibao Yu Fenzi Mianyixue Zazhi ; 36(10):941-947, 2020.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908495

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection would stimulate human immune system, trigger the activation and aggregation of various immune cells, and lead to the secretion of a large number of chemokines and cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor gamma (TNF-gamma), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) and other cytokines. The development of uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response is a key factor in patients with critical COVID-19. Mild patients have milder inflammation and mild symptoms, but the lung inflammation in critical ones is more severe: the inflammatory factor expression levels are abnormally high;the infiltration of lung inflammatory cells is obvious along with the histopathological changes of viral pneumonia and inflammatory pneumonia. Continuous immunity response causes the accumulation of lung fibrin, permeability change, injury of the pulmonary blood vessels, and ultimately destroys the lung structure and affects ventilation and circulatory function of the lung. Therefore, continuous and severe inflammation is closely related to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and disseminated intravascular coagulation in critical COVID-19 patients, which is the key point for the transition from mild to critical patients.

17.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(7): 575-578, 2020 Jul 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732784

ABSTRACT

The prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already entered a key period. The patients treated in the burn and wound care ward are susceptible to viral infection because of disease, age and other factors, so it is very important to manage the burn and wound care ward during the prevention and control of COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, combining with the key clinical problems of prevention and control in hospital during the epidemic period of COVID-19 infection, medical evidence, and clinical and management experience, the authors formulate prevention and control management strategy of the author's unit in order to provide reference for prevention and control of burn and wound care ward.


Subject(s)
Burn Units/organization & administration , Burns/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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