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1.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865650

ABSTRACT

Based on previous studies, we found that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin(BCG) vaccination may have a role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to investigate this protective effect. We searched in Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, BioRxiv, and MedRxiv databases for studies that evaluated the relationship between BCG vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 disease. The quality of all included studies was assessed through the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies - of Interventions and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Review Manager (Version 5.3) was used for conducting all data analyses. A total of 8 studies were ultimately included in our meta-analysis. Our primary analysis found significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in the BCG vaccination group compared to the control group, with a odds ratio (OR) of 0.61, (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.95, P = 0.03; I2 = 31%, and P = 0.21 for heterogeneity). Our study indicated that BCG vaccination can protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, there is insufficient evidence that BCG vaccination can reduce the severity of COVID-19.

2.
Dent Traumatol ; 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgeons have faced severe challenges in ward management due to their high risk of exposure during the COVID-19 epidemic. The aim of this study was to analyze and summarize the treatment methods and infection prevention and control measures applied in emergency cases in the Department of Pediatric Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: In this retrospective study, information was collected from 256 pediatric emergency patients who were treated from January 23, 2020 to August 9, 2021. The patients' data were statistically analyzed according to age, gender, disease and pathogenesis, operation time, and the main treatment applied in pediatric oral and maxillofacial emergency cases during the COVID-19 epidemic. RESULTS: During the epidemic period, 256 pediatric emergency patients were successfully treated. Among them, there were 170 boys and 86 girls. In all, 182 patients were diagnosed with oral or facial lacerations; 43 had jaw fractures; 26 had maxillofacial infections; and five had dento-alveolar fractures. A total of 246 patients underwent surgery under negative pressure with level 3 protection standards. No doctors or patients infected with COVID-19 were found throughout the stury period. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric oral and maxillofacial emergency in-patients mainly experienced maxillofacial trauma during the COVID-19 epidemic, followed by infection. Effective diagnosis and treatment, and avoidance of COVID-19 infection can be achieved by strictly following epidemic prevention and treatment procedures.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308322

ABSTRACT

We probe the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent containment policies on business activities in China by exploiting big data on 1.5 billion sales invoices. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we estimate that the average drop in sales is between 23% and 35%, depending on firm size, for the 12-week period after Wuhan's lockdown. The unprecedented plunge in countrywide economic activities is more evident in the first eight weeks, and firm sales gradually resume to 85% of the normal level afterward. Firms in industries requiring more intensive face-to-face interactions suffer more during the public health measures. Also, cities relying on investment-driven economic growth are more resilient. Lastly, local governments' economic stimulus policies, aimed at alleviating financial losses for small and micro firms, are actually more effective for medium-sized and large firms. Our results provide implications for other economies seeking to develop strategies to contain the disease and reopen the economy.

4.
Sustainability ; 14(3):1521, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1667299

ABSTRACT

Online schooling has been adopted worldwide due to the COVID-19 pandemic. During quarantine, people go online for all kind of purposes, especially for amusement such as via social networking sites (SNSs). This study examined university physical education (PE) students’SNSs usage intention using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model II (UTAUT2) in Taiwan. Research respondents were selected from PE departments of 19 universities through purposive sampling method. A total of 707 questionnaires were collected, with a returning rate of 93%. Using Warp PLS 7.0 as the main instrument for data analysis, this research finds that performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, price value, and habit within the UTAUT2 model have significant positive effects on students’intention to use social networking sites, and the model explains 63.4% of the variance in their intention to use SNSs. Among those variables, hedonic motivation had the highest impact (β= 0.24). Moreover, intention, facilitating conditions and habit have significant positive effects on students’use of social networking sites, and the model explains 13.4% of the variance in their use of social networking sites. The moderating effects of gender, age and experience are found in some path analyses. These findings provide future university instructors a with better understanding of students using SNSs. We thus recommend for university PE instructors to create interesting and pleasant classroom learning experiences to attract students’attention, and recommend that they may even manage a SNS as an aid for teaching to enhance students’interests in learning.

5.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542960

ABSTRACT

Based on previous studies, we found that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin(BCG) vaccination may have a role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to investigate this protective effect. We searched in Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, BioRxiv, and MedRxiv databases for studies that evaluated the relationship between BCG vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 disease. The quality of all included studies was assessed through the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies - of Interventions and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Review Manager (Version 5.3) was used for conducting all data analyses. A total of 8 studies were ultimately included in our meta-analysis. Our primary analysis found significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in the BCG vaccination group compared to the control group, with a odds ratio (OR) of 0.61, (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.95, P = 0.03; I2 = 31%, and P = 0.21 for heterogeneity). Our study indicated that BCG vaccination can protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, there is insufficient evidence that BCG vaccination can reduce the severity of COVID-19.

