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Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 649675, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290515


Background: Recent studies from multiple countries have shown a high prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) among severely ill patients. Despite providing valuable insight into the clinical management of CAPA, large-scale prospective studies are limited. Here, we report on one of the largest multicenter epidemiological studies to explore the clinical features and prevalence of COVID-19-associated pulmonary mold infections (CAPMIs) among mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples were collected for culture, galactomannan (GM), and ß-D-glucan (BDG) testing. Patients were classified as probable CAPMI based on the presence of host factors, radiological findings, and mycological criteria. Results: During the study period, 302 COVID-19 patients were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), among whom 105 were mechanically ventilated for ≥4 days. Probable CAPMI was observed among 38% of patients (40/105), among whom BAL culture of 29 patients turned positive for molds, while galactomannan testing on BAL (GM index ≥1) and serum (GM index >0.5) samples were positive for 60% (24/40) and 37.5% (15/39) of patients, respectively. Aspergillus (22/29; 75.8%) and Fusarium (6/29; 20.6%) constituted 96.5% of the molds isolated. Diaporthe foeniculina was isolated from a COVID-19 patient. None of the patients who presented with CAPMI were treated with antifungal drugs. Conclusion: Despite being prevalent, the absence of appropriate antifungal treatment highlights that CAPMI is a neglected complication among mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs. CAPMI can be caused by species other than Aspergillus.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 331, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634362


Objectives: Development and validation of a single-step and accurate reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique (RT-LAMP) for rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2 relative to commercial quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays to allow prompt initiation of proper medical care and containment of virus spread. Methods: Primers showing optimal in-silico features were subjected to analytical sensitivity and specificity to assess the limit of detection (LOD) and cross-reaction with closely- and distantly-related viral species, and clinically prominent bacterial and fungal species. In order to evaluate the clinical utility, our RT-LAMP was subjected to a large number of clinical samples, including 213 negative and 47 positive patients, relative to two commercial quantitative RT-PCR assays. Results: The analytical specificity and sensitivity of our assay was 100% and 500 copies/ml when serial dilution was performed in both water and sputum. Subjecting our RT-LAMP assay to clinical samples showed a high degree of specificity (99.5%), sensitivity (91.4%), positive predictive value (97.7%), and negative predictive value (98.1%) when used relative to qRT-PCR. Our RT-LAMP assay was two times faster than qRT-PCR and is storable at room temperature. A suspected case that later became positive tested positive using both our RT-LAMP and the two qRT-PCR assays, which shows the capability of our assay for screening purposes. Conclusions: We present a rapid RT-LAMP assay that could extend the capacity of laboratories to process two times more clinical samples relative to qRT-PCR and potentially could be used for high-throughput screening purposes when demand is increasing at critical situations.

Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity