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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(661): eabm7621, 2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846322

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus driving the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, continues to rapidly evolve. Because of the limited efficacy of vaccination in prevention of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and continuous emergence of variants of concern (VOCs), orally bioavailable and broadly efficacious antiviral drugs are urgently needed. Previously, we showed that the parent nucleoside of remdesivir, GS-441524, has potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Here, we report that esterification of the 5'-hydroxyl moieties of GS-441524 markedly improved antiviral potency. This 5'-hydroxyl-isobutyryl prodrug, ATV006, demonstrated excellent oral bioavailability in rats and cynomolgus monkeys and exhibited potent antiviral efficacy against different SARS-CoV-2 VOCs in vitro and in three mouse models. Oral administration of ATV006 reduced viral loads and alleviated lung damage when administered prophylactically and therapeutically to K18-hACE2 mice challenged with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. These data indicate that ATV006 represents a promising oral antiviral drug candidate for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prodrugs , Adenosine/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Mice , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Prodrugs/therapeutic use , Rats , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Chem Sci ; 12(42): 14098-14102, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472230

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro or Mpro) is a key cysteine protease for viral replication and transcription, making it an attractive target for antiviral therapies to combat the COVID-19 disease. Here, we demonstrate that bismuth drug colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) is a potent inhibitor for 3CLpro in vitro and in cellulo. Rather than targeting the cysteine residue at the catalytic site, CBS binds to an allosteric site and results in dissociation of the 3CLpro dimer and proteolytic dysfunction. Our work provides direct evidence that CBS is an allosteric inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro.

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