6.
Journal of Accounting and Public Policy ; : 106920-106920, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1509911
7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 9919466, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358940

ABSTRACT

Thrombus is considered to be the pathological source of morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease and thrombotic complications, while oxidative stress is regarded as an important factor in vascular endothelial injury and thrombus formation. Therefore, antioxidative stress and maintaining the normal function of vascular endothelial cells are greatly significant in regulating vascular tension and maintaining a nonthrombotic environment. Leonurine (LEO) is a unique alkaloid isolated from Leonurus japonicus Houtt (a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)), which has shown a good effect on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. In this study, we explored the protective effect and action mechanism of LEO on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The protective effects of LEO on H2O2-induced HUVECs were determined by measuring the cell viability, cell migration, tube formation, and oxidative biomarkers. The underlying mechanism of antioxidation of LEO was investigated by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Our results showed that LEO treatment promoted cell viability; remarkably downregulated the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and upregulated the nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in H2O2-induced HUVECs. At the same time, LEO treatment significantly promoted the phosphorylation level of angiogenic protein PI3K, Akt, and eNOS and the expression level of survival factor Bcl2 and decreased the expression level of death factor Bax and caspase3. In conclusion, our findings suggested that LEO can ameliorate the oxidative stress damage and insufficient angiogenesis of HUVECs induced by H2O2 through activating the PI3K/Akt-eNOS signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Gallic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Gallic Acid/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
8.
Front Psychol ; 12: 573779, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094206

ABSTRACT

Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, colleges and universities have implemented network teaching. E-learning engagement is the most important concern of educators and parents because this will directly affect student academic performance. Hence, this study focuses on students' perceived family support and their e-learning engagement and analyzes the effects of e-learning normative consciousness and behaviors and self-efficacy on the relationship between family support and e-learning engagement in college students. Prior to this study, the relationship between these variables was unknown. Four structural equation models revealed the multiple mediating roles of e-learning normative consciousness and behaviors and self-efficacy in the relationship between family support and e-learning engagement. A total of 1,317 college students (mean age=19.51; 52.2% freshman) voluntarily participated in our study. The results showed that e-learning normative consciousness and behaviors and self-efficacy played significant and mediating roles between students' perceived family support and e-learning engagement. Specifically, these two individual variables fully mediated the relationship between students' perceived family support and e-learning engagement. The multiple mediation model showed that family members can increase family support of their children by creating a household environment conducive to learning, displaying positive emotions, demonstrating the capability to assist their children, advocating the significance of learning normative consciousness and behaviors, and encouraging dedicated and efficient learning. The findings complement and extend the understanding of factors influencing student e-learning engagement.

9.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(12): 906-915, 2020 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Here we aimed to investigate the difference in clinical characteristics and outcomes between pediatric and adult patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 333 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated in the departments of Internal medicine of Shenzhen Third People's Hospital from January 11 th to February 10 th, 2020 were included. The data were obtained from electronic medical records. The epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, length of hospital stays, and outcomes of pediatric and adult patients were compared. RESULTS: Compared with adult patients, pediatric patients had a shorter time of symptom onset to hospitalization than adults [median time, 1 ( IQR, 1.0-1.0) d vs. 3 ( IQR, 2.0-6.0) d, P < 0.001], milder or fewer symptoms, less severe chest CT findings. The clinical severity classification of children was less severe than adults. Up to 15 th March, the end of the follow-up, 33 (100%) children and 292 (97.3%) adult patients had been discharged from hospital. Only 2 (0.7%) adult patients died, with an overall case mortality of 0.6%. The median length of hospital stay of pediatric patients was shorter than that of adult patients [19 (95% CI: 16.6-21.4) d vs. 21 (95% CI: 19.9-22.1) d, P = 0.024]. CONCLUSION: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 had milder or less clinical symptoms, less evident pulmonary imaging changes, better prognosis, and shorter length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1935

ABSTRACT

We evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 lockdown on business activities in China by exploiting big data on 1.5 billion of sales invoices. Using a Difference-in-Diff

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